Human free energy (diagram)
“To create [synthesize] a [human] out of nothing and place him on the table, the [universe] need not summon up the entire enthalpy, H = U + PV. Some energy equal to TS, can flow in spontaneously as heat; the [universe] must provide only the difference, G = H – TS, as work.”
Daniel Schroeder (2000), Thermal Physics [4]

A simplified depiction of the relationship between Gibbs free energy G, its components: enthalpy H and transformation content energy TS, and the “creation” (i.e. synthesis) of a human (i.e. human molecule).
In human thermodynamics, human free energy or "human Gibbs free energy" is the measure of the Gibbs free energy, Gibbs free energy change, or differential of Gibbs free energy of human chemical reactions (see: human chemical reaction theory). [1]

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Gibbs free energy of formation
See main: Free energy of formation
The so-called "standard human Gibbs free energy of formation" is the standard Gibbs free energy of formation of a given human molecule (person) or human molecular configuration (bound state of humans), e.g. a specific dihumanide molecule, in a given state (time) or point of detachment synthesis (birth), as would be listed on a standard free energy table (or human free energy table).

Other synonyms variants include: human available energy (see: available energy), human Gibbs free energy, or social Gibbs free energy or social free energy (sociological thermodynamics), economic Gibbs free energy or economic free energy (economic thermodynamics), among others.

The following table (culled from 500+ thinkers of the HT pioneers table) shows the outline of the top 40+ thinkers in the historical development of the utilization, or in some cases objection (shown in red), of free energy, Helmholtz free energy, or Gibbs free energy (correct thermodynamic potential for social systems) in social theory, economic theory, or in human chemical thermodynamics proper:


Those with red tabs are "detractors" or vocal objectors to free energy theory being applied to human existence.

Those with green tabs are thinkers lost in Erwin Hiebert's "garden of thermodynamics", promoting either meta-physical theories, theology-slanted ideas, or misunderstood versions of thermodynamics "used in ways that transgress the limits of credulity to the point of sheer ridiculousness."

1.Goethe 75 newJohann Goethe
German polymath

1799molecule man 35|sex icon|Chemical reaction icon|evolution icon|RIP icon|Love icon|philosophy 39x20|Beauty icon 15x21|Scales icon 26x20|man digging icon|caged bird icon|Freedom icon 18x20  A = - \Delta G \,In 1768, at the age of nineteen was conducting chemical experiments to find the principles that permeate the entire universe; in 1799, arrived at the view that the force of affinity operates in human relationships, via attracting, repelling, and neutralizing individuals; in 1809, arrived at his "moral symbols" theory of humanity, as explained via 36 chapters in his famed novella Elective Affinities, as is depicted in 1882 Helmholtz equation terms (adjacent equation).
2.Sigmund Freud 75 youngSigmund Freud
Austrian psychiatrist
1895Psychology iconHis draft of a “Project for Scientific Psychology” outlined a hard science version of psychology based on thermodynamics and mechanical theory, in which he postulated that “in the future psychologists will exercise a direct influence, by means of particular chemical substances, on the amounts of energy and their distribution in the mental apparatus”; in this project it is said that he gave his first outline of his Helmholtz school views on ‘bound energy’ and ‘unbound energy’ (or free energy) in the states of consciousness; this framework formed the basis of his entire twenty-four volume volume collected works; some of his thermodynamics ideas are said to show through in his 1920 Beyond the Pleasure Principle; the gist of his psychodynamics theory are found in his 1923 The Ego and the Id, in which he outlines a heat engine model of the mind via an id, ego, super-ego force theory of subconscious drives.
3.William Bayliss 75William Bayliss
English physiologist
1915philosophy 39x20|Bazooka joe iconIn his Principles of General Physiology, he re-interpreted Wilhelm Ostwald’s 1912 energetic imperative (the thermodynamic imperative version of Kant's original 1785 categorical imperative), rather interestingly, having a decent grasp of the views of Willard Gibbs (available energy) and Hermann Helmholtz (free energy and bound energy), as not being solely based on the first law, but on both the first and second law, whereby the imperative should yield a rule is how one should act "morally" within the confines of universal rule, as follows:

“It is plain that, of the energy contained in a system, only that part which can do work is of value. This principle was applied by Willard Gibbs (1878, pp. 216, etc.). Helmholtz (1882, p. 33) made the important distinction between "free" and "bound" energy. Clausius, at the end of a fundamental paper (Pogg. Annalen, cxxv. p. 400, 1865), formulates the two laws of energetics as follows:

I. The energy content of the universe is a constant quantity.
II. The entropy of the universe is always striving to a maximum.

The word "entropy" is here used as having essentially the same meaning as the "bound" energy of Helmholtz. The law is therefore equivalent to the statement that "free " energy is always striving to a minimum. The fact, derived from universal experience, that free energy always tends to diminish, if it possibly can, is sometimes known as the "principle of Carnot and Clausius". It was also enunciated, about the same time as the publication of the paper of Clausius (referred to above), by William Thomson under the name of the "Dissipation of Energy." The principle has obviously a great practical, as well as philosophical, importance. It has been made by Ostwald (1912) the basis of a general rule of conduct, which he calls the "Imperative of Energetics." The rule may be translated thus:

Waste not free energy; treasure it and make the best use of it.

As will be admitted, the admonition is an excellent one, and, when applied, leads to interesting results, as may be seen from the collection of essays under this name. To mention two subjects only, which are amongst those discussed, the waste involved in war and the value of a universal standard for the sizes of printed books.”

