# | Person | Other Rankings | Meta-analysis Ranking | Publication | |

------------------------------------------------------------------------------ | ----------------------------------------------- | ||||

1 | — 16 | Leonhard Euler (1707-1783) | (Cattell 1000:512) [RGM:101|1,500+] (Murray 4000:14|CS / 1|M) (CR:103) | (4,4,4,4,1) (12%) (64283) | |

2. | — 23 | Carl Gauss (1777-1855) | (Cattell 1000:848) [RGM:39|1,500+] (Murray 4000:4|M) (CR:73) | (7,3,2,5,2) (10%) (50699) | |

3. | — 2 | Isaac Newton (1643-1727) | (Cattell 1000:14) [RGM:3|1,500+] (Murray 4000:2|CS / 1|P / 2|M) (CR :595) | (1,1,1,0,10) (1%) (9199) | "On the Quadrature of Curves" (1706) |

4. | — 55 | Euclid (c.340-280BC) | (Cattell 1000:501) [RGM:50|1,500+] (Murray 4000:19|CS / 3|M) (CR:65) | (6,6,3,0,5) (8%) | Elements (c.300BC) |

5. | — 39 | Archimedes (287-212BC) | (Cattell 1000:414) [RGM:9|1,330+] (Murray 4000:20|M / 5|T) (CR:28) | (8,2,0,0,3) (10%) | The Method of Mechanical Theorems (c.250BC) |

6. | — 13 | Rene Descartes (1596-1650) | (Cattell 1000:23) [RGM:33|1,500+] (Murray 4000:6|CS / 7|M / 4|WP) (CR:290) | (9,17,9,0,9) (2%) | "The Geometry" (1637) |

7. | — 24 | Joseph Lagrange (1736-1813) | (Cattell 1000:512) [RGM:558|1,500+] (CR:114) | (3,8,0,0,6) (61065) (6%) | |

8. | — 21 | Gottfried Leibniz (1646-1716) | (Cattell 1000:34) [RGM:32|1,500+] (Murray 4000:14|CS / 6|M / 11|WP) (CR:252) | (2,10,0,0,7) (66592) (6%) | "A New Method for Maxima and Minima, and Also for Tangents, Which Stops at Neither Fractions nor Irrational Quantities, and a Singular Type of Calculus for These" (1686) |

9. | — 44 | Henri Poincare (1854-1912) | [RGM:471|1,500+] (CR:64) | (90,7,6,0,20) | |

10. | — 86 | Pythagoras (c.570-490BC) | (Cattell 1000:89) [RGM:15|1,500+] (CR:86) | (0,29,0,1,8) (3%) | |

11. | — 115 | Bernhard Riemann (1826-1866) | [RGM:280|1,500+] (Murray 4000:10|M) (CR:14) | (38,5,7,0,21) | |

12. | — 215 | David Hilbert (1862-1943) | [RGM:421|1,500+] (Murray 4000:11|M) | (0,9,5,0,24) (20414) | |

13. | — 292 | Gerolamo Cardano (1501-1576) | (Murray 4000:14|M) (CR:8) | (10,91,11,3,0) | |

14. | — 224 | Pierre Fermat(1601-1665) | (Cattell 1000:893) [RGM:628|1,500+] (Murray 4000:5|M) (CR:8) | (17,12,0,0,13) | |

15. | — 394 | Felix Klein (1849-1925) | (9,45,0,0,11) | ||

16. | Georg Cantor (1845-1918) | [RGM:478|1,500+] (Murray 4000:8|M) | (0,25,13,6,30) (1) | ||

17. | — 455 | Evariste Galois (1811-1832) | [RGM:517|1,500+] | (84,14,8,0,23) | |

18. | — 47 | Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) | [RGM:42|1,500+] (Murray 4000:9|M) | (19,35,10,0,41) | |

19. | — 528 | Augustin Cauchy (1789-1857) | [RGM:315|1,500+] (Murray 4000:18|M) (CR:10) | (15,21,0,0,15) | |

20. | — 307 | Jacob Bernoulli (1654-1705) | (Murray 4000:12|M) (CR:12) | (28,53,0,0,56) | |

21. | — 276 | Adrien Legendre (1752-1833) | (Murray 4000:16|M) | (11,0,0,0,0) | |

22. | Diophantus (c.207-293) | (Murray 4000:13|M) | (26,38,0,0,0) | ||

23. | Francois Viete (1540-1603) | (Murray 4000:15|M) | (22,48,0,0,0) | ||

24. | Leonardo Fibonacci (1170-1250) | (Murray 4000:19|M) | (21,30,0,0,0) | ||

25. | John Wallis (1616-1703) | (Murray 4000:17|M) | (34,0,0,0,0) | ||

26. | — 84 | Jean d'Alembert (1717-1783) | (Cattell 1000:124) (CR:28) | (14,44,0,0,0) | |

