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|A central aim of human thermodynamics is to explain the system-delineated actions revolving existence, love, work, meaning, and purpose thermodynamically.|
The term ‘human thermodynamics’ was coined in 1893 by English engineer Bryan Donkin, in his article on the earlier scientific work French physicist Gustave Hirn, specifically Hirns’ 1856 experiments on the mechanical equivalent of heat of humans in action and his 1868 book Philosophical Implications of Thermodynamics.  It was English physicist C.G. Darwin (grandson of Charles Darwin), however, who in the "Introduction" chapter to his 1952 book The Next Million Years, gave the first succinct definition of the subject of human thermodynamics, which he defined as the thermodynamic study of dynamical systems of human molecules (people defined as molecules). C.G. Darwin, concise form, defined human thermodynamics as follows: 
“Human thermodynamics is the statistical mechanics of conservative dynamical systems of human molecules.”
This definition, to clarify, Darwin's definition falls under the classification of: statistical human thermodynamics, the study of human movement using statistical mechanics (or statistical thermodynamics), Darwin's field of study; which can be contrasted with the more difficult subject: chemical human thermodynamics, the study of reactive systems of humans, people defined as powered chemicals or driven molecules, using the chemical thermodynamics.
|A representative diagram of human thermodynamics, captioned as “the study of the relation between heat (force) and work (movement) and other forms of energy transformation involved in the process of human existence”, from the abstract poster presentation of American electrochemical engineer Libb Thims’ 2011 bioengineering thermodynamics lecture “How to Apply Thermodynamics in the Humanities: with Engineering Focus”.|
The second modern definition of the subject human thermodynamics comes from Iranian mechanical engineer and thermodynamics professor Mehdi Bazargan who in his 1956 book Thermodynamics of Humans, written curiously while in prison for his efforts to establish democracy, defined the bracketed term 'human thermodynamics' as:
“Human thermodynamics is the application of mathematical formula and principles of thermodynamics to the economic and social sciences.”
Bazargan's is the first actual book entitled 'human thermodynamics'; although, to note some English translations of the original Persian title (ترمودينام يك انسان) or Farsi title (Termodynamik-e Ensan) read "Man's thermodynamics" or "thermodynamics of humans", among other varieties.
|A 1993 summary description of human thermodynamics by American mechanical engineer Bill Nye, better known as Bill Nye the science guy, of how people, historically, have used the laws of thermodynamics to explain various facets of human existence, from car wreck behaviors, to politics, to the process of falling in love. |
In Bazargan's book, a basic attempt is made to apply the cold hard logic of thermodynamics to explain human behavior, using not only the verbally descriptions of concepts such as energy, entropy, internal energy, and work applied to systems of humans in daily activity, but also actual thermodynamics formulations, which is a rarity in works on human thermodynamics. This equation-based formulation of human thermodynamics, can be compared to earlier 1890s teachings and publications of Polish economist Leon Winiarski, such as explained in his 1898 collected works Essay on Social Mechanics and 1890 article "The Teaching of Pure Political Economics and Social Mechanics in Switzerland." In the Winiarski scheme, to clarifgy, he used the term "social mechanics" as a synonym for the subject of what what C.G. Darwin and Bazargan later called 'human thermodynamics', which may be do to that fact that in France, during these years, thermodynamics was still being referred to by some as théorie mécanique de la chaleur (mechanical theory of heat); Winiarski also viewed people as "human molecules", or in some cases, "economic molecules", similar to C.G. Darwin. 
In 2004 summary of Bazargan's thermodynamics of humans, American cultural anthropologist Mazyar Lotfalian defined the subject of Bazargan's human thermodynamics or the thermodynamics of human beings as: 
“[Bazargan's] thermodynamics [of humans] is the mathematical expression of how human activity works according to a set of laws that are based on the relation of heat, time, and energy.”In sum of these various early excursions on the subject of human or social thermodynamics, one discerns the consensus view the laws of thermodynamics are the central universal laws found to have direct bearing on the function, activities, and governance of daily human movement. 
