Aristotle nsIn existographies, Aristotle (384-322 BC) (2134-2072 BG) (IQ:195|#8) (Cattell 1000:6) [RGM:5|1,500+] (Murray 4000:3|CS / 1|WP) (Glenn 20:1) (Perry 80:3|Li) (EPD:M&F) [LPKE] (GPE:#) (GPhE:#) (GCE:#) (RE:62) [CR:537] was a Greek philosopher, an epicenter genius, a fourth-ranked genius in meta-analysis rankings, a top ranked greatest philosopher ever, oft-cited last person to know everything, general thinker, and scientist noted for coining the term energy, for his views on the existence of a vacuum or void, for his theory of the four elements and their interrelationship, and on heat in relation to reproduction, and first dominate thinker on the blue sky problem.

Natural | Unnatural
Aristotle, in his Physics and On the Heavens, described the motions of projectiles as being partly natural and partly unnatural: natural motion, as for all heavy bodies, is downward, toward the center of things, and its unnatural motion is imparted by air whose motion can be traced to whatever started the motion. [17] He seems to have taken this as a fundamental principle to which he applied to all phenomena, such as fire rising, money making, and so on.

Aristotle, in his Physics (2:8), states the following on natural things: [18]

“Natural things are exactly those things which do move continuously, in virtue of the principle inherent in themselves, towards a determined goal; and the final development which results from any one such principle is not identical for any two species, nor yet is it any random result but in each there is always a tendency towards an identical result if nothing interferes.”

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Aristotelian universe
A depiction of the Aristotelian universe, the general model of four elements and a teleology-based movement scheme.

Fire
The following is Aristotle’s views on fire: [6]

“For any two portions of fire, small or great, will exhibit the same ratio of solid to void; but the upward movement of the greater is quicker than that of the less, just as the downward movement of a mass of gold or lead, or any other body endowed with weight, is quicker in proportion to its size.”

Aristotle was the first to document the Mpemba effect, which he attempted to explain using a theory called 'antiperstasis'. [7]

Life
Aristotle’s conception of the origin of life, according to Alexander Oparin (1936), is presented principally in his: On the Parts of Animals, On the Movements of Animals, On the Origin of Animals, and On Plants, employing a mixture of four element theory, entelechy, animal heat, and spontaneous generation.

Existence
Aristotle stated the following about existence of place: [15]

“A natural scientist must have the same kind of understanding of place as he does of infinity—that is, he should know whether or not it exists, in what sense it exists, and what it is—because the idea that existing things exist somewhere is universally accepted. I mean, that which does not exist is nowhere. Where, for example is a goat-stag or sphinx? Also, the most common and most fundamental kind of change is change of place, which is known as movement.”

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Ennead to Aristotle cosmology
Left: The Egyptian anthropomorhic Ennead cosmology model (2400BC). Right: Aristotle's 55-sphere Geocentric (Geb-centric) model (322BC).

Universe
Aristotle, in his The World (De Mundo), described the world to his pupil Alexander the Great as follows: [16]

“It is a joining together of the sky [Nut] and earth [Geb] and of the elements [four elements] contained there in.”

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Money making
In his Politics, Aristotle comments on the relative naturalness or unnaturalness of money-making: [13]

“Of the two sorts of money-making, one is a part of household management, the other retail trade, the former necessary and honorable, the latter a kind of exchange which is justly censured, for it is unnatural, and a mode by which men gain from one another. The most hated sort, and with the greatest reason, is usury, which makes a gain out of money itself, and not from the natural use of it. For money was intended to be used in exchange, but not to increase at interest. And this term usury, which means the birth of money from money, is applied to the breeding of money because the offspring resembles the parent. Wherefore of all modes of making money, that is the most unnatural.”

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Collected works
The collected works of Aristotle, originally published as a series of scrolls, where each scrolls is considered a book, was published as 12-volume set by Oxford University Press between 1912 and 1954, which comprises 2,512 total pages according to the 1984 Revised Oxford Translation two-volume set, which have further been divided categorically via Bekker numbers. [11]

Animate organisms
Aristotle, supposedly, was of the view that chemical processes could not explain the generation of living things and animate homogeneous materials, whereas chemical processes could explain the generation of inanimate compounds. [10]

Motion
Aristotle's thesis, in regards to motion, is that "nothing moves itself". [8]

Vacuums
In the nature abhors a vacuum debate, Aristotle firstly believed that atmosphere had weight, according to which as air became less dense it would be possible to move faster through the atmosphere. Based on this first belief, in an complete vacuum, a moving object would encounter no resistance, and infinite speed would be possible, but “infinite speed” he deemed impossible, hence a vacuum would be impossible, which he declared in his the famous dictum horror vacui. His usage of the term "void", such as in describing two differing portions of heat, as above, of note indicates that he employed a moderate notion of the void or partial vacuum, or something along these lines.