27. | William Hamilton (1805-1865) | (34,39,0,0,0) | |||

28. | — 33 | Christiaan Huygens (1629-1695) | (Eells 100:24) | ||

39. | Srinivasa Ramanujan (1887-1920) | (25,0,19,0,0) | |||

30. | — 30 | Pierre Gassendi (1592-1655) | “If we take the mathematics, and those mixed sciences to which they are applicable, it will be universally admitted that their most successful cultivators in France during the seventeenth century were Descartes, Pascal, Fermat, Gassendi, and Mersenne.”— Henry Buckle (1856), |

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Meta-analysis ranking

The adjacent box shows a combined meta-analysis summary ranking (combination of 5 different rankings below) of the greatest mathematicians ever (known descendants listed as well), the numbers in brackets being the rank of each mathematician of each ranking study (below), in chronological order. Meta-analysis ranking positions (a,b,c,d,e) come from the following sources:

a. W.C. Eells (1962) | mathematics professor(100 greatest list)b. James Allen (1998) | mathematics historian(180 greatest list)c. Clifford Pickover (2001) | science historian(10 greatest list)d. Alex Bellos (2010) | mathematician(10 greatest list)e. Top 10 Lists (2012) | public vote(64 choices)

The "percentage" is the percentage of votes from the 2012 The-Top-Tens.com’s listing of the “Greatest Mathematician of All Time”, the ranking of this list shown by position five or "e" in the bracketed listing. The hyperlinked number, shown next to some mathematicians, e.g. Hilbert (20,414), shows the number of descendents, according to the data base at the mathematics genealogy project, a sixth factor taken into account in the meta analysis ranking.

Eells’ 1962 rankings

In the 1962 issue ofSee main: Eells 100 mathematicians

1. Isaac Newton

2. Gottfried Leibniz

3. Joseph Lagrange (Euler genealogy)

4. Leonhard Euler (Euler genealogy)

5. Pierre Laplace

6. Euclid

7. Carl Gauss

8. Archimedes

9. Rene Descartes

10. Gerolamo Cardano

11. Adrien-Marie Legendre

12. Pitagora

13. Gaspard Monge

14. Jean d'Alembert

15. Augustin Cauchy

16. Joseph Fourier

17. Pierre Fermat

18.John Napier

19. Blaise Pascal

20. Apollonius

21. Leonardo Fibonacci

22. François Viete

23. Ptolemy

24. Christiaan Huygens (Euler genealogy)

25. Regiomontanus26. Diophantus

27. Colin Maclaurin

28. Jacob Bernoulli (Bernoulli family)

29. Pappus

30. Bonaventura Cavalieri

31. Carl Jacobi

32. Johann Bernoulli (Bernoulli family)

33. John Wallis

34. William Hamilton

35. Niccolò Tartaglia

36. Heron

37. Jean-Victor Poncelet

38. Bernhard Riemann

39. Siméon Poisson

40. Niels Abel

41. Michel Chasles

42. Luigi Cremona

43. Gilles Roberval

44. Roger Boscovich

45. Galileo Galilei

46. Alexis Clairaut

47. Johann Lambert

48. Isaac Barrow

49. Jacques Strum

50. Simon Stevin51. Augustus de Morgan

52. Brook Taylor

53. Johannes Kepler

54. Daniel Bernoulli (Bernoulli family)

55. Girard Desargues

56. Henri Briggs

57. James Sylvester

58. Lazare Carnot

59. Pierre Maupertuis

60. Charles Babbage

61. Charles Hermite

62. Thales

63. Henry Smith

64. Sofia Kovalevskay

65. Luca Pacioli

66. Hippocrates (of Chois)

67. Gerbert

68. Alfred Clebsch

69. Julius Plucker

70. Hermann Grassmann

71. Peter Dirichlet

72. Arthur Cayley

73. Muhammed al-Khwārizmi

74. Roger Cotes

75. Abraham De Moivre76. George Boole

77. Karl Weierstrass

78. Sophus Lie

79. Nikolai Lobachevsky

80. Ahmes (the scribe)

81. Jean-Charles Borda

82. Eugenio Beltrami

83. Paolo Frisi

84. Evariste Galois

85. Evangelista Torricelli

86. Jean-Étienne Montucla

87. Otto Hesse

88. Jordanus de Nemore

89. Plato

90. Henri Poincare

91. Jakob Steiner

92. Edmond Halley

93. Andre Ampere

94. Guillaume L'Hospital

95. William Thomson

96. Boethius

97. Ehrenfried Tschirnhausen

98. Bhaskara II

99. Eratosthenes

100. Zeno of Elea

The key (Eells 100:#) is shorthand for each persons W.C. Eells ranking.