|Left: American artist Zack Brown’s 2012 “Thermodynamics of Love” cartoon, from his Stickmen with Martinis blogspot, which he captions with a take on his view of a relationship as being like a closed thermodynamic system.  Right: A 21 Jun 2010 lecture by English biotechnologist Mark Janes who comments: “Human thermodynamics, in the future, I believe, is on the precipice of being the biggest overall unified scientific concept ever.”|
Human thermodynamics, thus being the advanced application of chemical thermodynamics and statistical thermodynamics to human society, is the study of heat and its relation to the motion and changes in the equilibriums of human bodies. The essential process of thermodynamics is that whereby heat cycles through a system of chemical species, e.g. water molecules in a steam engine, or human molecules (people) in an social system, and thereby mediates the production of work, such as in occupation.  In human terms, heat, in the form of gamma-ray photons, cycles from the sun, the systems are coupled economies, the chemical species are people, and the work is the work of life. The four laws of thermodynamics define the boundaries of this action.
The use of thermodynamics, a notoriously difficult subject itself, to explain human activity, to note, is a very difficult application. This is evidenced by the fact that most of the people with IQ = 225+ estimates have attempted formulation on this topic. In 1910, to cite one opinion, American historian Henry Adams, in his famous booklet A Letter to American Teachers of History, defined the loose subject of human thermodynamics, to be the physical-chemical explanation of sociology and history. In particular, in reference to the development of a new science of history thermodynamics, Adams stated that "if the physicists and physico-chemists can at last find their way to an arrangement that would satisfy the sociologists and historians, the problem would be wholly solved." He continues: 
Similarly, in 1954, English physicist Vera Daniel gave his opinion on the application of thermodynamics to society by Polish physical economist Leon Winiarski, in the 1890s, and German physical chemist Wilhelm Ostwald, in the 1900s, by commented that: 
“The thermodynamic[s] [applied to humanity] case would involve the author into calculations of fantastic difficulty, if he were to take it seriously, and it is also a comparison of the complicated with the complicated.”
This last quote captures the essence and immense difficulty underlying the subject of human thermodynamics. In sum, human thermodynamics is the modeling of the entire corpus of human activity from a thermodynamic system's perspective, which equates to the use of German physicist Rudolf Clausius' 1865 ten fundamental equations, at a minimum, American engineer Willard Gibbs' 1876 700-equations, at the introductory level, Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann's 1872 gas theory equations at the novice level, and Belgian chemist Ilya Prigogine's 1970s non-equilibrium thermodynamics dissipative structure theory at the colloquial level, in short.
The adjacent video by English biologist Mark Janes outlines some of difficulties and formulaic issues in human thermodynamics, and discusses concepts such as how a negative Gibbs free energy change occurs in the process of spontaneous human interactions, among others.
|Left: in 1885, Scottish physicist William Thomson (1824-1907) considered an afternoon excursion with his wife, taking time away from his studies, to be a second law governed instance of the "dissipation of energy."Right: in 1909, American historian Henry Adams (1838-1918) stated that he would walk a several million miles to be able to go back in time and hear Thomson's (adjacent) views on the thermodynamics of society.|
Human thermodynamics | Anecdotes
See main: Thermodynamics anecdotesIn 1885, while musing upon the subject of thermodynamics one day, Scottish physicist William Thomson suddenly realized that his wife was discussing plans for an afternoon excursion: 
“At what time,” he asked, glancing up, “does the dissipation of energy begin?”
In other words, in this quip Thomson is applying his version of the second law of thermodynamics, as captured in his 1852 paper "On a Universal Tendency to the Dissipation of Mechanical Energy", to the tentative understanding the work involved in the course of daily human-human interactions; a prime human thermodynamics example application of the law of dissipation of energy.
In a 1909 letter to English lawyer Charles Gaskell, Adams comments: 
“I have been studying science for ten years past, with keen interest, noting down my phrases of mind each year; and every new scientific method I try, shortens my view of the future. The last—thermodynamics—fetches me out on sea-level within ten years. I’m sorry Lord Kelvin (William Thomson) is dead. I would travel a few thousand-million miles to discuss with him the thermodynamics of socialistic society. His law is awful in its rigidity and intensity of result.”