Here, in short, Bayliss states that the concept of "free energy" has great philosophical value, one example of which he gives is that it can be applied to warfare (see: war thermodynamics).
4.Lawrence Henderson 75Lawrence Henderson (1878-1942)
American physical chemist, physiologist, and sociologist
1917His The Order of Nature, gives an outline of how Herbert Spencer needs to be overhauled via a combination of Willard Gibbs and Charles Darwin; into the 1930s, he leads the Harvard Pareto circle, wherein he teaches a Gibbs-based Sociology 23, among other endeavors along these lines.
5. Erwin Bauer 75Erwin Bauer
Hungarian-born Russian pathologist and physical biologist
1920 F' - F = \sum_{i=0}^n X_i \frac{\Delta x_i}{\Delta t} \Delta t - \sum_{i=0}^n X'_i \frac{\Delta x'_i}{\Delta t} \Delta t \, His The Fundamental Principles of Biological Science introduces what has come to be known as the Bauer principle, which states that:

“The living and only the living systems are never in equilibrium, and, on the debit of their free energy, they continuously invest work against the realization of the equilibrium which should occur within the given outer conditions on the basis of the physical and chemical laws.”

and goes on to discuss this in terms of the time derivative of work factors—differences in pressure, concentration, electrical potential, etc., such as in the equation shown.
6.John von NeumannJohn Neumann
Hungarian-born American mathematician and chemical engineer
1932Economics icon|Life icon|information iconHis review of Georges Guillaume's 1932 economic thermodynamics dissertation, concluded that: "if this [economic-thermodynamic] analogy can be worked out at all, the analogon of ‘entropy’ must be sought in the direction of ‘liquidity’. To be more specific: if the analogon of ‘energy’ is ‘value’ of the estate of an economical subject, then analogon of its thermodynamic ‘free energy’ should be its ‘cash value’." (see: human thermodynamic variable table); his followup 1932 article “A Model of General Economic Equilibrium”, derives a function φ (X, Y) related to the production of goods, based on the model of thermodynamic potentials, and is considered a classic; his late 1940s symposium lectures (1948) on electrical automatons illustrated the role which free energy plays in creating statistically unlikely configurations of matter; his ill-fated late 1940s suggestion to American electrical engineer Claude Shannon (1949) to call telegraph wire binary logic ("information") of transmissions of high and low voltage pulses by the name “entropy”, as a joke, has resulted to instill a misinformed modern view that binary logic is based on thermodynamic (steam engine) theory.
7.Prigogine 75Ilya Prigogine
Russian-born Belgian chemist and thermodynamicist
Nobel Prize icon|Bifurcation icon|arrow of time icon|evolution icon|Life icon|sociology icon 29x20|philosophy 39x20|No determinism 18x20Prigogine viewAfter reading Henri Bergson’s famous 1907 Creative Evolution, at the age of twenty, he began to devote himself to solving the riddle of the relationship between time, human existence, thermodynamics, and evolution, starting with three articles: “Essay on Physical Philosophy”, “The Problem of Determinism”, and “The Evolution”, on the topics of determinism, quantum mechanics, biological evolution, and time; completed his PhD on The Thermodynamics of Irreversible Phenomena (1941), under Theophile de Donder; obtained cult status and "disciples" with his 1977 Self-Organization in Non-Equilibrium Systems: from Dissipative Structures to Order through Fluctuations (the year he also won the Nobel Prize for his theories); and obtained layperson icon status with his 1984 Order Out of Chaos; went on to published numerous articles, books, and lectures on his theories up until the year of his death (Is the Future Given?, 2003); in his 1977 lecture, entitled “Time, Structure and Fluctuations”, he infamously opened to the query:

“Thermodynamic equilibrium may be characterized by the minimum of the Helmholtz free energy defined usually by: F = E – TS. Are most types of ‘organisations’ around us of this nature? It is enough to ask such a question to see that the answer is negative. Obviously in a town, in a living system, we have a quite different type of functional order. To obtain a thermodynamic theory for this type of structure we have to show that that non-equilibrium may be a source of order. Irreversible processes may lead to a new type of dynamic states of matter which I have called ‘dissipative structures’. (see: bifurcation)

This argument was first outlined, to note, in his 1972 "Thermodynamics of Evolution".
8.Mehdi Bazargan 75Mehdi Bazargan
Iranian mechanical engineer and thermodynamicist
 W = U - TS \,
Love icon|man digging icon|Religion icon 20x27|RIP icon|caged bird icon Completed his PhD in thermodynamics (1930s); wrote on “The Thermodynamics of Love” (c.1942); in his Labor in Islam (1946), wrote a chapter on physiological thermodynamics of human labor in the context of will power; during a five-month prison spell (for political opposition), wrote the Human Thermodynamics (1956), the first book entitled “human thermodynamics”, wherein he used a thermodynamics based framework, in particular Helmholtz free energy equation (adjacent) to explain Islam, work, death, desire, love, and reincarnation scientifically.
9.Schrodinger 75Erwin Schrödinger (1887-1961)
Austrian physicist and statistical thermodynamicist
1943Nobel Prize icon|Life icon - (\text{entropy}) = k \log \frac{1}{D} \,Won 1933 Nobel Prize in physics (for his 1925 Schrodinger equation, one of the cornerstones of quantum mechanics); his famous Feburary 1943 course of lectures (turned-book), entitled What is Life? (1944), on the subject of the physics and chemistry of "life", presented under the auspices of the Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, delivered at Trinity College, Dublin, before an audience of about 400 that did not dwindle, he set out to answer the query:

