# HMS pioneers

 Synthesis Depiction of the "evolution of the human molecule" by Canadian communications designer Shawn LaPaix, a spin on English biologist Thomas Huxley’s famous 1863 evolution of man drawing, using the 1952 CPK atomic color scheme: red = oxygen, blue = nitrogen, gray = hydrogen, black = carbon (not shown); for a poster for the 2005 University of British Columbia Art Gallery exhibit “The Human Body in History”, alluding to the idea that human is a body of evolving atoms, formed into the structure of a molecule, that has been chemically synthesized into its current form, over long spans of evolutionary time.
In science, HMS pioneers, or human molecular science pioneers, page chronologically lists the various 122+ pioneers of the science (or philosophy) of the human molecule; or hmol science, in short. The following 1991 query by American philosopher Robert Pirsig (IQ=170) gives a decent summary of an hmol science pioneer's perspective:

“Why should a group of simple, stable compounds of carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), and nitrogen (N), 'struggle' for billions of years to organize themselves into a professor of chemistry? What's the motive?”

This group includes individuals, categorized as human molecular theorists, who have pioneered the use of atomic reductionism, whether metaphorical, analogy, theoretical, or actual to the modeling of a human as human molecule or its derivative terms: human atom, human atomism, human chemical, human chemical element, human particle, social atom, social molecule, economic molecule, corporate molecule, etc., in theory or discussion, or specifically in the subjects of human chemistry, human physics, and human thermodynamics. The known human molecular science theorists and pioneers are listed below.

Key
A person's photo-size is indicative of a combination of originality, contribution density, impact, and deepness of theory insight: the largest photo width (75px) is indicative of an 'originator', someone who developed deep theory, on their own, directly from hard science, particularly physics or chemistry; the smallest photo size (25px) may indicate a one-time theory contributor (as little as one quote), or something to this effect; middle sized photos (44px) are indicative of thinkers in between these two ranges. The molecule manicon (31+) indicates that the individual used the specific term "human molecule" [s], which differs significantly than say comparing a person to a "point atom" or "human element". The lightbulb iconindicates from where that person learned of the concept. The YouTube iconlinks to a video on the topic. The University iconindicates that the concept (human molecule, human atomism, dissipative structure, etc.) is or has been taught as part of a university course. The globeicon links to a webpage on that person's human molecular theory (or its derivative) run by either that person (or a follower of that person's work). The Wikipediaicon links to a Wikipedia article on that person. Individuals highlighted with red tabs are objectors to human molecular theory (sixty-seven percent of detractors objecting on religious grounds). The religion iconis used to signify that the person intertwines their description of the human molecule, either for or against, religious grounds, e.g. that a human has a soul, whereas molecules don't. The atom symbol, links to a specific IQ page of tabulated historical IQ listings and signifies that the person is a certified genius (with a 200-range IQ plus or minus) or close friend of a certified genius.

Earlier HMS pioneers
The following is a chronological listing of core biographies in hmol science theories, ideas, and opinions professed up until the year 1800.:

 Pioneer Date Contribution Empedocles (495-435 BC)Greek philosopher 450BC Theorized that humans are 'entities' made of four elements: fire (), earth (), air (), water (), whose 'interactions' are governed by two forces: philia (●→|←●), i.e. attraction (or love) and neikos (←●|●→), i.e. repulsion (or hate). This was the first standard model of physics. Jean Sales (1741-1816)French philosopher 1789 (Voltaire) Quote: “we conclude that there exists a principle of the human body which comes from the great process in which so many millions of atoms of the earth become many millions of human molecules.” Johann Goethe (1749-1832)German polymath(IQ=230) 1799 Conceived a human chemical reaction theory in which relationships are chemical reactions in which people, as chemical entities, attract and reply, neutralize each other, separate again, and reestablish themselves; and in 1808, using Swedish chemist Torbern Bergman's 1775 chemistry textbook A Dissertation on Elective Attractions, as a basis, wrote out a 36-chapter novella, in which each chapter is a different human elective affinity reaction (human chemical reaction) occurring between the various characters; the process in which two people, A and B, in the state of a dull marriage union, AB (Bergman's notation), can be made to break apart by the introduction of a third single unattached human C, brought into the picture, is exactly same process, according to Goethe (see: chapter four), by which calcium carbonate $CaCO_3 \,$ can be broken up into its constituent parts, $Ca \,$ and $CO_3 \,$, by contact with sulfuric acid $H_2SO_4 \,$ to form gypsum $CaSO_4 \cdot 2H_2O \,$ and the release of carbon dioxide $CO_2 \,$ gas, the gas being representative of the displaced marriage partner, gypsum representative of the newly formed couple. Friedrich Schiller (1759-1805)German author (IQ=175) 1799 (Goethe) Goethe confided in him his theory that intimate relationships are chemical reactions in which people, as chemical entities, attract and reply, neutralize each other, separate again, and reestablish themselves.