This comment comes a year before Adams great work A Letter to American Teachers of History, in which he attempts to outline how thermodynamics, particularly the second law, applies to the historical subject of studying people considered as human molecules.
What is life | An entropy struggle?
See main: What is life? (theories of existence)One of the earliest attempts at a solution to the question of "what is life", from a thermodynamic perspective, was made by Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann who, in his 1886 discussion of philosophical problems connected to thermodynamics, famously quipped "life is a struggle for entropy", as is explained in the following quote: 
“The transition of heat from sun to earth [can drive] the performance of work, like the transition of water from the boiler to the cooling instillation [and] the struggle for existence of animate beings [is a] a struggle for entropy.”
|Left: a Carnot cycle system view of a working body surface section of a rotating earth, put in contact, alternately, with a hot body (day time) then a cold body (night time), diurnally, according to which daily "work" is done by the actions of Boerhaave's law. Right: a Carnot engine diagram of a confined body of working substance (molecules) in a piston-and-cylinder heat engine, alternately heated and cooled, in a cycle: the basic model for any working system of humans (human molecules) confined to a surface section of the earth, in its diurnal solar cycle.|
The rudiments of the science of human thermodynamics, can be said to have started with postulates of English physicist William Thomson, i.e. Lord Kelvin, the person who, in 1849, coined the term thermo-dynamics. In particular, in 1852 Thomson supposed that "there is a universal tendency in nature to the dissipation of mechanical energy" and discussed how this tendency relates to "vegetable life" or to the "will of animate creatures".  Soon thereafter, people began to wonder how this universal law of physics related to or contrasted with the universal law of biological evolution as established by English naturalist Charles Darwin in his 1859 Origin of Species.  Over the years, dozens of people have approached this puzzle form a number of angles, as are found in a number of obscure articles and books. 
In modern terms, as viewed through the science of human chemistry, the process of human life involves chemical reactions or the formation, dissolution, or reconfiguration of human chemical bonds between human molecules (people viewed as atomic structures) and the work produced therefrom.  The drive of this work, transmitting through the forces of energy and entropy, originates from the heat output of the sun. The relationships between heat and work are dictated by the laws of thermodynamics, and human society, like any machine or organism, is no exception to this dictate. 
Thermodynamics, by virtue of its universality, penetrates all areas of human life studies. The branches of human thermodynamics thus far semi-developed include: psychodynamics, thermodynamic evolution, economic thermodynamics, sociological thermodynamics, political thermodynamics, cessation thermodynamics, history thermodynamics, business thermodynamics, religious thermodynamics, among others, all of which abide by the same laws.
|Captioned image from 1979 famous article "The Social Thermodynamics of Ilya Prigogine" by Wil Lepkowski. |
First law analysis overview:
See main: Human system, Human energy, Social energy, First law, etc.The starting point for any thermodynamic analysis of human life, is the first law energy balance in respect to earth-bound "working systems" of chemical species subjected to daily solar cycles of heat input. In particular, each day, due to the configuration of the solar system, biospheric portions of the earth's surface, during its rotation, are put in contact diurnally with a hot body (the sun) and cold body (the night sky) on an alternating basis, according to which heat Q flows through various partitioned off human social systems, e.g. one small city, that each function as "working bodies", i.e. any partitioned off system through which heat may flow, of molecular species (e.g. a set of human species).  In the human point of view, during each cycle, work-output is produced cyclically through the operation of economic, socially-mediated, substrate-attached, human molecular interactions in the form of multiple coupled social heat engines. 