“How can the events in space and time which take place with the spatial boundary of a living organism be accounted for by physics and chemistry?”

he popularized the notion that "dead matter" or inert matter is defined as the state of thermodynamic equilibrium or of "maximum entropy" in which no observable events occur; and in this context situated the paradoxical idea that the "negative value of entropy" (-S or "negative entropy") is a measure of "order" of the body in question; and that life is something that "feeds on negative entropy"; after which, however, he was attacked by his physicist colleagues, replying (in his appended "note to chapter 6") that:

“The remarks on negative entropy have met with doubt and opposition from physicist colleagues. Let me say that if I had been catering for them alone I should have let the discussion turn on free energy instead. It is the more familiar notion in this context. But this highly technical term seemed linguistically too near to energy for making the average reader alive to the contrast between the two things.”

He would later publish the famous 1946 Statistical Thermodynamics (based on his 1944 lectures) on statistical thermodynamics (and or statistical mechanics).
10.Jack Kirkaldy 75Jack Kirkaldy
Canadian materials science engineer
1965Kirkaldy free energy equationHis “Thermodynamics of the Human Brain” outlines a free energy minimization principle of brain operation, consciousness, and development based on the equation shown, where dF/dt is the rate of increase of free energy (or Gibbs free energy, which he says equates to both information and negentropy), jF is the excess of free energy inflow over outflow, and TdiS/dt is the rate of dissipation of free energy within the system, where diS is the rate of entropy production; he even gives a figure 1 (shown) as his thermodynamic system model of the brain;Kirkaldy's thermodynamic model of the brain his followup “Thermodynamics of Terrestrial Evolution” argues that the “causal element of biological evolution and development can be understood in terms of a potential function which is generalized from the variational principles of irreversible thermodynamics.”
11.John Tukey 75John Tukey
American chemist, mathematician, and statistician
1966Developed a chemical thermodynamics based model of "attitude change", based on the theory of absolute reaction rates, wherein each state of a chemical entity is characterized by a "free energy level", and each boundary between states by a free energy level that is higher than the levels of the state it separates; in the model, transitions occur between states. Tukey, to note, was a close associate of John Neumann (1934), another human free energy theorist.
12.Roegen 75Nicholas Georgescu
Romanian-born American mathematician
1966Economics iconPublished an introductory essay on the relation between entropy and economics; his highly-cited 1971 book The Entropy Law and the Economic Process, situated a material entropy theory which argued that economic systems are governed by the second law, albeit he misinterpreted bound energy and free energy, to mean that, in economic terms, available energy stored in fossil fuels tends to be used up over time and converted into an unusable form of waste heat or energy.
13.Arthur Iberall 75Arthur Iberall
American physicist-engineer
1971molecule man 35|Life icon|sociology icon 29x20Helmholtz free energyBeginning with his Toward a General Science of Viable Systems, to his 1974 Bridges in Science: from Physics to Social Science, among about a dozen others, culminating with his 1993 Foundations for Social and Biological Evolution (co-written with David Wilkinson and Douglas White), he utilizes a large amount of thermodynamics derivation, such as equation shown (which he incorrectly defines as the "Gibbs free energy function"; correctly it is the Helmholtz free energy) to outlined a rather detailed, intricate (e.g. discussing chemical potential), and interesting systems-within-systems theory of dynamical change, defining people as “human atomisms”, using theories such as homeokinetics, field thermodynamics, i.e. the Hamiltonian applied to sociology and biology, among others extended into sociology and economics.
14.Frederick Rossini 75Frederick Rossini (1899-1990)
American chemical thermodynamicist
1971Government icon\ln K = -\frac{\Delta H^\circ}{R} \left( \frac{1}{T} \right)+\frac{\Delta S^\circ}{R}|Freedom icon 18x20Argued that the equilibrium constant version of the Gibbs equation (shown) explains the paradox between "freedom" and "security" in social life, in a chemical thermodynamics sense; this controversial hypothesis resulted three decades later to launch the 2006 Rossini debate on whether or not this human chemical thermodynamics framework is true, especially in a post 9/11 world.
