Physicochemical Humanities (torch) 2
A physicochemical humanities / hmolscience annotated “torch of knowledge” illustration, from William Whewell’s 1840 The Philosophy of the Inductive Sciences, with its noted chapter section: The Establishment and Development of the Idea of Chemical Affinity, which touches on Herman Boerhaave’s famous paradoxical quote on love and affinities; [1] Note: image seems to reflect William Yeats’ circa 1905 quote (Ѻ) on education and fire.
In quotes, hmolscience quotes are two cultures reconciling, hmolscience-themed, one nature aiming, physicochemical humanities (or physicochemical sociology) related quotes, supporting the integration of the humanities and physics, chemistry, and thermodynamics. [N1]

19th century
The following is a work-in-progress listing of 19th century hmolscience-themed, one nature aiming, quotes supporting the integration of the humanities and physics, chemistry, and thermodynamics:

“People who love each other mix like water and wine; people who hate each other segregate like water and oil.”
Empedocles (450BC), Fragments

“When a solvent dissolves a solvent, the mechanical action is not a force, by violence, nor private hatred thought about, but of friendship, if ‘love’ is to be called their union, in the desire for a praise. Yes, this is a paradoxical assertion.”
Herman Boerhaave (1732), Publication; note: Goethe, in his 20s, studied Boerhaave's chemical philosophy, with interest

“How I look forward to the effect that this [physicochemical-based] novel will have in a few years on many people upon rereading it.”
Johann Goethe (1809), comment (see: timeline) to Karl Reinhard

“There is some truth in Boerhaave's poetic comparison: [that] [force of chemical affinity] is “love, if love be the desire for marriage”.
Jean Dumas (1837), commentary on Herman Boerhaave’s 1732 supposition

“Just as man and woman attract one another, so oxygen O2 attracts hydrogen H2 [and] just as a steam engine produces motion, so the intricate organic complex of force-bearing substance in an animal organism produces a total sum of certain effects.”
Ludwig Buchner (1855), Force and Matter: Principles of the Natural Order of the Universe, with a System of Morality Based Thereon

Sociology“In the inorganic world we find the power of combination growing with the increase of differences. Place a thousand atoms of oxygen in a receiver, and they will remain motionless; but introduce a single atom of carbon, and excite their affinities for each other, and at once motion will be produced. Such being the case in regard to all other matter, it must be so in regard to those combinations in which man is concerned, indicated by the term society.”
George Carey (1858), Principles of Social Science (§8: On The Formation of Society)

“A particle of matter cannot tell us that it is unconscious of the laws of attraction and repulsion and that the law is not true; but man, who is the subject of history, says bluntly: I am free, and am therefore not subject to laws.”
Leo Tolstoy (1869), War and Peace

“Every society, great or small, resembles ... a complex molecule, in which the atoms are represented by men, possessed of all those multifarious attractions and repulsions which are manifested in their desires and volitions, the unlimited power of satisfying which we call freedom ... the social molecule exists in virtue of the renunciation of more or less of this freedom by every individual. It is decomposed, when the attraction of desire leads to the resumption of that freedom the expression of which is essential to the existence of the social molecule. The great problem of social chemistry we call politics, is to discover what desires of mankind may be gratified, and what must be suppressed, if the highly complex compound, society, is to avoid decomposition.”
Thomas Huxley (1871), “Administrative Nihilism”

“Civil law, commerce, political economy, and international ethics are all based on the assumption that the social body consists of such human molecules, and there is no reason why the methods of physical science should not be applied to the statics and dynamics of that society, the passions and rights of the individual man corresponding exactly to the chemical and physical forces inherent in the material molecule.”
Ernst Gryzanowski (1875), commentary on the social physics of Auguste Comte

Social chemistry—the mutual attraction of equivalent human molecules—is a science yet to be created, for the fact is my daily study and only satisfaction in life.”
Henry Adams (1885), Letter to his wife

Sociology“General chemistry is sometimes defined as ‘the science of atoms and their behavior.’ The same chemists who use this definition acknowledge that they have never discovered the hypothetical ‘free atom.’ The only close likeness in this respect that I can discover between general sociology and general chemistry or biology is in the fact that we must use the conception of human individuals, although we can find no such object in reality as the free individual. If we should describe sociology as ‘the science of human individuals and their behavior’ we should be in verbal uniformity with one way of defining chemistry; but I do not see any profit from that fact in the shape of more knowledge about society. Unless we are willing however, to take as our ultimate concept ‘the human atom,’ ‘the individual,’ ‘the social man,’ or whatever we may choose to name the irreducible element in societary combinations, I see nothing but arbitrariness in the plan of adopting a ‘unit of inquiry.’ Is it not a purely gratuitous assumption that at present sociology needs or can use a unit of inquiry in the sense to which Professor Lindsay seems most to incline?”
Albion Small (1899), critique of Samuel Lindsay’s 1898 discussion of units in sociology