Second law analysis overview:
See main: Human entropy, Social entropy, Economic entropy, Second law, etc.After analyzing any human interaction according to the first law, a next step is to study the human process from an entropy point of view. This is one of the more difficult aspects of human thermodynamic analysis, leading often to unfounded interpretations of "disorder", "pollution", "chaos", etc., as well as a number of newly coined terms such as social entropy, human entropy, economic entropy, among others. The only correct way, however, to translate the second law of thermodynamics into the study and analysis of human actions is to build directly on German physicist Rudolf Clausius' 1865 thermodynamics textbook Mechanical Theory of Heat, following this path through into modern chemical thermodynamics. Most, who attempt to formulate a second law interpretation of human activity, never read Clausius, but instead crudely attempt to build formulations on tertiary interpretations of Clausius' work, often leading to absurd conclusions, the pinnacle example being the conclusion that "life tends towards chaos", which is obviously a backwards trend then what is observed.
|Human thermodynamics pioneers video (3:24-min) by American chemical engineer Libb Thims (Jan 29, 2009).|
Combined law analysis
See main: Combined law of thermodynamicsThe first and second law of thermodynamics are often combined into one expression, called the "combined law", particularly for the case of isothermal (constant temperature) isobaric (constant pressure) processes, as happens to be the case for most processes occuring on the surface of the earth. This amounts to a statement of the effect that a natural process will only occur or proceed spontaneously (according to the spontaneity criterion) if it actuates, in the system or in the path of the process, a decrease in the Gibbs free energy G. This logic is often truncated as follows:
an expression which is said to quantify naturally occurring (or energetically favored) processes. This simplicity, however, becomes complicated when attempting to understand how the components of the function of free energy:
in the progression of human psychological time.
|Chapter 5 from English engineer Bryan Donkin's 1894 treatise on the work of Gustave Hirn in which the term 'human thermodynamics' is coined. |
See main: History of human thermodynamicsThe earliest ideas concerning human thermodynamics, i.e. how the laws of thermodynamics relate to human life, began about 1852 when William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) published his "On a Universal Tendency in Nature to the Dissipation of Mechanical Energy", in which he set forth the view, for many superficial readers, that all natural systems tend to down grade in energy over time and that this logic defines the course of human history.  In the years to follow Thomson's publication, outlining the view that "dissipation", often seem as embodied in the second law, applies to the entire universe, over 300+ human thermodynamics pioneers began to profess their views in various spheres of publication in the humanities.
The first chapter specifically devoted to the extension of the energy principle and thermodynamics to social theory and economics was the end-of-book chapter to German physicist Georg Helm's 1887 The Doctrine of Energy. 
In the 1910s, Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung began to carry over thermodynamic concepts, such as psychic energy and psychic entropy, into psychology, thus founding the subject of psychodynamics.
In 1952, the modern human statistical thermodydnamic view that each person is a human molecule, emerged in the publication The Next Million Years by English physicist Charles Galton Darwin, which outlined the logic that sets of reactive human molecules, constitute thermodynamic systems.
In 1977, Belgian chemist Ilya Prigogine one the Nobel prize for work in thermodynamics and soon thereafter, through various publications, began to establish the view that human life is a far-from-equilibrium phenomenon subject to dissipations, bifurcations, and fluctuations.
|Left: 2004 cover-version to volume one (of three) unfinished-manuscript Human Thermodynamics (started in 2002), by American chemical engineer Libb Thims, of which about a dozen copies were hand printed and given to reviewers. |
Right: 2009 cover design for possible future hard-copy multi-volume publication of the EoHT which is comprised of 1,500+ articles of webpages (each webpage containing 1-30 pages of printed material) as of 2010.
In 2007, the first chapter on human thermodynamics was published by American chemical engineer Libb Thims and the following year, in early 2008, the Encyclopedia of Human Thermodynamics (draft cover pictured) began to be written, online, wiki-style, article-by-article, scheduled to be published as a 5-volume set when near completion.
Human thermodynamics, in modern view (as of 2010), in a general sense, is still a relatively underground science, for many. Some consider it a new cutting-edge difficult subject; whereas others may consider it a crank subject or even an anathema, in spite of the fact that well over one hundred people have written and theorized on the subject over the last 150-years. The basic issue is not with the correctness of the science, but with the fact that the application of thermodynamics cuts into the very heart of human stability, in areas such as evolution, love, relationships, free will, death, religion, purpose, racism, etc., and as such the topic easily becomes heated and emotional for many.