15.Norman Dolloff 75Norman Dolloff
American metallurgical engineering geologist
16.Melvin Klegerman 75Melvin Klegerman
American immunochemist
17.Hugh J. McDonald
American metallurgical and biochemist
18.Ed Stephan 75Ed Stephan
American chemistry major turned political scientist and sociologist
1977 E = ST - pV + \mu N \,Interjected into a talk on human population distributions with physicist Louis Barrett on questions such as whether “humans are fermions or boson”; in 1980, began to discuss with chemist George Gerhold the subject of how the a Gibbs fundamental equation (version shown) applies to sociological systems of people; questions they speculated on included: “What is the total time in a social system? At the level of particles, temperature is just velocity of movement. I sense an analogy between temperature in physical systems and the technology of transportation and communication in social systems. Modern societies are 'hotter'. Big cities (high interactance centers) are 'hot': People, commodities and ideas move around faster. 'Hot' regions subdivide territory more thoroughly than 'cool' ones. And what is entropy — unpredictability? is that what we call freedom? What is the social equivalent of the product entropy-times-temperature? Freedom of movement? What do pressure and volume suggest, if anything? Could the raw product kNT be given some sociological meaning? Do humans have something like chemical potential, some sort of (bonding) potential? Maybe the last two terms in could be combined into something with a meaning specific to sociology. Combining them into -N(1 + α), with N as a population — what would be the sociological significance of the factor -(1 + α)/β? Could the value for β computed above in the case of urban population distributions (β = 2v/xμ) have any application?”; published some of his finalized ideas in the 1995 online book The Division of Territory in Society.
19.Georgi Gladyshev 75Georgi Gladyshev
Russian physical chemist
(reaction against Prigogine)
Gladyshev's evolution integral
evolution icon|Life icon|sociology icon 29x20|Chromatography icon smallIn reaction-opposition to Ilya Prigogine's 1937 far-from-equilibrium, dissipative structure thermodynamics model of life and evolution, he developed a systems-within-systems "hierarchical thermodynamics" type of quasi-equilibrium model using his law of temporal hierarchies, principle of substance stability, liquid chromatography models, to make a Gibbs free energy volumentric-style equation (above) to explain the evolution of living beings and society; in the 1990s, began developing thermodynamic anti-aging theories of foodstuffs; his 1997 book Thermodynamic Theory of the Evolution of Living Beings, captures the gist of his theory.
20.Robert Ulanowicz 75Robert Ulanowicz
American chemical engineer and theoretical ecologist
1979Ecology icon|Life icon| F = U - \theta S \,Religion icon 20x27|philosophy 39x20|information icon|caged bird icon|No determinism 18x20Conceived (in 1979) of an information theory based version of free energy applied to ecosystems, termed “ascendency”, which he considered as a pseudo-thermodynamic function (first outlined in his 1980 article “An Hypothesis on the Development of Natural Communities”); his 1986 book Growth and Development extends on this using Helmholtz free energy (equation shown); his 2009 A Third Window: Natural Life Beyond Newton and Darwin, seems to argue for the existence of God in the context of an emergent (or process biology) thermodynamic depiction of evolution (or ascendency), supposedly, under the guise of the “ontic openness of nature”; is presently of the view that “entropy or entropy-related measures (such as free energy) should *not* be invoked for living systems!” (email communicate to Libb Thims, 2011), which he says he first argued on page 21 of his 1986 book.
21.Daniel Hershey 75Daniel Hershey
American chemical engineer
(stimulated by Prigogine)
 \frac{dS}{dt} = \frac{dS_e}{dt} + \frac{ds_i}{dt} \,
Starting with his 1980 The New Age-Scale for Humans, followed by about a dozen various publications, he builds significantly on the work of Ilya Prigogine to outline a thermodynamic theory of aging; in his 2009 Entropy Theory of Aging Systems: Humans, Corporations, and the Universe, in summarizing the free energy ideas of Prigogine, he states:

