In thermodynamics, drug-receptor thermodynamics is the study of the entropy, enthalpy, free energy aspects of drug-receptor interactions. [1] Topics in this field include free energy maps, enthalpy-entropy compensation, heat capacity in ligand-receptor interactions, among other topics. [2] Pioneers in this newly developing field include Americans chemist Irvin Klotz, author of the 1997 Ligand-Receptor Energetics, and pharmacological engineer Robert Raffa, general editor of the first textbook on the subject, 2001 Drug-Receptor Thermodynamics, originally published as 1980 paperback. The subject of the thermodynamics or free energy aspects of drug-receptor interactions and dynamics began to arise in the late 1970s.

Human chemistry
See main: Human chemistry
Some of the concepts in Raffa’s 2001 Drug-Receptor Thermodynamics were used by American chemical engineer Libb Thims as base models in the synthesis of the free energy interaction theories, e.g. "human molecular mechanisms", in the dynamics and life movements involved in human molecular interactions, i.e. interactions between people. [3]

1. Raffa, Robert B. (1999). “Extra(thermodynamics) of the Drug-Receptor Interaction”, Life Sciences, Vol. 65, No. 10, pgs. 967-80 (14).
2. Raffa, Robert B. (2001). Drug-Receptor Thermodynamics - Introduction and Applications. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
3. (a) Thims, Libb. (2007). Human Chemistry (Volume One), (section: “Human Molecular Dynamics”, pgs. 140-46). (preview), (Google books). Morrisville, NC: LuLu.
(b) Thims, Libb. (2007). Human Chemistry (Volume Two), (preview), (Google books). Morrisville, NC: LuLu.

Further reading
● Ladbury, John E. and Connelly, Patrick R. (1997). Structure-based Drug Design: Thermodynamics, Modeling, and Strategy. Springer.
● Reddy, M. Rami and Erion, Mark D. (2001). Free Energy Calculation in Rational Drug Design. Springer.

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