In the 2007 book A History of Thermodynamics, German physicist Ingo Müller, a professor of thermodynamics for over 30-years, outlines his opinion that the field of human thermodynamics is a science of the future. In particular, in his section on “socio-thermodynamics”, he states that “on several occasions I have hinted at the usefulness of thermodynamic concepts in remote areas, i.e. fields that have little or nothing to do with thermodynamics as first sight.”
He continues, “those hints would be wanton remarks unless I corroborated them somehow, in order to acquaint the reader with the spirit of extrapolation away from thermodynamic proper.” To be sure, he reasons:
“Most such subjects [socio-thermodynamics] are more to the future of thermodynamics rather than to its history.”
The site HumanThermodynamics.com was launched in 2005 by American chemical engineer Libb Thims designed to be an introduction to the subject to the layperson. The site is host to the Journal of Human Thermodynamics, a online journal devoted to publications on the application of thermodynamics to any of various facets of human existence, and the Institute of Human Thermodynamics, a group of related people interested in the promotion and understanding of how thermodynamics applies to humanity. To a good approximation, the appendix of the site was a precursor to EoHT.info.
Another site is SocialThermodynamics.org launched in 2009 by Spanish entrepreneur Gregory Botanes, which uses prediction methods of thermodynamics, particularly statistical thermodynamics, to consult businesses in the correct direction.
|A new 2010 test-stage online course on human thermodynamics, at UDemy.com, taught by American chemical engineer Libb Thims. |
Human thermodynamics education
See main: Human thermodynamics educationThe teaching of human thermodynamics in college is not yet a fully-established field. The subject has been taught in various hues over the last century or so, beginning with Polish social-economist Leon Winiarski who taught a course called “Social Mechanics”, based on the works of Rudolf Clausius and Joseph Lagrange, at the University of Geneva over a period of six years (1894-1900), as outlined in his 1900 article "The Teaching of Pure Political Economics and Social Mechanics in Switzerland", a methodology as outlined in his collected-works treatise Essay on Social Mechanics. 
Others to following in this mode of teaching include: American physicist Arthur Iberall who taught a thermodynamics-based course on living systems and human systems at UC, Irvine beginning in the 1970s, in which he considered people to be ‘human atomisms’; to Prigoginean thinker Dick Hammond who gave lectures and taught courses on a simplified type of “entropy ethics” to elementary schools, high schools, and colleges in Texas in the 1980s; other human thermodynamics topic teachers include: Lawrence Henderson (1930s), Robert Lindsay (1940s), Richard Piccard (1997), Douglas White (2000), Bruce Clarke (2001), Jürgen Mimkes (2005), Christopher Edwards (2006), Richard Hughes (2008), and most-recently American chemical engineer Libb Thims, who began lecturing to various undergraduate engineering classes on human thermodynamics in 2010.
A free online course on human thermodynamics was initiated by Thims in June, 2010 at the University of Democracy (UDemy.com), consisting of video lectures, discussion groups, handouts, homework, etc., as pictured adjacent. This course, however, is still in the test stage.  A long-term goal of Thims is to establish a new school of human thermodynamics, similar to the Lewis school of thermodynamics, at a yet unnamed American university, to teach the correct application of thermodynamics in engineering, human engineering, bioengineering, sociology, psychology, economics, anthropology, politics, with government funded project applications in human thermodynamics applications.
Etymology | Historical
See main: Human thermodynamics quotesThe following is a chronological listing of the use of the term "human thermodynamics" since the inception of thermodynamics (1850):
“The creation of thermodynamics is a new era in the development of all science, and not just that of only physical-mechanical aspects. She came to enforce laws and defined a clear interpretation of a host of phenomena which seemed to have no other rule than chance. To identify the various species of elements that constitute beings, and who, by their mutual relations, give rise to phenomena, it was natural to start from the very principles that have somehow changed our science, and linked them into a single beam. From these principles we can draw philosophical and implications.”