“Thermodynamic equilibrium may be characterized by the minimum of the Helmholtz free energy, F = E – TS, where E is the internal energy, T is the absolute temperature, and S is entropy. Positive time, the direction of time’s arrow, is associated with increase in entropy. Isolated or closed systems evolve to an equilibrium state characterized by the existence of a thermodynamic potential such as the Helmholtz or Gibbs free energy. These thermodynamic potentials and also entropy are, according to Prigogine, Lyapounov functions, which means they drive the system toward equilibrium in the face of small disturbances.”

Likewise, he in regards to free energy and aging he argues that:

“Old age or senescence may be the decline in our ability to produce free energy. Less free energy means diminished cell function. Vitality might be defined as our biological and thermodynamic strength, the ability to expend energy to restore ourselves to near original conditions.”

He goes on to apply this basis to what he calls the "entropic analysis of a human living system", wherein he argues that “the living system is essentially and open system because it maintains itself by the exchange of matter and energy with the environment and by the continuous building up and breaking down of its internal components” and on this logic goes on to argue that Prigogine entropy (equation shown) applies to these so-called living systems, to corporations, etc.
22.Mirza Beg 75Mirza Beg
Indian-born Pakistani organometallic chemist
1981 Published “Human Behaviour in Scientific Terminology: Affinity, Free Energy Changes, Equilibria, and Human Behaviour” in the Pakistan Management Review; which culminated in his 1987 New Dimensions in Sociology, which is the biggest book to apply Gibbs energy to society in a uniform manner; a salient footnote being that he equates "Gibbs energy" to the "will of Allah" (see also: Mehdi Bazargan).
23.Adriaan de Lange 75Adriaan de Lange
South African chemical physicist
1982Chromatography icon small|Battery icon (small)|Bifurcation icon|Psychology icon|Religion icon 20x27Free energy (de Lange) Well-read physical sciences based thinker (above the 500+ book level in studying how thermodynamics applies to the humanities) who in 1982 began to view the idea that entropy production must apply to the spiritual world (see: living force); then, in 1986, while teaching physical chemistry class, grasped the idea that “the intricate calculations concerning free energy in chemical reactions” must apply to the process of knowing and learning, on the extrapolation that student's learning behaviors must follow or map to the behaviors of molecules moving through the chromatograph column; in 1987, completed a yet unpublished manuscript Entropy, Creativity, and Learning; in the late 1990s, began posting and discussing his theories at the Learning-org.com forums; and in 2009 published an online book Irreversible Self-Organization (in Afrikaans).
24.Person icon 75Laurence Foss
American philosopher
1987Free energy (Foss)His The Second Medical Revolution, co-written with Kenneth Rothenberg suggests a new approach to medicine based on quantum mechanics, irreversible thermodynamics, and information theory; his follow-up 2002 book The End of Modern Medicine has a section on what he calls the “second law of psychothermodynamics” (equation shown), wherein, building on Michael Guillen’s idea that human existence is an unnatural anomaly in the framework of a universe governed by the second law, he slants the second law into a contrived anthropomorphism to argue, in his own words, for a vitalistic (vitalism), mentalistic (mentalism), and spiritualistic (autopoietic) universal view, unlike the mechanistic (mechanism), physicalistic (physicalism), and materialistic (materialism) prevailing scientific world view.
25.Wayne Angel 75Wayne Angel
American physicist
1991Outlined a semblance of a Gibbs energy based model of "relation thermodynamics", albeit essentially baseless, as he builds his entire theory on Shannon entropy.
26.Jurgen Mimkes 75Jurgen Mimkes
German solid state thermodynamicist and socio-economic physicist
1992Economics icon|sociology icon 29x20|University icon|Racism icon|Phase diagram icon L = E + T \ln P \rightarrow \text{max} \,|Statistical mechanics iconSince 1992, at the University of Paderborn, has been involved in the development of physical chemistry of social systems and economic systems, with articles such as “Binary Alloys as a Model for the Multicultural Society” (1995), “Society as a Many Particle System” (1997); he helped in getting the ‘physics of socio-economic systems’ recognized as a new scientific field by the German Physical Society (2001); has produced at least two graduate students by 2002 (Christian Thought and Thorsten Frund); in his 2007 chapter “A Thermodynamic Formulation of Social Science” he argues that the "Lagrange principle" (of pre-thermodynamics days), the “free energy principle” (of physics), and the “principle of maximum happiness” (of sociology) are all equivalent, and on this premise derives a Lagrange function (equation shown) of a social system of N interacting people, where (-L) is the "free energy" or common happiness of the agents, E the energy or collective laws of society, ln P the combinatorial probability distribution of the elements or individual social behavior (in which the social system is posited to be stable at maximum mutual happiness); as of 2010, was working on finishing a manuscript entitled the Chemistry of Social Bonds.
27.Teresa Brennan 75Teresa Brennan
Australian-born feminist philosopher and social-political theorist
(culled from Freud)
1992In her Interpretation of the Flesh, explains that “the solution to the riddle of femininity depends on unraveling Freud’s neglected if confused theories on psychical energy, while discarding the assumption that the subject is energetically and emotionally self-contained”; she discusses social energy, emphasizing the notion of conflicting forces complemented by bound energy and free energy; in her 1997 article “Social Pressure”, she argues that social pressure operates as physical energy, arguing that social pressures are pressures to conform but also those exerted on the psyche in the same way that physical pressures are exerted on the body; her 2004 The Transmission of Affect, presents the idea that one can soak up someone else’s depression or anxiety or sense the tension in a room, arguing that the emotions and energies of one person or group can be absorbed by or can enter directly into another.
28.John Christie 75John Christie
Australian physical chemist and chemical thermodynamicist
1994 G=A+PV\,His “A Survey of Thermodynamical Ideas”, builds on John Neumann’s 1932 economic thermodynamics article, to outline an “island model” of 6 inhabitants, wherein he discusses Gibbs free energy, in definitional terms, and alludes to the premise that when an inhabitant enters or leaves the island—if the island were an open system—the “component will move into or out of the system to minimize its chemical potential (see: social chemical potential), i.e. it will tend to flow from regions of higher to lower chemical potential.”
29.Libb Thims 75Libb Thims (c.1975-)
American chemical engineer, electrical engineer, and thermodynamicist
1995molecule man 35|Chemical reaction icon|Statistical mechanics icon|Psychology icon|Love icon|Beauty icon 15x21|RIP icon|philosophy 39x20|Scales icon 26x20|man digging icon|Life icon|University icon|caged bird icon|evolution icon|sex icon|Economics iconDG lz cBegan to speculate as to how the spontaneity criterion (adjacent equation) applies to mate selection, with enthalpy change ΔH and entropy change ΔS specifically quantified ("ΔH TΔS") in terms of standard evolutionary psychology variables, mapped to second-by-second changing measures of individual differential human molecular Gibbs free energy variations dG, as shown below (see: HMO theory):

 G = (H_{AVG} + H_{AGE} + H_S + H_X + H_L + H_F + H_C) - T(S_P + S_O + S_I + S_S + S_N) \,

This formulation is exemplified well by the following rule from Canadian-American biophysical chemist Julie Forman-Kay’s 1999 article “The Dynamics in the Thermodynamics of Binding” where she states:

“Whether two molecules will bind is determined by the free energy change of the interaction, composed of both enthalpic and entropic terms.”

