Friedrich Schiller nsIn existographies, Friedrich Schiller (1759-1805) (IQ:185|#69) (Cattell 1000:75) [RGM:85|1,260+] (CR:144) was a German "poet-philosopher", as Sigmund Freud (1930) describes him, noted for his intellectual kinship with German polyintellect Johann Goethe, with whom Goethe first began in 1799 to discuss his newly forming "human chemical theory" of the existence of physical chemistry based human elective affinities governing human relationships. [1]

In a 23 October 1799 conversation with Schiller, Goethe criticizes French dramaticist Prosper Crebillon, pseudonym of Prosper Jolyot, French dramatist; considered, according to Merriam-Webster (2000), the rival of Voltaire; wrote Idomenee (1705), Electre (1708), Xerxes (1714), among others—in terms that make Goethe's view that human relationships are chemical relationships explicit: [13]

“There is no trace of the delicate relationship (chemische verwandtschaft) through which they (his characters) attract and repel, neutralize each other, separate again and re-establish themselves.”

The openness, and without introduction of this quote, implies that Schiller and Goethe had previously interjected on this topic.

Drive theory | The World Ways
See main: Freud-Schiller drive theory
Schiller, somewhere along the line, supposedly, penned out a theory of the drives: [5]

"The animal drives [Triebe] awaken and develop the spiritual drives"; he opposed the material drive (Stofftrieb) to the form drive (Formtrieb). The Spieltrieb (play-drive)—which expresses play, the beautiful, freedom, and the total man—is posited as an ideal nexus between the two Triebe. It is also the force that drives creation: "It is union of the unconscious and reflection that makes the poetic artist."

In 1795, Schiller penned his poem "The World Ways", shown in the original German and English-to-German translate below:

The World Ways
(Die Weltweisen)

Der Satz, durch welchen alles Ding
Bestand und Form empfangen,
Der Nagel, woran Zeus den Ring
Der Welt, die sonst in Scherben ging,
Vorsichtig aufgehangen,
Den nenn' ich einen großen Geist,
Der mir ergründet, wie er heißt,
Wenn ich ihm nicht drauf helfe –
Er heißt: Zehn ist nicht Zwölfe. Der Schnee macht kalt, das Feuer brennt,
Der Mensch geht auf zwei Füßen,
Die Sonne scheint am Firmament,
Das kann, wer auch nicht Logik kennt,
Durch seine Sinne wissen.
Doch wer Metaphysik studiert,
Der weiß, daß, wer verbrennt, nicht friert,
Weiß, daß das Nasse feuchtet
Und daß das Helle leuchtet.
Homerus singt sein Hochgedicht,
Der Held besteht Gefahren;
Der brave Mann thut seine Pflicht
Und that sie, ich verhehl' es nicht,
Eh noch Weltweise waren.
Doch hat Genie und Herz vollbracht,
Was Lock' und Des Cartes nie gedacht,
Sogleich wird auch von diesen
Die Möglichkeit bewiesen.
Im Leben gilt der Stärke Recht,
Dem Schwachen trotzt der Kühne,
Wer nicht gebieten kann, ist Knecht;
Sonst geht es ganz erträglich schlecht
Auf dieser Erdenbühne.
Doch wie es wäre, fing' der Plan
Der Welt nur erst von vornen an,

Ist in Moralsystemen
Ausführlich zu vernehmen.
»Der Mensch bedarf des Menschen sehr
Zu seinem großen Ziele;
Nur in dem Ganzen wirket er,
Viel Tropfen geben erst das Meer,