— Gustave Hirn (1868), Philosophical Implications of Thermodynamics 
| “The basic and simple ideas, from which the laws of energy spring, as they stem from the roots of natural science, seems a more extensive exploitation to be able to explain things that have to do with transformations and transitions not only in science alone, but among other things, economics.”|
— Georg Helm (1887), The Doctrine of Energy 
| “Human thermodynamics is the study of vital heat of the body; experiments on the amount of heat developed by human beings when in action, measurement of oxygen inhaled; respiration shown to be the principle source of heat.”|
— Bryan Donkin (1893), on the work of Gustav Hirn 
| “The energy of social transformation is submitted to the same laws as the energy of the universe. These are the laws of thermodynamics. We can thus represent a primitive horde, as a material system in movement, the driving forces that cause the movement being hunger and love or attraction. Similar to how a cannonball meeting an obstacle transforms the energy contained in its mass movement into internal heat, energy of light, electricity, etc., so to do the members of the movement of the crude social mass transform when meeting barriers from the natural surroundings and other tribes, represented by economic, political, legal, moral, aesthetic, religious, and intellectual needs. There is transformation of the energy of the mass social movement in internal energies, psychologies, but there is no gain or loss of energy. Moreover this transformation is continuous across social system. Just as any movement of any mass of the universe is accompanied by production of heat, so to are the masses of biology and society transformed into mental phenomena of different kinds. Here we can apply the first principle of thermodynamics: that of the equivalence (the principle of Mayer).”|
— Leon Winiarski (1898), “Essay on Social Mechanics: Social Energy and its Measurements.” 
| “I intend to seek analogies between social and physical movements, therefore, to compare the mechanics of social science with thermodynamics. I owe you some explanations on this design. There is need to establish a new science if analogies and relations that unite science are already established. In doing so, the human mind obeys the feeling that he has the web link and continuity of natural phenomena at the same time, if using the similarities found it is possible to determine more accurately the specific content of the new science and to classify the essential elements, then they serve it as it touchstone of human theories.”|
— Maurice Hauriou (1899), Lessons on Social Movement 
“Through determining some kind of laws of human thermodynamics, we shall be more successful in doing good in the world. I am going to try to see what these laws of human thermodynamics are; of course they cannot be expected to have the hard outline of the laws of physical science, but still I think some of them can be given a fairly definite form.”
— C.G. Darwin (1952), The Next Million Years 
|1956|| “Human thermodynamics is the application of mathematical formula and principles of thermodynamics to the economic and social sciences.”|
— Mehdi Bazargan (1956), Thermodynamics of Humans 
The following are other related quotes:
“Based on identities of adhesion, individuals are seen as a mass, as numbers, independent of their molecular wealth. The molar group organizes a kind of human thermodynamics, an exteriorized channeling of behavior and character that squanders individual qualities.”— Pierre Levy (1994) 
“Our school tragedies are an early warning of something inherent in the laws of human thermodynamics.”— John Gatto (2000) 
“The conclusions of hierarchical thermodynamics correspond excellently to Libb Thims’ conception of the thermodynamics of human molecules.”— Georgi Gladyshev (2006) 
“The novel [Doctor Faustus] is in one sense a study in human thermodynamics—what it takes to make certain kinds of total and fundamental changes. In totally starting over, as opposed to gradually starting evolution, the Nazi experience suggests that what is necessary is a collective quantity of energy that is available only in the primitive and unconscious human energy centers, those energy centers deposited by hundreds of thousands of years of survival tactics—the reptile centers in our brains.”— John Anderson (2006) 
“Human thermodynamics [is] the chemical thermodynamic study of human molecular reaction life.”— Libb Thims (2007) 
“If we accept Thims’ logic of human thermodynamics as a viable explanatory framework, which it very well is, romantic bonding then becomes the subject matter of quantum electrodynamics (QED), an aspect of particle physics that traces human attachment and bonding to the interactions of photons and electrons.”— Satch Ejike (2008) 
|Cover of Romanian electronic music producer Bogdan Anghel’s 2010 EP Human thermodynamics, featuring four tracks: (1) pressure correlations 5:27, (2) phase transition 7:10, (3) aerospace race 7:07, and (4) transport phenomena 8:03; songs which, as depicted on the album cover, are intended to represent a sort of semi gas-phase, semi surface-attached depiction of human particles or human molecules, flying about and interacting sort of like the particles of an ideal gas in a state of Utopian natural harmony with the earth. |
● Human thermodynamics books
● Human thermodynamics (definitions)
● Human thermodynamics (objections to)
● Human chemistry
● Human molecule
1. (a) Darwin, Charles G. (1952). The Next Million Years (pg. 26), London: Rupert Hart-Davis.