Energy
In his 350BC book Metaphysics, Aristotle used the term enérgeia to mean act or ‘activity’, ‘actuality’, or in a literal sense ‘(a state of) functioning’, deriving from energos "active, working," from en- "at" + ergon "work". [1] Aristotle used the term enérgeia to clarify, in one sense, the definition of “being” as potency (dýnamis) and act (enérgeia).

Animal heat
In his c.350BC De Generatione Animalium, Aristotle postulated that the mode of animal reproduction is determined by a “vital heat” of the animal. The warmer an animal is, Aristotle reasoned, the more perfect will be the state in which its young are generated. [2] Live young are produced by the hotter animals; colder ones produce eggs; the coldest of all, such as insects, produce a larva which in turn produces an egg. [3]

Elements
Aristotle argued that there are four elements out of which all is made: earth, air, water, fire. Each of the four earthly elements has its natural place; the earth at the center of the universe, then water, then air, then fire. When they are out of their natural place they have natural motion, requiring no external cause, which is towards that place; so bodies sink in water, air bubbles rise up, rain falls, flame rises in air. [4]

Soul
See main: Aristotle on the soul
On the soul, Aristotle, supposedly, had the following to say: (Ѻ)

Happiness is the settling of the soul in its most appropriate spot.”

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Education
Aristotle, who was the son of Nicomachus, the physician to Amyntas, father of Philip, king of Macedon, was orphaned at a “tender age” and then brought up by a tutor named Proxenus. [21] Aristotle later became a student of Plato.

Students
Aristotle tutored Alexander the Great, who by age of thirty, he had created one of the largest empires in ancient history; established the Library of Alexandria, unified Greek philosophical science with Egyptian theology to form Christianity.

Quotes | On
The following are quotes on Aristotle:

Aristotle is regarded as the most eminent of philosophers.”
Otto Guericke (1672), The System of the World: According to the More Common Philosophical Theories [16]

Aristotle, the greatest philosopher of his time, who was named the ‘genius of nature’ because of his great mind, when he was accused of having bad opinions of the gods, was forced to retire to the Chalcis where he died at the age of sixty-six.”
Jean Meslier (1729), The Testament (pg. 343)

Aristotle was the great thinker who was the first to analyze so many forms, whether of thought, society or nature.”
Karl Marx (1867), Capital: a Critique of Political Economy [14]

Quotes | By
The following are quotes by Aristotle: [9]

“Nothing natural occurs by chance.”
— Aristotle (c.350BC), De Caelo (300b8-301a11) [22]

Plato is my friend, but truth my greater friend.”
— Aristotle (c.322 BC), Publication; quote was inscribed into Isaac Newton's age 19 written notebook Philosophical Questions a set of forty-five queries into a foundation for a new philosophy.

“The worst form of inequality is to try to make unequal things equal.”
— Aristotle (c.322 BC), Publication; compare Pareto: “The assertion that men are objectively equal is so absurd that it does not even merit being refuted.” [19]

“All men by desire to know. An indication of this is the delight we take in our senses; for even apart from their usefulness they are loved for themselves; and above all others the sense of sight. For not only with a view to action, but even when we are not going to do anything, we prefer seeing, one might say, to everything else. The reason is that this, most of all the senses, makes us know and brings to light many differences between things.”
— Aristotle (c.320), Metaphysics; cited by Lawrence Henderson (1932) [20]

“The aim of art is to represent not the outward appearance of things, but their inward significance.”
— Aristotle (c.330BC) (Ѻ)

“There is only one way to avoid criticism: do nothing, say nothing, and be nothing.”
— Aristotle (c.330BC) (Ѻ)

“At first, he who invented any ‘art’ that went beyond the common perceptions of man, was naturally admired by men, not only because there was something useful in the inventions, but because he was thought wise and superior to the rest. But as more arts were invented, and some were directed to the necessities of life, others to its recreation, the inventors of the latter were always regarded as wiser than the inventors of the former, because there branches of knowledge did not aim at utility. Hence, when all such inventions were already established, the sciences which do not aim at giving pleasure or at the necessities of life, were discovered, and first in the places where men first began to have leisure. This is why the ‘mathematical’ arts were founded in Egypt; for there the priestly caste was allowed to be at leisure.”
— Aristotle (c.350BC), Metaphysics; in Collected Works (pg. 1553)