the "molecules" in this case being individual people (human molecules); such as if one was to predict which of two mates would be more favored to bind "stably" into a standard 18-year human chemical reaction; a number of precipitates have followed from this endeavor: one of the first calculations of the human molecular formula (2002); first formulations of the physics model of the human chemical bond A≡B (2005); launched Journal of Human Thermodynamics (2005); authored first human chemistry textbook (2007); launched Hmolpedia (2008), and as of 2012 has authored over 2,400+ online articles connected to and surrounding these topics, i.e. human physics, human chemistry, human thermodynamics, and hmol science.
30.Sture Nordhom 75Sture Nordholm (1944-)
Swedish physical chemist
1997Economics icon|Freedom icon 18x20|Government icon F = E - Tk_B \ln W \,In his article “In Defense of Thermodynamics: an Animate Analogy”, coins the subject name "animate thermodynamics" as the thermodynamics of human behavior, and argues that thermodynamic formulation can be applied to explain human behavior, on the logic that the basic elements of the description of atoms, molecules, and matter can be "scaled up" to the realm of living organisms without changes other than in complexity of the systems and their behavior, and using equation shown equates energy to wealth, kinetic energy to cash, potential energy to property, and entropy to freedom; states that nature's goal is to minimize the free energy of the subsystem; and ends with the assignment of eight example homework problems (with clues).
31.Wayne Saslow 75Wayne Saslow (c.1941-)
American physicist
1999Economics icon U = TS + W = \Psi + \lambda M + p N \,His “An Economic Analogy to Thermodynamics”, goes through a considerable, albeit mostly empty, derivation, wherein starts off with a 1980 study on the experimental findings of rat economic behaviors, then goes on to equates wealth W to negative Helmholtz free energy (-F), utility U to negative energy (-E), surplus Ψ to entropic energy (TS), price p to chemical potential, and number of goods n to number of chemical species crossing the boundary N; gives a thermodynamic-to-economic variables table, similar to James Reiss (1994).
32.Josip Stepanic 75Josip Stepanic (1970-)
Croatian physicist and mechanical engineer
2000sociology icon 29x20 \tilde{U} = \tilde{G} + \sum_i \tilde{f}_i \tilde{x}_i + \tilde{T} \tilde{S} \,In his “Approach to a Quantitative Description of Social Systems Based on Thermodynamic Formalism”, outlines a toy model of social systems in thermodynamic terms (equation shown), where \tilde{U} \,is the internal energy,  \tilde{G} \,the Gibbs potential,  \tilde{T} \,the temperature,  \tilde{S} \,the entropy, where the tilde (~) means the quantities are social “analogous quantities” to actual thermodynamic potentials, and where the  \tilde{f}_i \,denote external factors (influencing the people of the system), which influence some of the social system characteristics \tilde{x}_i \,, upon which the internal energy depends; founded the journal Interdisciplinary Description of Complex Systems (2003); followup articles include: “Social Equivalent of Free Energy” (2004), “Social Free Energy of a Pareto-Like Resource Distribution” (2007), among others.
33.Jing Chen 75Jing Chen (c.1965-)
Chinese-born, Canadian mathematical economist
(culled from Thims)
2000Economics icon|evolution icon|information icon|Beauty icon 15x21|sex icon|Psychology icon|Bifurcation iconHelmholtz free energy (Chen)In his 2000 “Economic and Biological Evolution”, argued that economic systems are as open dissipative systems, which need to extract negative entropy from the environment to compensate for continuous dissipation; in his “Universal Natural Law and Universal Human Behavior” (2002), he argued that just as are the "lower" needs of humans, such as eating, thermodynamic processes, so too are the "higher" needs, such as literature, good poems, and distinct paintings, which are rare events, characterized by high information content, which can be represented as a low entropy level and act as methods of attracting members of the opposite sex in the competition for reproduction; thus, the display of low entropy evolved as the universal signal of attractiveness in sexual and social communication; thus, he argues, from poem writing to money making, the pursuit of low entropy is the main drive of human behavior; followed this up with “An Entropy Theory of Psychology and its Implications to Behavioral Finance” (2003), The Physical Foundations of Economics (2005), and “Understanding Social Systems: A Free Energy Perspective” (2008), in the latter of which he uses the Helmholtz free energy (equation shown), among others.
34.Christopher Hirata (small)Christopher Hirata (1983-)
American physicist
c.2000molecule man 35|Chemical reaction icon|Love icon -K_B T \ln K_{eq} = \Delta E + P \Delta V - T \Delta S  \,In his "physics of relationships" he outlined a chemical thermodynamic model, using a variation of the Gibbs equation (equation shown) of how single and paired students form in a typical college student body during a single school year, showing how the equilibrium constant could change per various conditions; discussed concepts such as the gay molecule or polygamy molecule, etc.
35.David Hwang 75David Hwang (c.1980-)
American computational chemist
2001molecule man 35|Chemical reaction icon|Love icon G = H - TS \,His article "The Thermodynamics of Love" explains how one can determine whether or not any given male-female reaction is "favored" in terms of specific Gibbs free energy (equation shown), in which he makes one of the first reaction coordinates for a human chemical reaction.
36.Gavin Ritz 75 newGavin Ritz (1959-)
New Zealand civil engineer and business school professor
(culled from de Lange)
2001business iconFree energy (Ritz)In circa 1992 began theorizing on how to employ thermodynamic logic in business and social concerns; his 2001 conference presentation “Motivational Modelling” began to mention thermodynamical ideas, e.g. Ilya Prigogine, Stuart Kaufman, Nicholas Georgescu, etc., in his motivation work theory; his 2009 “The Fundamental Formula as Energy and Work” employed the relatively unknown human free energy theories of African chemist and physicist Adriaan de Lange to argue that a version of the Gibbs equation (shown), where F is Gibbs free energy, W is work, Wo is organical work done by living organisms (the product of J, mental exertion, and T, target time).
37.icon 75 (test)Alfredo Infante (c.1960-)
Peruvian chemical engineer
2001 G = H - TS \,His “Social Entropy: A Paradigmatic Approach of the Second Law of Thermodynamics to an Unusual Domain” uses advanced intelligence perspective to argue that the Gibbs free energy of a social system is the total energy in the system less the energy that is unavailable and that this difference represents the ‘state’ of the system.
