# Entropy models

In thermodynamics, entropy models are any of various verbal, visual, heuristic, or statistical teaching models used to describe the 1865 quantity 'entropy', defined in various ways by German physicist Rudolf Clausius during the years 1850 to 1875. Some of the various oft-cited entropy models are as follows:

 Model Picture Notes Four element theoryAristotle (350BC) Denser elements tend to rise; lighter elements fall; earth is the heaviest element; fire the lightest.“For any two portions of fire, small or great, will exhibit the same ratio of solid to void; but the upward movement of the greater is quicker than that of the less.” Three principles theoryGeber (790) Metals are formed of two elements: sulphur, ‘the stone which burns’, the principle of combustibility, and mercury, the principle of metallic properties. Salt gives solidity. Sulphur combustion model Paracelsus (1524) Terra pinguis modelJohann Becher (1699) Phlogiston modelGeorg Stahl (1703) Caloric modelAntoine Lavoisier (1789) Re-establishment of equilibrium in the caloricSadi Carnot (1824) A Lavoisier-base view that heat consisted of indestructible caloric particles and that a body returned to its original position (state) at the end of one heat cycle. Transformation contentRudolf Clausius (1850) Dissipation(law of dissipation)William Thomson (1852) DisgregationRudolf Clausius (1862) [3] Entropy (melting ice)Rudolf Clausius (1862) [1] Tumbler of water modelLudwig Boltzmann (1870) A comment to John Strutt that the second law has the same truth as the assertion that you cannot recover a tumbler of water thrown into the sea. [2] Velocity distribution model(H-theorem)Ludwig Boltzmann (1872) Entropy of mixingWillard Gibbs (1876) Note: this could have been Gibbs' 1902 work; see: Gilbert Lewis' 1925 The Anatomy of Science (pg. 148). DisorderHermann Helmholtz (1882) Ghostly quantityJohn Perry (1899) S = k ln WMax Planck (1901) Mixed-up-nessWillard Gibbs (1903) Note: ditto to previous note. Elementary disorderMax Planck (1906) Typing monkeysEmile Borel (1913) Entropies of bodiesGilbert Lewis (1923) Entropy (shuffling cards)Gilbert Lewis (1925)Arthur Eddington (1928) Seems to have been first described in Lewis' The Anatomy of Science; then expanded be Eddington in his The Nature of the Physical World. Arrow of timeArthur Eddington (1928) Entropy (information)Leo Szilard (1929) Information theoryClaude Shannon (1948) Note: this has nothing to do with thermodynamics; contrary to popular opinion; but rather is a mis-informed urban myth existing in ignorant science. Unscrambled eggs(Broken eggs)Walter Albersheim? (1955) Entropy (child’s playroom)Peter Landsberg (1961) Energy dispersal Peter Atkins (1984) (spreading out of energy)Frank Lambert (1999) Entropy ≠ Disorder In a view of entropy as "energy spreading out"; a misinformed view promoted by American organic chemist Frank Lambert; based on a reading of one of William Thomson's articles.

Entropy formulations
Entropy (misinterpretations)

References
1. Sladek, John T. (1974). The New Apocrypha: a Guide to Strange Science and Occult Beliefs (pg. 258). Stein and Day.
2. Lindberg, David C., Porter, Roy, Jo Nye, Mary, and Numbers, Ronald. (2003). The Cambridge History of Science: the Modern Physical and Mathematical Sciences (pgs. 494-95). Cambridge University Press.
3. Disgregation – Wikipedia.

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