Viel Wasser treibt die Mühle.
Drum flieht der wilden Wölfe Stand
Und knüpft des Staates dauernd Band.«
So lehren vom Katheder
Herr Puffendorf und Feder.
Doch weil, was ein Professor spricht,
Nicht gleich zu Allen dringet,
So übt Natur die Mutterpflicht
Und sorgt, daß nie die Kette bricht
Und daß der Reif nie springet.
Einstweilen, bis den Bau der Welt
Philosophie zusammenhält,
Erhält sie das Getriebe
Durch Hunger und durch Liebe.
The rate by which all things
Receive inventory and shape,
The nail what the Zeus ring
The world went to pieces otherwise,
Carefully hung,
To what I call a great spirit,
The fathomed me how he is,
When I told him it does not help -
He says: Ten is not twelve. The snow makes cold, the fire burns,
The man walks on two feet,
The sun is shining in the firmament,
This can, who knows neither logic
Know through his senses.
But who studied metaphysics,
He knows that he who burns not freeze,
Knows that the Wet moistens
And that the bright lights.
Homer sings his wedding poem,
The hero is danger;
A good man does his duty
And she did, I do not conceal,
Eh were world way.
But genius and heart has accomplished,
What Lock 'and Des Cartes never thought
Immediately is also of this
The opportunity proved.
In life, the strength is right
The weak defies the Bold
If you can not command, is servant;
Otherwise it's quite tolerable bad
On this earth stage.
But what it would be caught 'the plan
The world first only by vornen to,

In moral systems
Detail to be heard.
"Man needs of the people very
To his great aims;
Only in the whole he worketh,
Many drops to give only the sea,

Plenty of water drives the mill.
Drum escapes of wild wolves as
Ties and the state band permanently. "
To teach from the lectern
Mr. Puffendorf and spring.
But because of what a professor says,
Penetrateth not equal to all,
Mother Nature exerts the required
And ensures that the chain never breaks
And that the frost never Springet.
In the meantime, until the construction of the world
Philosophy holds,
It receives the transmission
By hunger and by love.

In 1823, French engineer Sadi Carnot, famously stated that the “fall of caloric”, from the hot body (boiler) to the cold body (condenser), through the working substance in the operation of the steam engine, is comparable, in principle, to the “fall of water”, from the higher location, through the rotary mechanism of the water mill, to the lower location, in the machines operated by falling water, in the production of motive power.

Water mill ns

A water mill driven by waterpower, according to which the fall of the water "drives" the mechanical operation of the mill, which is to grind grain.

In 1930, Sigmund Freud that he got his free energy/bound energy libido "drive theory", in start, from Schiller's "The World Ways" poem, which Freud encapsulates as: "hunger and love are what move the world"

In 1910, Austrian psychologist Sigmund Freud situated himself in Schiller's wake by distinguishing the sexual instincts from the ego instincts, and in his Civilization and its Discontents, stated that Schiller, with his hunger and love poem, had provided him with an initial "foothold" for his free energy and bound energy connected "drive theory" or libido energy (id, ego, superego) model of the "theory of instincts" of psychoanalysis from the final line of Schiller's 1795 poem, which according to the 1961 translation by James Strachey, Freud quotes as follows:

Hunger and love are what moves the world.”
— Friedrich Schiller (1795), quoted by Sigmund Freud, in Civilization and its Discontents (1930) (Ѻ), as basis if his drive theory (Ѻ)

Two other versions, that may or may not have been derived from Schiller, are as follows:

“Hunger and love are two fundamental forces that reign in the living world, they are the primary source of all phenomena, mental and social.”
Leon Winiarski (1899), Essay on Social Mechanics

Love and hunger rule the world. Ergo, to rule the world, one must master love and hunger.”
Yevgeny Zamyatin, We (1920)

The popular modern truncated version of the conclusion of Schiller's poem is:

Love and hunger rule the world.”
— Friedrich Schiller (1795), “The Philosophers” (Die Welteisen) (Ѻ); (Ѻ)

As found in Einstein's personal library at Princeton, according to the 2008 views of German-born American physicist Gerald Holton, noted student of American thermodynamicist Percy Bridgman: [2]

“Throughout his life Einstein was a man of the book, to a much higher degree than other scientists. The remarkably diverse collection of volumes in his library grew constantly. If we look only at the German-language books published before 1910 that survived Einstein’s Princeton household, the list includes much of the cannon of the time: Boltzmann, Buchner, Friedrich Hebbel, the works of Heine in two editions, Helmholtz, von Humboldt, the many books of Kant, Gotthold Lessing, Mach, Nietzsche, and Schopenhauer. But what looms largest are the collected works of Johann von Goethe in a thirty-six volume edition and another of twelve volumes, plus two volumes on his Optics, the exchange of letters between Goethe and Schiller, and a separate volume of Faust.”