Allen's 1998 ranking

In 1998, American computer programmer (turned mathematics history hobbyist) James Allen decided to practice his HTML skills by making a listing of the top thirty greatest mathematicians listing. In his own words: [2]

“When I was first learning to create html pages, for some reason I chose to build a list of great mathematicians as a practice page, even though I wasn't qualified to make such a list without a lot of advice. Since then I've invested a lot of time reading mathematical histories and biographies and revising the page. I'm proud of it now: please read it! (With 60 mini-biographies, the single page has now grown to over 100 kilobites).”

Allen's ranking, as of 2012, has become Google search top result for "greatest mathematicians" and currently lists the 100 “Greatest Mathematicians of All Time”, ranked in approximate order of greatness, born before 1930, whose work has breadth, depth, and historical importance (the numbers in brackets being the position in Eells' 1962 ranking): [3]

1. Isaac Newton (1)

2. Archimedes (8)

3. Carl Gauss (7)

4. Leonhard Euler (4) (Euler genealogy)

5. Bernhard Riemann (38)

6. Euclid (6)

7. Henri Poincare (90)

8. Joseph Lagrange (3)

9. David Hilbert (0)

10. Gottfried Leibniz (2)

11. Alexandre Grothendieck (0)

12. Pierre Fermat (17)

13. Niels Abel (40)

14. Évariste Galois (84)

15. John Neumann (0)

16. Karl Weierstrass (77)

17. Rene Descartes (9)

18. Carl Jacobi (31)

19. Srinivasa Ramanujan (0)

20. Brahmagupta (0)

21. Augustin Cauchy (15)

22. Peter Dirichlet (71)

23. Hermann Weyl (0)

24. Eudoxus of Cnidus (0)

25. Georg Cantor (0)26. Muhammed al-Khwārizmi (73)

27. Arthur Cayley (72)

28.Emma Noether(0)

29. Pythagoras (0)

30. Leonardo Fibonacci (21)

31. Kurt Godel (0)

32. Aryabhata (0)

33. Charles Hermite (0)

34. Apollonius of Perga (0)

35. Blaise Pascal (19)

36. Pierre Laplace (5)

37. Richard Dedekind (0)

38. Diophantus (26)

39. William Hamilton (34)

40. Bháscara Áchárya (0)

41. Gaspard Monge (13)

42. George Boole (76)

43. Stefan Banach (0)

44. Jean d'Alembert (14)

45. Felix Klein (0)

46. Ferdinand Eisenstein (0)

47. Jacques Hadamard (0)

48. Francois Viete (22)

49. Johannes Kepler (53)

50. Elie Cartan (0)51. Jean-Victor Poncelet (37)

52. Archytas of Tarentum (0)

53. Jacob Bernoulli (28) (Bernoulli family)

54.

The shorthand (Allen 100:#) is key for each person's Allen top 100 mathematicians ranking.

Pickover's 2001 ranking In American science biographer Clifford Pickover's listing in his 2001 Wonders of Numbers: Adventures in Mathematics, Mind, and Meaning, in which he devotes a chapter to "A Ranking of the 10 Most Influential Mathematicians", based on, supposedly, surveys and interviews with mathematicians (the numbers in the brackets being the position in Eells' 1962 ranking and Allen's 1998 ranking, respectively): [4]1. Isaac Newton (1,1) Runners-up Girolamo Cardano, Kurt Godel, Georg Cantor, and John Napier. | Bellos 2010 top 10 The following is the 2010 listing of the “10 Best Mathematicians” by Brazilian mathematician Alex Bellos (author of the recent book Alex's Adventures in Numberland), ordered via ranking of "revolutionary discoveries said to have changed the world" (the numbers in the brackets being the position in Eells' 1962 ranking, Allen's 1998 ranking, and Pickover's 2001 ranking, respectively): [5]1. Pythagoras (0,29,0) The last three of which, to note, are still reactive (living) and seem to be more of celebrity mathematicians, rather than the "greatest" as history may show. |

The-Top-Tens.com’s 2012 listing

The following is the 2012 current ranking (by percentage vote) of The-Top-Tens.com’s listing of the “Greatest Mathematician of All Time”: [6]

1. Leonhard Euler (12%) (4,4,4,4)

2. Carl Gauss (10%) (7,3,2,5)

3. Archimedes (10%) (8,2,0,0)

4. Aryabhata (9%) (0,32,0,0)

5. Euclid (8%) (6,6,3,0)

6. Joseph Lagrange (6%) (3,8,0,0)

7. Gottfried Leibniz (6%) (2,10,0,0)

8. Pythagoras (3%) (0,29,0,1)

9. Rene Descartes (2%) (9,17,9,0)

10. Isaac Newton (1%) (1,1,1,0)

11. Felix Klein (9,45,0,0)

12. Brahmagupta (0,20,0,0)

13. Pierre Fermat (17,12,0,0)

14. Alexandre Grothendieck (0,11,0,0)

15. Augustin Cauchy (15,21,0,0)

16. Apollonius

17. Pierre Laplace (5,36,0,0)

18. Niles Abel (40,13,0,0)

19. John Neumann (0,15,0,0)

20. Henri Poincare (90,7,6,0)

21. Bernhard Riemann (38,5,7,0)

22. Bhascar Acharya

23. Évariste Galois (84,14,8,0)

