William Wallace (burial of parents)
The depiction of the burial scene (Ѻ) of the parents of William Wallace (c.1270-1305) (IQ:155|#603) (Ѻ), from the 1995 film Braveheart, who lost both his parents at a young age, owing to the conflicts between the “freedom” desired by Scotland and the unjust controlling nature of England, specifically the rules of Edward I of England (1239-1307) (Ѻ), aka “Edward Longshanks” or the “Hammer of the Scots”.
In genius studies, early parental death and genius, aka EPD genius, or correctly, per life terminology upgrades, early parent cessation, "de-existence" (or de-bound-state), "dereaction" (death), or "analysis", as things do not "live" and "die", as Empedocles so correctly told us, "geniuses", is a salient anomaly, common to existographies (biographies) of geniuses, in particular double Nobel Prize Laureates (75% are EPD geniuses), heads of scientific revolutions, and key thinkers at the top of the top 1000 geniuses listings.

The following is a ranking by famous publications in respect to EPD characterizers:

1542: On the Revolution of the Heavenly Orbs | Copernicus (F10)
1661: The Skeptical Chemist | Boyle (M3)
1677: Ethics | Spinoza (M7)
1687: Principia | Newton (F0)
1859: Origin of Species | Darwin (M8)
1865: A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field | Maxwell (M8)
1876: On the Equilibrium of Heterogeneous Substances | Gibbs (M16)
1888: The Will to Power | Nietzsche (F5)
1910: The Physical Significance of Entropy | Klein (F2)
1937: The Nature of the Chemical Bond | Pauling (F9)
2007: Human Chemistry | Thims (M12)

In succinct detail, visual, i..e the exchange force observation, of the cessation of one or two of one's parents, e.g. watching a mother turn blue, imbibes or instills a sort of "sober cold" reality of the existence of things, that works to differentiate EPD children, accordingly, from normal or status quo upbringing of average children, in a way that what seems "cold" to normal adults, has been previous "accustomed" too by EPD children.

The following is a work-in-progress listing of geniuses, ordered chronologically by birth date (reaction inception), who were products of early parental death, i.e. early parental dereaction (analysis):


1.Aristotle (384-322 BC)(IQ:195|#11)[RGM:6|1,310+]orphaned at tender age
2.Marcus Aurelius (121-180 AD)(IQ:180|#122)[RGM:103|1,260+]F3Stoicism
3.Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543)(IQ:185|#59)[RGM:21|1,260+]father age 10
4.Blaise Pascal (1623-1662)(IQ:190|#51)[RGM:44|1,250+]mother age 3
5.Robert Boyle (1627-1691)(IQ:185|#61)[RGM:361|1,260+]mother age 3
6.Benedict Spinoza (1632-1677)(IQ:180|#90)[RGM:361|1,260+]M6Atheism
7.Robert Hooke (1635-1703)(IQ:195|#20)[RGM:161|1,260+]father age 13
8.Isaac Newton (1642-1727)(IQ:220|#2)[RGM:2|1,260+] father age 0
9.Thomas Aikenhead (1676-1697)

father and mother age 10Atheism
10.Voltaire (1694-1778)(IQ:195|#18)[RGM:33|1,250+]mother age 7Deism/Skepticism/Atheism
11.David Hume (1711-1776)(IQ:180|#106)[RGM:111|1,250+]father age 2
12.Jean Rousseau (1712-1778)(IQ:175|#225)[RGM:125|1,250+]mother age 9 days
13.Adam Smith (1723-1790)(IQ:170|#252)[RGM:88|1,260+]father age 0
14.Antoine Lavoisier (1743-1794)

M5; S15Founder of chemistry
15.Marquis Condorcet (1743-1794)(IQ:180|#149)
father died shortly after his birth (Ѻ)
16.Joseph Jacquard (1752-1834)(IQ:160|#392)
father age 10
17.Benjamin Thompson (1753-1814)

18.Jacob Berzelius (1779-1848)(IQ:180|#150)
F4; M9
19.Mary Shelley (1797-1851)(IQ:175|#225
mother at 11 days
20.Charles Darwin (1809-1882) (IQ:180|#162)[RGM:13|1,260+]mother age 8
21.Karl Heinzen (1809-1880)

