Exchange force
Generic diagram of the exchange force, wherein the exchange of field particles, namely primary field particles, e.g. photons, or secondary field particles, e.g. pheromones, acts as a force carrier to transmit the force between the interacting matter particles (e.g. electrons, atoms, insects, animals, or human molecules), creating or mediating either attraction or repulsion movement, in such a manner that an apparent force exists between the interacting entities. [4]
In science, exchange force is a force whose apparent character lies in the assumption of a continuous exchange of particles, which accompanies the interaction and transmits the force, resulting from the continued interaction of particles in a manner that bonds their hosts together. [1]

Overview
In 1927, Walter Heitler, after awaking from a series of naps, conceived the basic model of the exchange force or "perturbation theory" operating between two hydrogen atoms, the outline of which was first published in “Interaction of Neutral Atoms and Homopolar Bonding according to Quantum Mechanics”, co-authored with Fritz London (1900-1954); the theory was given in more detail in Heitler's 1945 Elementary Wave Mechanics: with Applications to Quantum Chemistry.

In 1932, Italian physicist Ettore Majorana (part of Enrico Fermi’s group) independently worked out his own version of the exchange force, and the following year, through suggestion via Fermi, when to Germany to work with Werner Heisenberg, who was working out a similar exchange force model. Heisenberg eventually convinced Majorana to publish his theory, which he did in the 1933 article “On Nuclear Theory”. [8] Their finalized joint model later came to be referred to as the “Heisenberg-Majorana” exchange forces. [9]

In circa 1993, Enrico Fermi and German Hans Bethe summarized the core model by suggesting that interactions between charged particles could be described in terms of photons being exchanged between particles. [3]

In 1992, English physical chemist Peter Atkins explained exchange force in the context of spacetime as such: [2]

“All forces that bind atoms, nuclei, and the deepest components of particles, can be regarded as arising from the interchange of particles. Force is only the codeword for this behavior being played out on the arena of spacetime. Spacetime, with its curvature forms the stage; particles distributed as waves pursue straight lines; but particles detach from particles and travel (straight) to others and impress on them their motion. Force is the name of this interchange of particles.”

Whether or not forces act attractively or repulsively, supposedly, depends on the spin of the particles being exchanged: even-integral spin particles are attractive, odd-integral spin particles are repulsive between like particles. [2]

The most readable account of the interpretation of forces in terms of the exchange of particles, according to English physical chemist Peter Atkins, is the 1977 book The Key to the Universe by British science writer Nigel Calder. [4]

Human physics
In 1975, American physicist Arthur Iberall, in his paper “On Nature, Man, and Society: A Basis for Scientific Modeling”, outlined a basis for social dynamics in terms of exchange forces. [6] The interesting abstract for this paper by Iberall is as follows: [7]

“A physical basis for the modeling of autonomous systems is presented. Namely the thesis is unfolded that irreversible thermodynamics is presently capable of describing nature, man, and society. Four fragments of the theme are presented. The first is a description of how thermodynamics orders all of nature. The second illustrates how the dynamics of fluid fields (mobile atomisms) is developed. The third begins the formulation of a social physics. The fourth provides a primitive notion why all autonomous systems are described by the same formal set of equations of state and change.”

In summary of Iberall’s social physics exchange force model, according to a 2008 review by American physical anthropologist Douglas White, two major types of bonds are pertinent: “ionic” sexual force and “van der Waal” covalent exchange force (which provides internal “cohesive group” associations in the likely range of 10-200 empathetically shared views). These bondings take place through sensory contact, within a nominally 20-mile radius of a person’s movement “territory”. [6]

In 2007, independent of Iberall, American electrochemical engineer Libb Thims extrapolated the exchange force model up to the human-human interaction level (human molecule - human molecule interactions), in the formulation of the one of the aspects of the human chemical bond, as well as in formulation of the mechanism of the force of attraction and repulsion, wherein the notion of "primary field particles" (e.g. a photon) and "secondary field particles" (e.g. a diamond) was introduced to describe and explain the large scale operation of forces at the human level. [5]

References
1. Jammer, Max. (1957). Concepts of Force – A Study in the Foundations of Dynamics. New York: Dover Publications, Inc.
2. Atkins, Peter. (1992). Creation Revisited (pgs. 64-65). W.H. Freeman & Co.
3. Gribbin, John. (2002). Quantum Physics: A Beginner's Guide to the Subatomic World. DK Publishing.
4. (a) Calder, Nigel. (1977). The Key to the Universe. BBC Publications.
(b) Nigel Calder – Wikipedia.
5. Thims, Libb. (2007). Human Chemistry (Volume One) (exchange force, pg. 198). Morrisville, NC: LuLu.
6. White, Douglas R. (2008). “Social Physics: Networks and Causal Chains”, Arthur S. Iberall Distinguished Lecture on Life and the Sciences of Complexity, Dec 5. University of Connecticut.
7. Iberall, Arthur. (1975). “On Nature, Man, and Society: A Basis for Scientific Modeling” (abs), Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 3(4): 344-85.
8. Majorana, Ettore. (1933). “Uber die Kerntheorie” (“On Nuclear Theory”), Zeitschrift fur Physik, 82: 137-45; “Sulla Theoria dei Nuclei” (“On the Theory of the Nucei”), La ricerca Scientifica, 4(1): 559-65.
9. Esposito, Salvatore, Recami, Erasmo, and Van der Merwe, Alwyn. (2009). Ettore Majorana: Unpublished Research Notes and Theoretical Physics (pgs. xvii-xx). Springer.

External links
‚óŹ Exchange interaction – Wikipedia.

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