38.Harold Morowitz 75Harold Morowitz (1927-)
American biophysicist
2002In his The Emergence of Everything, speculated on a Gibbs free energy interpretation of the work of Pierre Teilhard on the emergence of mind from matter in terms of enthalpy (H) and bound energy or transformation content energy (–TS).
39.Evguenii Kozliak 75Evguenii Kozliak
Russian-born American physical chemist
(inspired by Wynn)
2002molecule man 35|Chemical reaction icon|University icon|Economics icon|business icon \Delta G = \Delta H - T \Delta S \,His JCE article “Energy and Money, Chemical Bonding as Business, and Negative ΔH and ΔG as Investment”, outlines a type of human thermodynamics education style of teaching, defining people as human atoms or human molecules and applies chemical thermodynamics, namely the Gibbs equation, to business (see: business thermodynamics), specifically as a way to facilitate the teaching of physical chemistry; possibly also outlining a human chemical bond theory.
40.Ingo Muller 75Ingo Muller
German metallurgical physicist and thermodynamicist
2002Phase diagram icon|sociology icon 29x20 dS = \frac{1}{\tau} (dU + pdV) \,In his 2002 “Socio-thermodynamics: Integration and Segregation in a Population”, explains behaviors of a metaphorical population of hawks and doves using an extrapolation of logic from the thermodynamics of binary mixtures whose components mix at high temperature, but separate at low temperature exhibiting miscibility gaps; included an expanded chapter on this in his 2005 Energy and Entropy, in which he derives a first law, second law, and combined Gibbs equation (shown) of socio-thermodynamics, where S is the entropy, U the shortfall, V the volume (or habitat), p the "population pressure", and τ the homogeneous temperature inside the population; his 2007 A History of Thermodynamics, includes a section on “socio-thermodynamics”, in which he states that this "subject belongs more to the future of thermodynamics than to its history", and at present is struggling to be taken seriously.
41.John Avery 75John Avery
Lebanese-born Danish physicist and theoretical chemist
2003Nobel Prize icon|evolution icon|information icon|Life icon|molecule man 35 \Delta S_{universe} = - \frac{\Delta G_{system}}{T}  \,His Information Theory and Evolution, attempts to explain the phenomenon of life, including its origin, evolution, and human cultural evolution, in terms of thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, and information theory; arguing that the paradox between the disorder view of the second law and highly ordered complex living systems, has its resolution in the Gibbs free energy that enters the biosphere from outside sources; built on Erwin Schrodinger's infamous "turn the discussion toward free energy" addendum, by adding to it Gilbert Lewis' 1923 Gibbs free energy of formation model, Fritz Lipmann’s 1941 free energy coupling theory and John Neumann's circa 1945 free energy automaton theory; was one of the reviewers for Libb ThimsHuman Chemistry (2007) offering the intuitive suggestion that human molecules move along paths of minimum Gibbs free energy. Co-winner of the 1995 Nobel Peace Prize.
42.Person icon 75Stephen Gillett
American geologist
2005His “Entropy and its Misuse: Energy, Free and Otherwise”, attempts to correct all the errors in Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen’s 1971 ideas about "low entropy" in respect to natural resources and economics.
43.Gabriel Lozada 75Gabriel Lozada
American economicst
2005In his article “Entropy, Free Energy, Work, and other Thermodynamic Variables in Economics”, he takes aim at Stephen Gillett's theory of economic free energy, and attempts to prove, via haphazard derivation, that "free energy is not related to economic value".
44.Dimitris Keranis 75 Dimitris Keranis
Greek lawyer and social-economist
2005Economics icon|sociology icon 29x20G = H - T S\,In his essay “Human Values and the Second Law of Thermodynamics”, he argues that human purposeful action can be quantified formulaically, using the Gibbs function (as shown), arguing that energy and entropy are the two opposing forces involved in nature’s tendency to organize itself through the production of work and the associated acts that are responsible for the flow of energy in social systems, of which economic activity is central aspect and in which intellectual actions, such as speech, scientific productions, poetry, and literary, etc., translate into “value flows” in the social systems, reflecting the tendency of systems toward equilibrium, through the dispersal of wealth, income redistribution, and decentralization of power, etc.; of which he argues, the flow of economic acts and value acts are captured in Xenophon Zolotas’ 1981 economic and social welfare growth function.
45.Mark Janes 75Mark Janes
English chemical engineering student turned biotechnologist
2006molecule man 35|evolution icon|Life icon|sex icon|philosophy 39x20|RIP icon|Religion icon 20x27 \Delta G = \Delta H - T \Delta S \,His carbon entromorphology theory is a human atom based scheme, which considers the human being to be a ‘type of gigantic carbon atom’ (Mr. Carbon Atom), and uses aspects of thermodynamics, particle physics, and the atomic model logic (molecular orbital theory) to explain facets of humanity; an example being his “soulatrophic” model of morality, in which state of humanity is positied to be evolving to a future iron-like orbital structure of stability (similar to Pierre Teilhard’s omega point theory).
46.Bertrand Roehner 75Bertrand Roehner
French physicist
2007 His Driving Forces in Physical, Biological and Socio-Economic Phenomena (pgs. 74-75) touches on the premise that Gibbs energy might quantify “metastable states” socially, e.g. Tsarist Russia.
47.Thomas Wallace 75Thomas Wallace
American physical chemist
2009Economics icon|History icon 19x20|sociology icon 29x20|Scales icon 26x20|Chemical reaction icon \Delta G = \Delta H - T \Delta S \,|Battery icon (small)His book Wealth, Energy, and Human Values, applies the basics of physical chemistry and chemical thermodynamics, in particular the Gibbs equation (adjacent), to the modeling of the rise and fall of civilizations, in what he considers a ‘mechanistic-thermodynamic paradigm’; contains a good appendix on "The Fundamentals of Thermodynamics Applied to Socioeconomics", which outlines a decent reaction coordinate depicted initial state / final state view of mechanism-based society reaction processes.
48.Philip Moriarty 75Philip Moriarty
Irish thermal and nanomolecular physicist
2009During the Moriarty-Thims debate (part one, comment #61), on the question of whether or not an arrangement of students in a field has a "thermodynamic entropy", gave the following satirical and pejorative summary of the thesis of American electrochemical engineer Libb Thims (1995) in regards to the Gibbs free energy of human molecules (people):