22.James Maxwell (1831-1879)(IQ:210|#4)[RGM:133|1,260+]mother age 8
23.Willard Gibbs (1839-1903)(IQ:210|#5)
mother age 16
24.Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900)(IQ:190|#31)[RGM:25|1,260+]father age 5Atheism
25.Joseph Klein (1849-1918)

father age 1 or 2
26.Marie Curie (1867-1934)(IQ:185|#76) [RGM:12|1,260+]mother age 10Nobel Prize iconNobel Prize icon (physics, 1903; chemistry, 1911)
27.Fritz Haber (1868-1934)

mother age 3 weeksNobel Prize icon (chemistry, 1919)
28.Bertrand Russell (1872-1970)(IQ:180|#103)[RGM:113|1,260+]mother age 2; father age 4AtheismNobel Prize icon (literature, 1950)
29.Arthur Eddington (1882-1944)

father age 2 Nobel Prize icon [nominations: 6] (Ѻ)
30.Howard Lovecraft (1890-1937)
[RGM:379|1,290+]father age 8Atheism
31.Linus Pauling (1901-1994)(IQ:190|#29)[RGM:176|1,260+] father age 9Nobel Prize iconNobel Prize icon (chemistry, 1954; peace, 1962)
32.Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980)(IQ:165|#321)[RGM:385|1,260+]father age 2Atheism
33.John Bardeen (1908-1991) (IQ:180|#127)
M12 Nobel Prize iconNobel Prize icon (physics, 1956; physics, 1972)
34.Albert Camus (1913-1960)(IQ:155|#412)[RGM:351|1,260+]father age 1AtheismNobel Prize icon (literature, 1957)
35.Mirza Beg

F11Founder of physico-chemical sociology
36.Libb Thims
(1972- ACM) (222- AG) (17- AE)

M12Founder of human chemical thermodynamics; Atheism

Firstly, to note, three of the top five existentialism philosophers, namely: Nietzsche, Sartre, and Camus, were EPD products.

Secondly, we note that three (Curie, Pauling, Bardeen) of the only four “dual” Nobel laureates (Sanger, Curie, Pauling, Bardeen), i.e. won the Nobel prize twice, from among 880+ laureate winners (Ѻ) in total, are EPD products.

Thirdly, we note that the greatest atheists of the 17th century (Spinoza), 18th century (Voltaire), 19th century (Nietzsche), and the 20th century (Russell) are each EPD products.

Fourthly, we note that names of the biggest revolutions, namely: Copernican revolution, Newtonian revolution, Darwinian revolution, and Maxwellian revolution, are each the results of EPD products.
Mirza Beg and Libb Thims (15 Sep 2019)
A 2019 photo during the monumental meeting of Mirza Beg (EPD:F11) and Libb Thims (EPD:M12), in Karachi, Pakistan, the two main existive human chemical thermodynamics pioneers, at the start (15 Sep) of their 5-day interview session, only to find out that they are both EPD-products.

EPD genius battles
Of curiosity, among early parent death (EPD) geniuses, are the battles, between Newton and Hooke in the 17th century and Hume and Rousseau in the 18th century.

Mother | Father death
One study indicated that one-third of creative geniuses had lost their father early in life. (Ѻ)

The 1981 IQ study by American learning and education scholar Herbert Walberg, et al, inclusive of a research team involving 76 scholars, found that “poets, novelists, and dramatists” tend to have an absence of father commonality, whereas scientists tend to have an absence of mother commonality. [10]

One study of 699 eminent figures showed that 45% had lost a parent before age 21. A quarter of eminent mathematicians had lost a parent before age ten. Another study of British Prime Ministers found that 63% had lost a parent, a number much higher than a comparable control group of English peers. (Ѻ)

American science and medicine historian William Woodward’s 1974 article “Scientific Genius and Loss of a Parent” cites Anne Roe, in her 1952 book The Making of a Scientist, as being the first to cite the environmental factor of the death of a parent during the childhood of a scientist to one of most salient non-genetic or non-family relatedness factors behind the making of scientific genius. [3] Roe comments specifically: [4]

“One of the first things that stands out is the frequency with which these subjects report the death (reaction end) of a parent during their childhood.”