20th century
The following is a work-in-progress listing of 20th century hmolscience-themed, one nature aiming, quotes supporting the integration of the humanities and physics, chemistry, and thermodynamics:

“I must confess to being proud that this book is the first work to take up [Goethe’s human chemical] ideas.”
Otto Weininger (1903), Sex and Character

Education“There are men who would be better off in a small village than in a large town, if you had some sort of human chemical reaction to determine in advance which man's nature was suited to the smaller place and which to the larger.”
Henry Pritchett (1906), on “Large vs. Small Colleges”

“I’m sorry Lord Kelvin (1824-1907) is dead. I would travel a few thousand-million miles to discuss with him the thermodynamics of socialistic society.”
Henry Adams (1909), Letter to English lawyer Charles Gaskell (1909)

HistoryThe time may come when human affairs may be described no longer by words and sentences, but by a system of symbols or notation similar to those used in algebra or chemistry … then it may be possible, as Adams suggests, to invent a common formula for thermodynamics and history.”
William Thayer (1918), “Vagaries of Historians”, Annual Report of the American Historical Association

“Perhaps our genius for unity will some time produce a science so broad as to include the behavior of a group of electrons and the behavior of a university faculty, but such a possibility seems now so remote that I for one would hesitate to guess whether this wonderful science would be more like mechanics or like a psychology.”
Gilbert Lewis (1925), Anatomy of Science

Human masses transmute energies of hunger and sex into various social, economic, and aesthetic or intellectual forms, the transformation proceeding entirely according to the laws of thermodynamics.”
Howard W. Odum (1929), on Leon Winiarski’s 1894 theory

“Thus human molecules gravitate toward one another through association, which generates heat, which produces motion, which in turn constitutes progress. This gravitation is measurable through physical laws of direct ratio to mass and inverse ratio to distance. Forms and process such as centralization and decentralization come about through the operation of centripetal and centrifugal forces with association and progress varying inversely as the differences between the units and groups of populations …”
Howard W. Odum (1929), on Henry Carey’s 1858 theory

“It can be shown that in all cases, that human molecules rise and fall within the class into which they are born, in a manner which fits the hypothesis that they do so because of their relative aptitudes; and it can also be shown, second, that they rise and fall across the boundary lines of their class in the same manner. This rise and fall into higher and lower classes as a rule takes more than one generation. These molecules are therefore families rather than individuals. And this explains why observers who focus attention on individuals so frequently fail to find any relation between ability and class position.”
Joseph Schumpeter (1942), Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy

Energy among molecules is like money among men. The rich are few, the poor numerous.”
Emyr Hughes (1947), The Kinetics of Reactions in Solutions (see: Pareto principle)

“Watch groups of people working or playing together and you will be startled to discover how ‘chemical’ are their reactions to one another. Once you acquire even rudiments of human chemistry, you will be baffled less often by people, and become impatient or angry less often at the (to you) annoying things they do. You will see and judge them for what they are—different kinds of human chemicals, obeying the laws of their natures as you and I obey the laws of our natures.”
Thomas Dreier (1948), We Human Chemicals (Ѻ)

Economics“While it was long possible and sometimes tempting for physicists to deny the usefulness of the molecular hypothesis, we economists have the good luck of being some of the ‘molecules’ of economic life ourselves, and of having the possibility through human contacts to study the behavior of other ‘molecules’ (see: human molecular hypothesis)…. If we will be more forthcoming with explanations of our cherished terms, our science colleagues may be more inclined to help us with ‘entropy’, which to me is a more difficult concept than anything economics has to offer.”
Tjalling Koopmans (1947/79), collected work (aggregate quote)

SociologyWhy should no social chemistry ever been developed?” He states that “nobody would suggest that the social scientists should imitate meteorology, for this discipline does not appear to have got very far … but what about chemistry? A sociology based on chemistry [has] in fact been called for, but, significantly, [this call has] found no echo. It would have been easy to take up this suggestion and develop it further. An intending social chemist would have found it one whit more difficult to manufacture a sociological parallel to the Boyle-Charles law than Haret did to the Newtonian propositions. But the experiment appears never to have been tried. Why?”
Werner Stark (1962), commentary on Thomas Huxley’s 1871 call for the development of the field of social chemistry

Anthropology“Adapting thermodynamic ideas to the study of culture is limited by a very simple fact: nobody has yet figured out what might be the cultural equivalent of heat or energy … nobody has yet found the ‘heat’ or the ‘energy’ in cultural matters … the concepts of ‘cultural temperature’ (see: social temperature) to refine our understanding of ‘cultural heat’ (see: social heat) have not yet appeared. This is one of the most pressing problems for the next generation of anthropologists, and the difficulties are profound.”
Paul Bohannan (1995), How Culture Works