References
1. (a) Libbrecht, Ulrich. (2007). Within the Four Seas: Introduction to Comparative Philosophy (pg. 233). Peeters Publishers.
(b) Energy (etymology) - Online Etymology Dictionary.
2. Mendelsohn, Everett I. (1964). Heat and Life: the Development of the Theory of Animal Heat (pg. 13). Harvard University Press.
3. Aristotle. (c. 350 BC). De Generatione Animalium, 733 a 34-b 17.
4. Aristotle. (350BC). Physics. Greece.
5. (a) Buzan, Tony and Keene, Ray. (2005). Buzan’s Book of Mental World Records (IQ table: World’s top 14 all-time highest IQs (180-220), pg. 31). D&B Publishing.
(b) Buzan, Tony and Keene, Raymond. (1994). Book of Genius. Stanley Paul.
6. (a) Aristotle, 309b, 11-5. In Jonathan Barnes (ed.), The Complete Works of Aristotle (1984), Vol. I, 505.
(b) Daintith, John. (2005). Oxford Dictionary of Quotations. Oxford University Press.
7. (a) Shachtman, Tom. (1999). Absolute Zero and the Quest for Absolute Cold (pgs. 17, 28). Mariner Books
(b) Jeng, Monwhea. (1998). “Can Hot Water Freeze Faster than Cold Water?”, Department of Physics, University of California.
8. Juarrero, Alicia. (1999). Dynamics in Action (pg. 2). MIT Press.
9. Gleick, James. (2003). Isaac Newton (pg. 26). Vintage.
10. Cohen, Sheldon M. (2003). Aristotle on Nature and Incomplete Substance (pg. 138). Cambridge University Press.
11. Corpus Aristotelicum – Wikipedia.
12. (a) Aristotle. (322BC). The Complete Works of Aristotle, Volume One (editor: Jonathan Barnes). Princeton University Press, 1995.
(b) Aristotle. (322BC). The Complete Works of Aristotle, Volume Two (editor: Jonathan Barnes) (Index of Names, pgs. 2467-70). Princeton University Press, 1995.
(c) Note: the listing of citation count for "Pythagoras" also includes the Pythagoreans.
13. (a) Aristotle (322BC). The Politics (Bk. I, pg. 16). Publisher.
(b) Zucker, Morris. (1945). The Philosophy of American History: The Historical Field Theory (pg. 145). Arnold-Howard Publishing Co.
14. (a) Marx, Karl. (1867). Capital: a Critique of Political Economy, Volume One (pg. 68). Publisher.
(b) Zucker, Morris. (1945). The Philosophy of American History: The Historical Field Theory (pg. 145). Arnold-Howard Publishing Co.
15. Aristotle. (3222BC). Physics (translator: Robin Waterfield; Introduction, Bibliography, Explanatory Notes: David Bostock) (§4.A: Place). Oxford University Press, 1996.
16. Guericke, Otto. (1672). The System of the World: According to the More Common Philosophical Theories, in: The New (So-Called) Magdeburg Experiments of Otto von Guericke (Experimenta Nova (Ut Vocantur) Magdeburgica de Vacuo Spatio) (translator [Latin to English]: Margaret Ames) (Book I) (GB) (Amz). Springer, 1993.
17. Weinberg, Steven. (1992). Dreams of a Final Theory: the Scientist’s Search for the Ultimate Laws of Nature (pg. 8). Random House.
18. Brown, Richard H. (1977). A Poetic for Sociology: Toward a Logic of Discovery for the Human Sciences (pg. 130). University of Chicago Press, 1989.
19. Pareto, Vilfredo. (1906). Manual of Political Economy (translator: Ann Schwier) (pg. 90) (Ѻ). Augustus Kelley, 1971.
20. Barber, Bernard. (1970). L.J. Henderson on the Social System (pg. 170). University of Chicago Press.
21. Cap, M. (1851). “Aristotle and Theophrastus”, The Chemistry: a Monthly Journal of Chemical Philosophy (pgs. 135-38; 182-85; 230-32). Publisher.
22. Taylor, C.C.W. (1999). The Atomists: Leucippus and Democritus: Fragments: a Text and Translation with a Commentary by C.C.W. Taylor (pg. 82). University of Toronto Press.

Further reading
● Aristotle. (350BC). Physics (translators: Robert Hardie and Russell Gaye) (txt). Publisher, 1930; Oxford, 1954.
● Aristotle. (322BC). The Complete Works of Aristotle, Volume One (editor: Jonathan Barnes). Princeton, 1995.
● Aristotle. (322BC). The Complete Works of Aristotle, Volume Two (editor: Jonathan Barnes) (On Melissus, Xenophanes, and Gorgias , pgs. 1539-51). Princeton, 1995.

External links
Aristotle – Wikipedia.

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