American genius and creativity theory psychologist Dean Simonton, from his 1991 chapter “When Giftedness Becomes Genius: How Does Talent Achieve Eminence?”, summarizes the phenomenon as follows:

“For both creators and leaders, the percentage of geniuses who lost one or both parents before reaching early adulthood is appreciably larger than what appears to hold in the general population or any other comparable group.”

Simonton buttresses this statement by citing Walberg, Rasher, and Parkerson (1980); Berrington (1974); Silverman (1974); and Martindale (1972), which, he seems to indicate, are just a few examples. [2]

Scientific revolutions
A large percentage of the leaders of scientific revolutions have been the product of an early parental death childhood; namely: Copernican revolution (Nicolaus Copernicus, father age 10), Newtonian revolution (Isaac Newton, father age 0), Darwinian revolution (Charles Darwin, mother age 8), Maxwellian revolution (James Maxwell, mother age 8), Goethean revolution (Goethe, blue baby; Libb Thims, mother age 12), to name a few.

EPD geniuses
The Dual-Laureate Similarities section from American electrochemical engineer Libb Thims’ 2005 IoHT profile page, where he lists Nicolaus Copernicus, Isaac Newton, Charles Darwin, James Maxwell, Willard Gibbs, Friedrich Nietzsche, Edger Allan Poe, Lucille Ball, James Dean, JFK, Marilyn Monroe, Madonna, and Julia Roberts, as examples. [7]
Dual Nobel Prize winners
Among individual to have one two Nobel Prizes, as depicted adjacent, namely Marie Curie, Linus Pauling, John Bardeen, and Frederick Sanger, 3 out of 4 have been the product of an early parental death childhood.

American genius and creativity theory psychologist Dean Simonton argues, in his 1999 Origins of Genius: Darwinian Perspectives on Creativity, that parents who are more intelligent tend to delay reproduction until later in their existence, after their professional careers are established, stating that data shows that parents of eminent personalities were older than is the norm when their illustrious progeny were born—he gives the example of Darwin’s mother being in her 50s when she ended—and argues that heightened education level in correlation with heightened age of the parent may be the explanation for the anomaly over that of traumatic experiences, meaning that geniuses' parents were older, older people have a higher death rate, and that this explains the anomaly. [5]

This argument, however, does not seem to align with way in which elite geniuses view their situation and the great intensity and voracity about which they conduct their remaining days. German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, founder of what might be called the atheism revolution, whose father (age 36) ended when he was five, would go on to hold to a philosophy centered around the the idea of "life-affirmation", involving an honest questioning of all doctrines that drain life's expansive energies, however socially prevalent those views might be. [8] In this sense, early parental death would seem to trigger a sort of non-status quo, culturally-unbounded, orthodox-questioning energy release reaction phenomenon, whereby those activities which drain creativity and progress toward solution are strictly avoided.

Likewise, Scottish physicist James Maxwell, one of the most intellectually deep and prolific of scientific geniuses, all through his days was acutely aware of his end, as exemplified by the fact that he penned his rare inner in his last and dying poem, “A Paradoxical Ode” (1878), written in his final year as he was in the final stages of stomach cancer, as he went into his 48th year, the same age his mother died previously from the same disease.
Early parental death (revolutions)
A noted selection of early parental death geniuses: the top three of which, Copernicus (Copernican revolution), Newton (Newtonian revolution), and Darwin (Darwinian revolution), each peculiarly being initiators of large scientific revolutions; image being a scan (24 Sep 2007) from page of American electrochemical engineer Libb Thims' personal copy of his newly published Human Chemistry, showing the age at which the mother or father died for each: Nicolaus Copernicus (father age 10); Isaac Newton (father age 0), Charles Darwin (mother age 8), and James Maxwell (mother age 12); a phenomena Thims has been curious about and keeping track of since the mid 1990s, since the phenomena is one common to himself, being that his mother analyzed (died) when he was age 12. [6]

