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free energy table
An example 1998 thermodynamic table showing the standard enthalpy of formation ΔHf°, standard Gibbs free energy of formation ΔGf°, and standard entropy S°. [1]
In thermodynamics, a free energy table or “table of standard free energies of formation at 25 °C”, is a set of calculated data for values of free energy, enthalpy, and entropy of various chemical species that is used to determine reaction feasibility among other information.

An example of a basic free energy table for various organic species is shown adjacent. [1]

Affinity tables
The precursor to the free energy tables were the various "affinity tables", the first of which was constructed in 1718 by French physician and chemist Étienne Geoffroy during a translation into French of English physicist Isaac Newton's famous "Query 31" of his Opticks, wherein verbal affinity preferences are enunciated. [2]

The largest affinity table built was Bergman's affinity table constructed in 1775 by Swedish chemist Torbern Bergman. It soon thereafter became apparent that each affinity reaction depend on temperature, and that each table would need to be constructed anew for each different temperature. Affinity table construction generally came to a halt, in the years to follow, because of this impediment.

Free energy tables
See main: Thermodynamic data table
In 1882, German physicist Hermann Helmholtz showed, in his "On the Thermodynamics of Chemical Processes", that the measure of affinity A is free energy change (ΔF or ΔG, depending on the type of process):

A = – ΔF(isochoric-isobaric processes)
A = – ΔG(isothermal-isobaric processes)

Soon thereafter, free energy tables began to be made, listing the standard free energy of formation for various elements, molecules, and compounds.

In 1905,
German chemist Fritz Haber, in his Thermodynamics of Technical Gas Reactions, presented the first systematic study of all the thermodynamic data necessary for the calculation of the free energy, the Helmholtz free energy (U – TS) in particular, of chemical substances in a group of important reactions. [5]

In 1914, American physical chemists Gilbert Lewis, and his assistant Merle Randall, building on the methodology introduced by Haber, published the first so-called “table of free energies”, giving free energies of formation values for oxygen, hydrogen, and a few oxides of hydrogen. [6] This formed the basis for their expanded-followup 1923 “Table of Standard Free Energies of Formation at 25 °C”, giving free energies of formation for 28 cations and a few metallic compounds and 111 non-metallic compounds and anions. [2]

In 1957, English electrical engineer and physicist Keith Burton, in Krebs and Kornberg's Energy Transformations in Living Matter, produced the first thermodynamic table of free energies for biochemical species, containing about 100 species. [3]

Human free energy tables
The future goal of human chemical thermodynamics, will be to calculate "human free energy tables" for the calculation of reaction feasibilities and spontaneities of different combinations of human chemical species (human molecules); as in different sets of potentials in the process of "love the chemical reaction." [4] The affinity-based beta-stage online pair-matching site has this goal in mind.

1. Chang, Raymond. (1998). Chemistry, 6th ed. (Appendix 3). New York: McGraw-Hill.
2. Kim, Mi G. (2003). Affinity , That Elusive Dream: a Genealogy of the Chemical Revolution. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
3. (a) Krebs, H.A. and Kornberg, H.L. (1957). Energy Transformations in Living Matter (with an Appendix by K. Burton with 21 figures). Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
(b) Alberty, Robert, A. (2003). Thermodynamic of Biochemical Reactions, (pg. 2). Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
4. Thims, Libb. (2007). Human Chemistry (Volume One), (preview). (ch. 11: "Affinity and Free Energy", section: Human affinity - Gibbs free energy - tables, pgs. 464-68). Morrisville, NC: LuLu.
5. Lewis, Gilbert N. and Randall, Merle. (1923). Thermodynamics and the Free Energy of Chemical Substances (pgs. 5-6; Table of Free Energies, pgs. 607-08). McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc.
6. (a) Lewis, Gilbert and Randall, Merle. (1914). “The Free Energy of Oxygen, Hydrogen, and the Oxides of Hydrogen”, Journal of American Chemical Society, 35:1964.
(b) Randall, Merle and Young, Leona E. (1942). Elementary Physical Chemistry (note, pg. 302). Randall and Sons.

External links
Thermodynamics tables –
Thermodynamic tables –

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