19th century HMS pioneers
The following is a chronological listing of core biographies in hmol science theories, ideas, and opinions professed in the years 1800 to 1899:

 Pioneer Date Contribution Christoph Wieland (1733-1813)German poet and writer 1810 (Goethe) Considered the modeling of humans as chemicals to be "nonsense and childish fooling around". Humphry Davy (1778-1829)English chemist (IQ=185) 1813 Compared man to a "point atom", or point center of force. Alphonse Esquiros (1812-1876)French religious writer 1840 Argued: “unity can be held in effect by the assent of human molecules to carry all toward each other; the law of attraction is a law of love.” Hector Berlioz (1803-1869)French composer 1854 Compared the visual sight of a children's choir to that of a "crystal of human molecules." Henry Carey (1793-1879)American sociologist and economist 1858 Stated that: “man, the molecule of society, is the subject of social science”; explained how chemical affinity must govern human social movement and outlined a theory of social heat associated with the rubbing together of human molecules in daily activity; outlined a theory of social gravitation to explain how people attract into the aggregation of large cities, each mutual city acting as an attractive 'sun' with a certain brightness to it. Nassau Senior (1790-1864)English economist 1860 Quote: “humans obey laws nearly as certain as those which regulate matter.” [6] Hermann Helmholtz (1821-1894)German physicist and physician 1862 In his series of lectures entitled "On the Conservation of Force", delivered at the Carlsruhe, winter 1862-63, he made a comparison between the behavior of a swam of gnats and a system of gas particles, where by the particles were said to probably cross one another in rectilinear paths in all directions, until, striking another particle, or against the side of a vessel, they are reflected in another direction. Francois Massieu (1832-1896)French engineer c.1869 Quote: “they cut the man into two parts, soul and body, the philosopher took one, and another naturalist, they both have worked, studied on their behalf have lost sight and we find ourselves today in the presence of a duality, convenient perhaps, but unwise, in that it overlooked the man to deal with only two elements that constitute it. But in doing so we run the risk of being wrong. If one wanted to know the chemical properties of water $H_2 0 \,$, seek it in those of oxygen$O_2 \,$ and hydrogen $H_2 \,$? No, because he knows that there is little relationship between the characteristics of a substance and those of simple bodies which enter into its composition.” “To study humans, it is perhaps even more reserve, his corpse is certainly different from his living, his soul is a being whose morality tells us in existence, but whose philosophy can boast of acquire specific knowledge, since it can be studied in a free state, the revelation can only speak in this regard. But what science and philosophy can and should perhaps only study, is a man indivisible and tangible for us, where the angel and the beast are inseparable, which has a body and ailments, but also passions and faculties, such as intelligence, memory and reason.” Hippolyte Taine (1828-1893)French historian 1869 Presented the view that objective of the historian is to "write the psychology of the human molecule, or a particular group of human molecules, in their various transformations." Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910)Russian writer 1869 (Buckle) Quote: “A particle of matter cannot tell us that it is unconscious of the laws of attraction and repulsion and that the law is not true; but man, who is the subject of history, says bluntly: I am free, and am therefore not subject to laws.” Antoine Poincare (1825-date) French civil engineer and meteorologist c.1870 In his book On Science, chapter "New Concepts of Matter", made a comparison between the behavior of a cluster of midges and a system of gas molecules. [1] Thomas Huxley (1825-1895)English biologist 1871 Outlined the view that society as a whole is a "social molecule" 13. Ludwig Boltzmann (1844-1906)Austrian physicist 1872 (Buckle) Quote: “molecules are like to many individuals, having the most various states of motion, and the properties of gases only remain unaltered because the number of these molecules which on average have a given state of motion is constant.” [5] 14. James Maxwell (1831-1879)Scottish mathematical physicist(IQ=210) 1873 (Buckle) “These uniformities which we observed in our experiments with quantities of matter containing millions of molecules are uniformities of the same kind as those explained by Laplace [material points] and wondered at by Buckle [people] arising from the slumping together of multitudes of causes each of which is by no means uniform with the others.” [5] 15. Leon Walras (1834-1910)French sociologist and economist c.1874 Viewed people as "economic molecules". 16. Ernst Gryzanowski (1824-1888)German physician and diplomat 1875 (Taine) Quote: “Civil law, commerce, political economy, and international ethics are all based on the assumption that the social body consists of such human molecules, and there is no reason why the methods of physical science should not be applied to the statics and dynamics of that society, the passions and rights of the individual man corresponding exactly to the chemical and physical forces inherent in the material molecule.” 17. Henry Adams (1838-1918)American historian 1885 (Taine) Defined 'social chemistry' as the study of the attraction [and repulsion] of equivalent 'human molecules'; applied the chemical thermodynamics phase rule work of Willard Gibbs to society (1909); outlined a second law version of history studies of human molecules (1910), in which contractions of human molecules act like suns to create energy opposite to entropy. 18. Ferdinand Schiller (1864-1937)German-British philosopher 1891 In his Riddles of the Sphinx, outlined philosophical views on sex and love in relation to social life, wherein he considers people as atoms and bound sets of humans in relationships as molecules; specifically describing the couple in love as a 'human molecule'; he discusses the forces of attractions and repulsions at work in the most intimate unions, such as jealously. 19. Max Leclerc (1864-1932)French education reformer 1894 (Taine) Views that France, in its schools and military, consists of “even numbered piles of human molecules, in a huge wheel turning, under the pedal of the stroke of the Minister, which crushes and destroys humanity down to the pulp.” 20. Leon Winiarski (1865-1915) Polish economist and sociologist c.1894 (Walrus) Quote: “a social aggregate is nothing but a system of points, i.e. individuals, who are in perpetual movement of approaching or withdrawing from one another.” 21. Vilfredo Pareto (1848-1923)French-Italian mathematical engineer 1896 (Walrus) Quote: “Society is a system of human molecules in a complex mutual relationship.” 22. William Ramsay (1852-1916)Scottish chemist 1898 Noted for his ‘football players’ explanation of kinetic theory, where the players are likened to a ‘throng of human molecules’. 23. Albion Small (1854-1926)American sociologist 1899 Outlined the possibility of defining "general sociology", on the model of "general chemistry", as the study of "human atoms" and their behaviors.