Of note, in regards to terminology (see: life terminology upgrades) a person is a molecule (technically a powered animate chemical) and, technically speaking (see: defunct theory of life), and molecules cannot “die” but only be formed (de-formed) or synthesized (or de-synthesized); hence, it is more scientifically accurate to speak of “end” or “termination” of a parent as compared to the defunct term “death” of a parent; a comparative example being someone speaking about the death of the water molecule H2O in a water sodium reaction. For the sake of Internet search functionability, however, in this article, the older religio-mythology term "death" will be retained in the title, over that of either the politically-neutral term "loss", which implies that something has been lost (which is a blurry conception), or the scientifically-correct terms "termination" or "end", but which are less palatable.

A partial list of scientists, philosophers, and psychologists, common to the phenomenon of early parental death, of related note, is given in Dean Simonton’s 2002 book Great Psychologists and Their Times. [9]
Quotes | On
The following are quotes on Rumford:

Rumford has informed us himself that he should probably have remained in the modest condition of his ancestors if the little fortune which they had to leave him had not been lost during his infancy. Thus, like many other men of genius, a misfortune in early life was the cause of his subsequent reputation. His father died young [age 2]. A second husband removed him from the care of his mother, and his grandfather, from whom he had everything to expect, had given all he possessed to a younger son, leaving his grandson almost penniless. Nothing could be more likely than such a destitute condition to induce a premature display of talent.”
Georges Cuvier (c.1815), Publication (pg. 9)
See also
Founders of thermodynamics and suicide

1. (a) Simonton, Dean. (1991). “When Giftedness Becomes Genius: How Does Talent Achieve Eminence?”, in: Handbook of Gifted Education (pg. 343); editors: Nicholas Colangelo and Gary A. Davis. Allyn and Bacon.
(b) Dean Simonton (faculty) – University of California, Davis.
2. (a) Walberg, H.J., Rasher, S.P., and Parkerson, J. (1980). “Childhood and Eminence.” Journal of Creative Behavior, 13: 225-31.
(b) Berrington, H. (1974). “Review article: The Fiery Chariot: Prime ministers and the search for Love.” British Journal of Political Science, 4, 345-69.
(c) Silverman, S.M. (1974). “Parental Loss and Scientists”, Science Studies, 4:259:64.
(d) Martindale, C. (1972). “Father Absence, Psychopathology, and Poetic Eminence.” Psychological Reports, 31: 843-47.
3. Woodward, R. William. (1974). “Scientific Genius and Loss of a Parent” (abs), Scientific Studies, 4: 265-77.
4. Roe, Anne. (1952). The Making of a Scientist (death, pgs. 84-85). Dodd, Mead & Co.
5. Simonton, Dean K. (1999). Origins of Genius: Darwinian Perspectives on Creativity (pg. 130). Oxford University Press.
6. (a) Thims, Libb. (2007). Human Chemistry (Volume One). Morrisville, NC: LuLu.
(b) Thims, Libb. (2007). Human Chemistry (Volume Two). Morrisville, NC: LuLu.
7. Dual-Laureate Similarities (Libb Thims profile) – Institute of Human Thermodynamics.
8. Friedrich Nietzsche (2011) – Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
9. Simonton, Dean K. (2002). Great Psychologists and Their Times (Table 9.2). APA Books.
10. Walberg, Herbert J. Tsai, Shiow-Ling, Weinstein, Thomas, Gabriel, Cynthia L., Rasher, Sue, P. Roesecrans, Teresa, Rovai, Evangelina, Ide, Judith, Trujillo, Miguel, and Vukosavich, Peter. (1981). “Childhood Traits and Environmental Conditions of Highly Eminent Adults”, Gifted Child Quarterly, 25(3):103-07.

Further reading
● Eisenstadt, Marvin J. (1978). “Parental Loss and Genius”, American Psychologist, 33:21.
● Simonton, Dean K. (1998). Scientific Genius: a Psychology of Science (§: Parental Loss and Orphanhood, pg. 108). Cambridge University Press.

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