"To suggest that your thesis is that the laws of thermodynamics "govern human existence" is a grossly misleading understatement. Your thesis (such as it is) is that there are quantum mechanical, chemical bonds between humans which can give rise to "human reactions" and that there are enthalpic/entropic contributions to a "human" free energy function. I was going to walk away from this - and leave you to your delusions - until your deeply unfair attack on Frank Lambert. To attempt to belittle someone in a very public forum as you did is both despicable and unforgivable."

In short, according to Moriarty, a thermal physics professor of six years, to conceive that there is such a thing as a "human free energy function", such as theorized formulaically by the individuals in this table, is a "delusional" point of view?
49.Surya Pati 75Surya Pati
Indian chemist and business management theorist
2009molecule man 35|Chemical reaction icon|Love icon G = H - TS \,Explain how single people with higher Gibbs free energy (adjacent equation) are “more restless” and thus resultantly tend to form a bond with another person to “stabilize” themselves; also speculates on how activation energy, entropy, and enthalpy apply to human relationships.
50.Klaus Jaffe 75Klaus Jaffe
Venezuelan chemical biologist
2016Attempts to use Shannon entropy mixed with free energy talk to argue about complexity and synergy socially.
51.Jacob Leachman 75Jacob Leachman

(add overview)

Recent attempts
In 2011 article “Noisy Naming Games, Partial Synchronization, and Coarse-graining in Social Networks”, American mathematicians C.C. Lim and Weituo Zhang, attempt to incorporate entropic effects in their model, and in doing so come to define Gibbs free energy as follows: [2]

“Gibbs free energy is taken here to represent a good measure of overall social tension, arising from the ways in which different possibly overlapping subgroups choose and maintain differing opinions.”

Physical chemist/Chemical physicist7
Chemical engineer6
Thermodynamicist (Chemical/Statistical/Mechanical) 5
Physical biologist/Physiologist2
Engineer (Materials science/Civil)2
A work-in-progress count of the academic backgrounds of human free energy theorists (at the 39 person level).
A more detailed look into the paper will be needed to better discern the validity of this approach.

In the 2012 article “Scientific Elan Vital: Entropy Deficit or Inhomogeneity as a Unified Concept of Driving Forces of Life in Hierarchical Biosphere Driven by Photosynthesis”, Japanese genomics of photosynthetic organisms researcher Naoki Sato positioned to introduce the concept of “entropy deficit” (a type of entropy antonym) to be the new unified driving force of the biosphere, arguing that:

“Although free energy is evidently the driving force in biochemical reactions, there is no established relationship between metabolic energy and spatiotemporal organization of living organisms, or between metabolic energy and genetic information.”

A number of issues exist, however, in Sato's article (as discussed in his Hmolpedia biography), the foremost of which is that he seems to be unaware of the historical thinkers in the above table and moreover unaware of Gilbert Lewis' definition (above) of the "driving force" for isothermal-isobaric reaction conditions, a definition which is not confined to cellular reactions (reactions inside cells), but is a "universal rule" governing all freely-running reactions on the surface of the earth (those we see around us), which includes cellular, social, population dynamics, and evolution described systems. [3]

See also
Human free energy table
Hwang free energy principle

1. (a) Thims, Libb. (2007). Human Chemistry (Volume One). Morrisville, NC: LuLu.
(b) Thims, Libb. (2007). Human Chemistry (Volume Two) (human free energy, pg. 465). Morrisville, NC: LuLu.
2. Lim, C.C. and Zhang, Weituo. (2011). “Noisy Naming Games, Partial Synchronization, and Coarse-graining in Social Networks” (abs), Network Science Workshop, June, pgs. 25-29.
3. Sato, Naoki. (2012). “Scientific Elan Vital: Entropy Deficit or Inhomogeneity as a Unified Concept of Driving Forces of Life in Hierarchical Biosphere Driven by Photosynthesis” (abs), Entropy, 14(2): 233-51.
4. Schroeder, Daniel V. (2000). An Introduction to Thermal Physics (pg. 150). Addison Wesley Longman.

Further reading
● Jantsch, Erich. (1975). Design for Evolution: self-organization and planning in the life of human systems (human free energy, pg. 103). G. Braziller.

External links

Free energy and economic resources (2011) – AndrewGelman.com.
Economic free energy (2011) – Entsophy.net.

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