20th century HMS pioneers
The following is a chronological listing of core biographies in hmol science theories, ideas, and opinions professed in the years 1900 to 1999:

21st century HMS pioneers
The following is a chronological listing of core biographies in hmol science theories, ideas, and opinions professed in 2000 or later:.

References
1. (a). Poitevin, Bernard. (1995). “Mechanism of Action of Homeopathic Medicines: Recent findings and Hypothesis 1. Physicochemical Mechanisms.” British Homeopathic Journal, 84: 32-39.
(b) Thims, Libb. (2007). Human Chemistry (Volume One) (Poitevin, pg. 29; Helmholtz, Poincare, pg. 136). Morrisville, NC: LuLu.
(c) Pointevin, Bernard. (c.2001). “Homeopathy: Experimental Evidence” (French → English), Entretines-du-carla.com.
2. (a) Gardiner, Martin. (2010). “Inside the IoHT: I am not a molecule (parts 1, 2, 3, 4)”, Improbable Research, Jun 04-06.
(b) Martin Gardiner (about) – Improbable.com.
3. Gladyshev Georgi P. (2006). "The Principle of Substance Stability is Applicable to all Levels of Organization of Living Matter", International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Vol. 7, pgs. 98-110 (quote pg. 107).
5. Ball, Philip. (2004). Critical Mass - How One Thing Leads to Another (Maxwell quote, pg. 68; Boltzmann quote, pg. 69). New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
6. Senior, Nassau W. (1860). "Opening address of Nassau W. Senior, Esq.,...", Journal of the Statistical Society of London, 23:359; cited in Philip Ball (2004), page 6.
8. (a) Prigogine, Ilya. (1980). From Being to Becoming (pg. 106). W.H. Freeman.
(b) Ball, Philip. (2004). Critical Mass - How One Thing Leads to Another (quote, pg. #). Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
10. (a) Gash, Chris (illustrator) and Fountain, Henry (writer). (2009). “Experiments Show that Molecules Can Walk, but Can They Dance?”, New York Times, Science, Apr 07.
(b) Chris Gash (about) – ChrisGash.com.
11. Greg. (2010). “Complicated Molecules”, Brother Greg’s Buffet, Jul 21, WordPress.com.
14. Aguado, Juan. (2009). Technology and Social Complexity (pg. 31). EDITUM.