In terminology, common sense refers to []

The following are related quotes:

“I wrote Common Sense the latter end of the year 1775, and published it the first of January, 1776. Independence was declared the fourth of July following.”
Thomas Paine (1794), The Age of Reason (pg. 63)

“The soul seems to reside in the judgment, and the judgment would seem to be seated in that part where all the senses meet; and this is called the ‘common sense’ and is not all-pervading throughout the body as many have thought. Rather it is entirely in one part. Because, if it were all-pervading and the same in every part, there would have been no need to make the instruments of the senses meet in one center and in one single spot; on the contrary it would have sufficed that the eye should fulfil the function of its sensation on its surface only and not transmit the image of the things seen, to the sense, by means of the optic nerves, so that the soul—for the reason given above—may perceive it in the surface of the eye. In the same way as to the sense of hearing , it would have sufficed if the voice had merely sounded in the porous cavity of the indurated portion of the temporal bone which lies within the ear, without making any farther transit from this bone to the common sense, where the voice confers with and discourses to the common judgment. The sense of smell, again, is compelled by necessity to refer itself to that same judgment. Feeling passes through the perforated cords and is conveyed to this common sense. These cords diverge with infinite ramifications into the skin which encloses the members of the body and the viscera. The perforated cords convey volition and sensation to the subordinate limbs. These cords and the nerves direct the motions of the muscles and sinews, between which they are placed; these obey, and this obedience takes effect by reducing their thickness; for in swelling, their length is reduced, and the nerves shrink which are interwoven among the particles of the limbs; being extended to the tips of the fingers, hey transmit to the sense the object which they touch. The nerves with their muscles obey the tendons as soldiers obey the officers, and the tendons obey the common [central] sense as the officers obey the general. Thus, the joint of the bones obeys the never, and the never the muscle, and the muscle the tendon and the tendon the common sense. And the common sense is the seat of the soul, and memory is its ammunition, and the impressiblity is its referendary since the sense waits on the soul and not the soul on the sense. And where the sense that ministers to the soul is not at the service of the soul, all the functions of that sense are also wanting in that man’s life, as it is seen in those born mute and blind.”
Leonardo da Vinci (c.1500), “How the Five Senses are the Ministers of the Soul” (#838) [1]

“In physics, as in every other science, common sense alone is not supreme; there must also be a place for reason. Further, the mere absence of logical contradiction does no necessarily imply that everything is reasonable. Now reason tells that if we turn our back upon a so-called object and cease to attend to it, the object still continues to exist. Reason tells us further that both the individual and mankind as a whole, together with the entire world which we apprehend through our senses, is no more than a tiny fragment of the vastness of nature, whose laws are in no way affected by any brain. On the contrary, they existed long before there was any life on earth, and will continue to exist long after the last physicist has perished.”
Max Planck (1931), The Universe in the Light of Modern Science [2]

“What the founders of modern science, among them Galileo, had to do, was not to criticize and to combat faulty theories, and to correct or replace them by better ones. They had to do something different. They had to destroy one world [view] and to replace it by another. They had to reshape the framework of our intellect itself, to restate and reform its concepts, to evolve a new approach to ‘being’, an new concept of knowledge, a new concept of science—and even to replace a pretty natural approach, that of common sense, by another.”
— Alexandre Koyre (1943), “Galileo and Plato” [3]

1. Da Vinci, Leonardo. (1519). The Literary Works of Leonardo da Vinci: Compiled and Edited from the Original Manuscripts, Volume Two (editor: Jean Paul) (soul, #838, pgs. 127-28). Publisher, 1883.
2. (a) Planck, Max. (1931). The Universe in the Light of Modern Science (pg. 8). Publisher.
(b) Zucker, Morris. (1945). The Philosophy of American History: The Historical Field Theory (pgs. 508-09). Arnold-Howard Publishing Co.
3. Koyre, Alexandre. (1943). “Galileo and Plato” (abs), Journal of the History of Ideas, 4(4):400-28; in: Metaphysics and Measurement: Essays in the Scientific Revolution (pgs. 20-21). Gordon and Breach Science, 1992.

Further reading
● Saul, John. (1994). Doubter’s Companion: a Dictionary of Aggressive Common Sense. Publisher.

External links
Common sense – Wikipedia.

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