In other words, Einstein, supposing he had read all of the books in his library, would have known about the above comment by Goethe. It is thus puzzling why Einstein commented in the 1920s: [3]

“How on earth are you ever going to explain in terms of chemistry and physics so important a biological phenomenon as first love?”

Explanations on his statement are puzzling, if in fact Einstein had read the above 1799 comment of Goethe to Schiller as well as Goethe's Elective Affinities? It could be that Einstein, being so absorbed in his own work, relativity, although oddly his first 30 papers were in thermodynamics, may have not seen the trees between the forest (see: forest blind)?

Quotes | By
The following are noted Schiller quotes:

“Keep true to the dreams of your youth.”
— Friedrich Schiller (c.1790), (Ѻ)

“There is no such thing as chance; and what seem to us merest accident springs from the deepest source of destiny.”
— Friedrich Schiller (c.1790), (Ѻ)

“The relationship of gravity to the living power of the bird is about the same as inclination is related to law-giving reason.”
— Friedrich Schiller (c.1790) (Ѻ)

“I do not ignore the advantages which the present generation, regarded as a whole, and measured by reason, may boast over what was best in the bygone world; but it must enter the contest as a compact phalanx and measure itself as whole against whole. What individual modern could enter the lists, man against man, and contest the prize of manhood with an individual Athenian? When then arises this unfavorable individual comparison in the face of ever advantage from the standpoint of the race?”
— Friedrich Schiller (1795), Publication; cited by Carl Jung (1924) in Psychological Types (pg. 91); cited by Roderick Seidenberg (1950) in Post-Historic Man (pg. 191)

1. (a) Lynch, Sandra. (2005). Philosophy and Friendship (Crebillon, pg. 37). Edinburgh University Press.
(b) Steer, Alfred G. (1990). Goethe’s Elective Affinities: the Robe of Nessus (Crebillon, pg. 37). Winter.
(c) Prosper Jolyot de Crebillon – Wikipedia.
2. Galison, Peter, Holton, Gerald J., and Schweber, Silvan S. (2008). Einstein for the 21st Century: His Legacy in Science, Art, and Modern Culture (ch. 1: Who Was Einstein? Why is He Still so Alive?, pgs 3-15; quote: pg. 10). Princeton University Press.
3. (a) Among the letters Einstein received in England was one from a man who had a theory that gravity meant that as the earth rotated people were sometimes upside down or horizontal. Perhaps, reasoned the man, this led people to do foolish things, like falling in love. This prompted Einstein to scribble on the letter: “falling in love is not the most stupid thing that people do … but gravitation cannot be held responsible for it.”
(b) Source: Isaacson, Walter. (2007). Einstein, (pg. 423). Simon and Schuster.
(c) In the late 1920s at the California Institute of Technology, as recorded by Henry Borsook (1956), physical chemist Edwin Cohn asked geneticist Thomas Morgan what is research plans were? Morgan answer was: “I am not doing any genetics. I am bored with genetics. But I am going out to Cal Tech where I hope it will be possible to bring physics and chemistry to bear on biology.” Shortly after Morgan arrived at Cal Tech, Einstein visited the laboratory and posed almost the same question. Morgan answered similarly as before. In response, Einstein shook his head and said: “No, this trick won’t work. The same trick does not work twice. How on earth are you ever going to explain in terms of chemistry and physics so important a biological phenomenon as first love?”
(d) Source: Kang, Manjit. (2002). Quantitative Genetics, Genomics, and Plant Breeding, (pg. 12). CABI Publishing.
4. Freud, Sigmund. (1930). Civilization and its Discontents (translator: James Strachey, 1961) (§6:, pg. 112). W.W. Norton & Company, 2005.
5. Schiller and Psychoanalysis – Gale Dictionary of Psychoanalysis.

Further reading
● Goethe, Johann and Schiller, Wilhelm. (1845). Correspondence Between Schiller and Goethe from 1794 to 1805, Volume 1 (translator: George H. Calvert). Wiley and Putnam.

External links
Friedrich Schiller – Wikipedia.

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