In symbols, cross is []

Overview
The following is a timeline of the symbolic transformation of the “crux”, i.e. southern crux star constellation, on which the “sun” conceptually “dies”, at winter solstice, i.e. solar standstill, for three days, to the modern Christian cross, the symbol on which Jesus is said to be crucified, dies, for three days, and is reborn, i.e. rises from the dead:


3500BC
c.3100BC [?]
3050BC2980BC2800BC
2700BC1350BC1250BC
c.1000BC [?]
550BC250BC200AD150-150AD215AD300AD450AD
500ADc.1500c.15001670c.1950
20012010201330 bar white spacer (215px)




Southern CruxAnkh (Helwan-KA palette)Ankh (Hor-Aha)Ankh (Hor-Djet) 2980BC 2Ptah staff (parts)Heliopolis (hieroglyphic)Khepri Ra ankhOsiris-Ra reborn on the Ankh (1250BC)

Ankh (living Ra) symbol
Ankh and DjedDionysus (raised) 2Ankh (with arms) (250BC)Bacchus crossAnchor fish cross (Rome)Donkey cross (photo)Donkey-Headed man on CrossThe Laughing JesusOrpheus BacchusCoptic cross (c.450)Ankh (500AD)Jesus dying on crossClavis Artis 2Clavis ArtisArgo NavisCross (circle)Jesus on AnkhHorus on Ankh






The sun, conceptualized as the sun god Ra, of the Egyptian pre-dynastic era, seemingly "dying" on or at the location of the southern crux star constellation, per Peter Joseph (2006) etymology, therein "standing still" (winter solstice), after which the sun is reborn, i.e. begins to increase in number of daylight hours. A pyramid shaped ankh, from the Helwan-Ka palette (Ѻ)(Ѻ), 1st dynasty, shown between the was scepter (right), another staff (left), above the Ka (upright arms) symbol. A depiction (Ѻ) of the cross or “ankh” being held, in some type of structure, by the pharaoh Hor-Aha (c.3050), i.e. “pharaoh Aha god Horus incarnate”, of the 1st dynasty. A leg-shape [?] and arm-shaped [?] sun head [?] stylized Ankh from the ivory comb (Ѻ)(Ѻ) of King Hor-Djet (c.2980BC) (Ѻ) Head piece to staff of Ptah, the type of cross prompted during the Memphis recension (see: recension theory) of Egyptian theology. [2]The "cross" shown in the hieroglyphic for the city of Heliopolis. A Khepri-Ra stylized ankh; a similar version is found on the front of the Ankh mirror box (Ѻ) of Tut-Ankh-Amun (1324BC). (Ѻ) A depiction (Ѻ) of the re-birth of Ra on or out of the djed pillar, or the joint god Ra-Osiris or Osiris-Ra reborn in the form of the ankh, with Isis (Stella Maris) and Nephthys (Stella Maris’ sister) at each side, symbolic of the two stars in the Passion of Osiris, aka Raising of Orion (see: Sah), that bring Osiris back to life, from the Papyrus of Ani (1250BC). Budge (1904), in discussion of Nephthys, in the adjacent Papyrus of Ani (1250) scene, refers to the above symbol as follows: "Nephthys is seen kneeling by the side of the Tet [djed pillar], from which the disk of the sun is thrust upwards by the "living Ra" Living Ra (symbol) 27 H, at sunrise". [5] An Ankh and Djed pillar (see: Christmas tree) both with hands and arms. (Ѻ) Two Greek vase depictions of Dionysus raised as the reborn evergreen tree, aka Djed pillar form of Osiris (see: Christmas tree); which some describe as “Dionysus crucified on a cross-tree”. (Ѻ) Ankh, with two “ka” arms, each holding the was scepter, at Temple of Philae (c.250BC) built by Ptolemy II, the son of Ptolemy, a Macedonian general under Alexander the Great, who in 305BC declared himself King Ptolemy I, then later “Soter” (savior). (Ѻ) The cross insignia on the walls in the temples of Bacchus, as pointed out by Herbert Hardwicke (1887), the Roman version of Dionysus (1500BC), which is the Greek version of Osiris (3000BC).An anchor-like cross with two fish (Ѻ), in the catacombs of San Calixto, Rome, which originated in the middle of the second century (c.150AD), and was it was the official burial place of nine popes and, probably, of eight dignitaries of Rome's 3rd century Church (c.250BC). (Ѻ) Carving on a pillar in Rome dated 193 to 235AD, described, by Timothy Freke and Peter Gandy (1999), as "a pagan initiate of the mystery religions looking on at the crucifixion of a donkey-headed man. [7]The cover of Timothy Freke and Peter Gandy's 2005 The Laughing Jesus, wherein they conjecture, supposedly, that the man on the right is laughing at the newly-emerging form of the Jesus character. The infamous “Orpheus Bacchus” ring-seal amulet, discovered in Italy in c.1915, then purchased by E. Gerhard, whose collection ended up in the Kaiser Friedrich Museum, Berlin, during which time a cast (Ѻ) of it was made, photos were taken, and it was studied by German epigrapher Otto Kern, who discussed it in a 1922 publication on Orphic fragments; the amulet was discussed further by English Greek religion historian W.K.C. Guthrie in his 1935 Orpheus and Greek Religion (Ѻ). During WWII, the amulet mysteriously disappeared from the Berlin museum. (Ѻ) Sometime thereafter, particularly after the cover-depicting amulet book The Jesus Mysteries (1999), by Timothy Freke and Peter Gandy, wherein a photo of the plaster cast (pgs. 152-53) is found, apologeticists scrambled to dub the amulet a fake or forgery (Ѻ); after which religio-mythology scholars, e.g. Dorothy Murdock (Ѻ), rebutted the apologists’ forgery claims. [6] Coptic Cross from Codex Glazier (c.450AD), with two birds by its side, stylized on the Isis and Nephthys in the form of kites, and another bird in the circle, stylized on the bird that caries the ancient bird that carries the sun disc. [1] Many Ankh symbols in a 5th century Christian church tapestry. (Ѻ) A depiction (Ѻ) of Jesus dying on the cross with halo (sun disc) behind his head, with Mary and Mary Magdalene by his side. Two crosses from the c.1700 alchemical text Biblioteca Civica Hortis in Trieste (Ѻ) attributed to Zoroaster. A sketch of the constellation “Argo Navis” (Ѻ), by German astronomer Johannes Hevelius (c.1670), the ship-like constellation, believed by Egyptians, according to Plutarch (100AD), to have been set in the sky in honor of Osiris, to the right of which we see the Southern Crux or "cross", related to the idea that Osiris (turned Jesus) died on the cross. Cross with sun disc circle behind.
Image of Jesus on the Ankh, as shown on the cover of Timothy Freke and Peter Gandy’s 2001 Jesus and the Lost Goddess. [3] An artistic rendition (Ѻ) of Horus on the Ankh/Djed Pillar. Cross with question mark (Ѻ)