24. David Hilbert (0,9,5,0)

25. Srinivasa Ramanujan (0,19,0,0)26. Karl Weierstrass

27. Peter Dirichlet

28. Omar Al Khayyam

29. Jean Serre

30. Georg Cantor (0,25,13,6)

31. Muhammad Al-Khowarizmi

32. Sridhar Acharya

33. Johannes Kepler (53,49,0,0)

34. Albert Einstein

35. Hippocrates

36. James Maxwell

37. Galileo Galilei

38. Jacob Steiner

39. Aristotle

40. Kurt Godel

41. Blaise Pascal (19,35,10,0)

42. Abu Biruni

43. Christiaan Huygens

44. Liu Hui

45. Nicolai Lobachevsky

46. Alex Clairaut

47. Jean Darboux

48. Panini

49. Johann Lambert

50. Hermann Minkowski51. Pafnuti Chebyshev

52. Charles Hermite

53. Richard Dedekind

54. George Boole

55. Andrey Kolmogorov

56. Jacob Bernoulli

57. Hipparchus

58. Alhazen

59. Godfey Hardy

60. Andrew Weil

61. Jean-Victor Poncelet

62. Jacques Hadamard

63. Francois Viate

64. Elie Cartan

The numbers in the brackets being the position in Eells' 1962 ranking, Allen's 1998 ranking, Pickover's 2001 ranking, Bellos's 2010 ranking, respectively.

A related greatest mathematician image made by Indian mathematician Vinod Sir. [7] Euler also gets extra ranking points for blowing out both his eyes in the name of the proof; see: genius page (section: "physical and mental over-stressing"). |

The following are notable and or relevant quotes:

“Taking mathematics from the beginning of the world to the time of Newton, what he has done is much the better half.”— Gottfried Leibniz (1700), told to the Queen of Prussia

“If we take the mathematics, and those mixed sciences to which they are applicable, it will be universally admitted that their most successful cultivators in France during the seventeenth century were Descartes, Pascal, Fermat, Gassendi, and Mersenne. Fermat, among these, was one of the most profound thinkers of the seventeenth century, particularly as a geometrician, in which respect he was second only to Descartes. The most important steps are those concerning thegeometryof infinites, applied to the ordinates and tangents of curves; which he completed in or before 1636.”— Henry Buckle (1856),History of Civilization, Volume One(pg. 499-50)

“Thegreatest mathematicians, as Archimedes, Newton, and Gauss, always united theory and applications in equal measure.”— Felix Klein (c.1900) (Ѻ)

“One of the properties inherent in mathematics is that any real progress is accompanied by the discovery and development of new methods and simplifications of previous procedures … The unified character of mathematics lies in its very nature; indeed, mathematics is the foundation of all exactnatural sciences.”— David Hilbert (c.1910), Publication [8]

“You will see it written that Hadamard was thelast of the universal mathematicians(see: last person to know everything) —the last, that is, to encompass the whole of the subject, before it became so large that this was impossible. However, you will also see this said of Hilbert, Poincare,Klein, and perhaps of one or two other mathematicians of the period. I don't know to whom the title most properly belongs, though I suspect the answer is actually Gauss.”— John Derbyshire (2003),Prime Obsession: Bernhard Riemann and the Greatest Unsolved Problem in Mathematics[9]

See also

● Greatest chemist ever ● Greatest physicist ever ● Greatest thermodynamicist ever ● Greatest philosopher ever ● Greatest engineer ever | ● Polymath ● Last person to know everything ● Universal genius ● Last universal genius | ● Genius IQs (top 1000 geniuses) ● IQ: 200+ | Smartest person ever ● IQ: 150+ | Smartest woman ever |

References

1. Eells, W.C. (1962). “100 Greatest Mathematicians of All Time” (link),

2. James Dow Allen (about) – FabPedigree.com.

3. Allen, James Dow. (1998). “The Greatest Mathematicians of All Time”, FabPedigree.com.

4. Pickover, Clifford. (2001).

5. Bellos, Alex. (2010). “The 10 Best Mathematicians”,

6. Greatest Mathematician of All Time (2012) – The-Top-Tens.com.

7. Leonard Euler (banner) – StandardTutorials.com.

8. Myint-U, TYn, and Debnath, Lokkenath. (2007).

9. Derbyshire, John. (2003).

External links

● Greatest mathematician of All Time (2009) – TheScienceForum.com.