“The thought that the dry and forbidding discipline of thermodynamics could be applied to that most theory-defying of all applications, human behavior, may be staggering, and perhaps heresy to some. After all, the purity and precision of thermodynamics has been maintained on the strength of its validity only as a collection of limiting laws for infinitely large systems undergoing infinitely slow changes. However, the interest in thermodynamics has always been based on the great relevance for finite real systems undergoing changes that are fast on our everyday time scale and slow only on the microscopic time scale of atomic motion. Thus we are merely extending the beam of insight from the lifeless behaviors of inanimate matter to the vivid complexities of human behavior. In the final analysis this far-reaching analogy rests on the fact that the basic elements of the description of atoms, molecules, and matter can be scaled up to the realm of living organisms without changes other than in the complexity of the systems and their behavior.”
Sture Nordholm (1997), “In Defense of Thermodynamics: an Animate Analogy”

21th century
The following is a work-in-progress listing of 21th century hmolscience-themed, one nature aiming, quotes supporting the integration of the humanities and physics, chemistry, and thermodynamics:

“There is a reaction beyond every event or occurrence. It is the consequence. The reactions keep following the initial action. When two chemicals are combined under certain conditions, there always is a reaction product. The new product is different than the original chemical. Nature works constantly to produce new substances from basic chemicals in an efficient manner. A subtle light impulse from the sun converts basic water and carbon dioxide into multi-chain complexes every moment, all over the world. The key thought here is simply that the impulse of energy which is almost too small to measure, the photon, results in providing fuel and food in millions of tons each year. The natural chemical reaction is analogous to the problem which is undermining our society. It closely resembles what is happening around us. It takes a lot of imagination to declare the idea.”
James Morgia (2001), Life Long Human Values

“Modern thermodynamics in macroscopic region (but not for the universe) may be ‘the only physical theory of universal content’, as Einstein said, so it should be used not only for the natural sciences but also for the social sciences and even philosophy. Many economic and social activities are subordinate to statistical rules and therefore also to thermodynamic rules. Any substantial progress in thermodynamics might affect social science. An equilibrium state, for instance, has been regarded as an ideal state for getting the highest efficiency for energy transformation, but in any equilibrium state there is not macroscopic process run. Based on modern thermodynamics mentioned in this book, the nondissipative state is of more extended meaning than the equilibrium state. In an ideal nonequilibrium state, macroscopic process(es) might still be going on without any free energy dissipation, i.e., with the highest efficiency. If such a basic new idea were widely accepted, it will promote human society developing with higher efficiency.”
Jitao Wang (2002), Nonequilibrium Nondissipative Thermodynamics (§:Modern Thermodynamics in Social Science and Philosophy)

“There seem to be ‘laws’ [of] social systems that have at least something of the character of natural physical laws, in that they do not yield easily to planned and arbitrary interventions. Over the past several decades, social, economic and political scientists have begun a dialogue with physical and biological scientists to try to discover whether there is truly a ‘physics of society, and if so, what its laws and principles are. In particular, they have begun to regard complex modes of human activity as collections of many interacting ‘agents’—somewhat analogous to a fluid of interacting atoms or molecules, but within which there is scope for decision-making, learning and adaptation.”
Philip Ball (2003), “The Physics of Society”, talk delivered at the London School of Economics

“The human being is one big molecule, a mega-molecule, whose most fundamental behaviors are governed by the same electro-chemical principles governing the micro-molecules which make up our bodies.”
Rohann Solare (2009), “The Atomic-Molecular Foundations of a Social Physics: Self-organizing Systems from Atoms to Humans”

“The shifting of alliances and rivalries in a social group can be viewed as arising from an energy minimization process.”
Steven Strogatz (2009), “Energy Landscape of Social Balance”

Entropy is an idea that applies to populations of humans as well as of molecules.”
Arthur Jonath and Richard Goldwater (2009)

Business“When a critical mass of employees [activate] (usually, 5 or 10 percent is all you need), throughout the company, it creates a kind of fusion – a coming together of the human particles in the corporate molecule that releases a massive amount of energy.”
Vineet Nayar (2010), Employees First, Customers Second

“Like atoms in a molecule, we’re all linked together. Studying the complex matrix that results can illuminate everything from bucket brigades to Bernie Madoff.”
Nicholas Christakis (2010), Interview: “The Chemistry of Social Networks”

N1. This page is an outgrowth of the "hmolscience" section of the Libb Thims (quotes) page, collected as Thims was going through Hmolpedia in preparation for hardcover print stage.

1. Whewell, William. (1840). The Philosophy of the Inductive Sciences: Founded Upon Their History, Volume One (Book 4, §2: The Establishment and Development of the Idea of Chemical Affinity, pgs. 373-87; "si amor dicendus copulae cupido", pg. 375; Dumas, pg. 379). John W. Parker.

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