(add discussion)

Symbolic | Meanings
The hieroglyph for the ancient city of Heliopolis (c.3100BC), as shown below, notably has two crosses in it: [1]

Heliopolis (hieroglyphic)

which, according to Wallis Budge, is a pillar or obelisk with a cross on it, the water symbol or god Nun symbol, and a sun with a cross in it and or a sun inside of an eclipse, and a half-circle. (Ѻ)

Cross (Zodiac)The circle is universally agreed upon to be the sun, there seem to be at least four conjectural theories as to what the cross symbol means.

Firstly, Volney states that the cross signifies the sun passing though the four equinoxes of the Zodiac, or something to this effect:

“Ye priests! who murmur at this relation, you wear his emblems all over your bodies; your tonsure is the disk of the sun; your stole is his zodiac; your rosaries are symbols of the stars and planets. Ye pontiffs and prelates! your mitre, your crozier, your mantle are those of Osiris; and that cross whose mystery you extol without comprehending it, is the cross of Serapis, traced by the hands of Egyptian priests on the plan of the figurative world; which, passing through the equinoxes and the tropics, became the emblem of the future life and of the resurrection, because it touched the gates of ivory and of horn, through which the soul passed to heaven.”
Constantin Volney (1791), The Ruins (§XXII: Origin and Filiation of Religious Ideas)

Secondly, as popularized by Peter Joseph (2006), per citation to Dorothy Murdock (1999), being that the cross represents the “southern crux” star constellation, and that the sun is re-born on or in the location of the crux.

Third, that the cross-shape represents the wings and legs (Ѻ) of the bird, and or a wings and legs of Khepri (Ѻ), which according to Heliopolis creation myth, flies the sun, on its head, into the sky, as it is reborn out of the land mound following the flood.

Fourth, that the three points of the cross shape, have to do with the three belt stars of Orion, the constellation that rises like or as Osiris reborn.

Quotes
The following are noted quotes:

Osiris by the cross gave eternal life to the spirits of the just.”
— Edward Balfour (1885), The Cyclopedia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia [4]

References
1. Coptic cross – Wikipedia.
2. Thims, Libb. (2016). Smart Atheism: For Kids (pdf | 309-pgs) (pg. 108). Publisher.
3. Freke, Timothy and Grandy, Peter. (2001). Jesus and the Lost Goddess: The Secret Teachings of the Original Christians (Osiris, 18+ pgs; quote, pg. 13). Random House.
4. Balfour, Edward. (1885). The Cyclopedia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia: Commercial, Industrial and Scientific, Products of the Mineral, Vegetable, and Animal Kingdoms, Useful Arts and Manufactures, Volume 1 (pg. 841). B. Quaritch.
5. Budge, Wallis. (1904). The Gods of the Egyptians, Volume Two (living Ra, pg. 255). Dover, 1969.
6. (a) Freke, Timothy and Gandy, Peter. (1999). The Jesus Mysteries: Was the Original Jesus a Pagan God? (ring seal photo, pgs. 152-53). Ten Speed, 2001.
(b) Harpur, Tom. (2004). The Pagan Christ (Orpheus amulet, pg. 45; Harpur, to note, uses ambiguous text wording to incorrectly date the amulet to 300BC). Thomas Allan Publishers.
7. Freke, Timothy and Gandy, Peter. (1999). The Jesus Mysteries: Was the Original Jesus a Pagan God? (ring seal photo, pgs. 152-53). Ten Speed, 2001.

External links
Cross – Wikipedia.

TDics icon ns