(b) Thims, Libb. (2007). Human Chemistry (Volume Two), (Ch. 16: "Human Thermodynamics", pgs. 653-702, definition, pg. 653), (preview). Morrisville, NC: LuLu.
(c) Human thermodynamics - IoHT Glossary.
2. Haynie, Donald. (2001). Biological Thermodynamics (quote: "Any theory claiming to describe how organisms originate and continue to exist by natural causes must be compatible with the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics"). Cambridge University Press.
3. (a) Adams, Henry. (1910). A Letter to American Teachers of History, (pg. 199). Google Books, Scanned PDF. Washington.
(b) Burich, Keith R. (1987). “Henry Adams, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, and the Course of History”. Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 48, No. 3 (Jul. - Sep.), pp. 467-482.
4. (a) Darwin, Charles G. (1952). The Next Million Years (chapter one). London: Rupert Hart-Davis.
(b) ibid, C.G. Darwin (1952). coined the term "human thermodynamics", with the accompanying and explicit premise that humans are molecules, who he termed "human molecules", found in dynamical systems being governed by the laws of statistical thermodynamics; and set out to determine, in his own words, some of the "laws of human thermodynamics."
5. (a) Quote: according to “known facts with reference to the mechanics of animal and vegetable bodies” there is “at present in the material world a universal tendency to the dissipation of mechanical energy” and that “any restoration of mechanical energy, without more than an equivalent of dissipation, is impossible in inanimate material processes, and is probably never effected by means of organized matter, either endowed with vegetable life or subject to the will of an animated creature”
(b) Thomson, William (Lord Kelvin), "On a Universal Tendency in Nature to the Dissipation of Mechanical Energy" (Google Books) (URL), Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh for April 19, 1852, also Philosophical Magazine, Oct. 1852, also Mathematical and Physical Papers, vol. i, art. 59, pp. 511.
6. (a) As early as 1884, French astronomer M. Faye had postulated, as a matter of thermodynamics, that "life must disappear, and the grandest material works of the human race will have to be effaced by degrees under the action of a few physical forces which will survive man for a time" (Source: Henry Adam's 1910 "A Letter to American Teachers of History", pg. 149-150).
(b) Soon there after, in the words of American historian Henry Adams, the general public consensus was that "if life was to disappear, the form of vital energy known as social energy, must also, presumably go to increase the entropy of the universe" (Source: Henry Adam's 1910 "A Letter to American Teachers of History", pg. 150).
(c) Faye, M. (1985), Sur l’ Origine du Monde (“Origin of the World”), pg. 257.
7. (a) See: Libb Thims' book collection.
(b) See: List of Human Thermodynamics Pioneers.
8. Thims, Libb. (2007). Human Chemistry (Volume Two), (Ch. 16: "Human Thermodynamics", pgs. 653-702), (preview). Morrisville, NC: LuLu.
9. Rosnay, Joel de. (1975). The Macroscope - a New World Scientific System (chapter 3: "Energy and Survival, pg. 97). New York: Harper & Row Publishers.
10. Clausius, Rudolf. (1879). The Mechanical Theory of Heat, London: Macmillan & Co. (second edition), original.
11. Muller, Ingo. (2007). A History of Thermodynamics - the Doctrine of Energy and Entropy (section: "Socio-thermodynamics", pgs. 159-164). New York: Springer.
12. Boltzmann, Ludwig. (1886). The Second Law of Thermodynamics. In B. McGinness, ed., Ludwig Boltzmann: Theoretical physics and philosophical problems: Seelct writings. Dordrecht, Netherlands: D. Reidel, 1974.
13. Thims, Libb. (2008). “On the Mechanical Equivalent of Heat and Occupation”, Journal of Human Thermodynamics, Vol. 3, Issue 1. pgs. 1-7, April.
14. See: Human thermodynamics (etymology)
15. Donkin, Bryan. (1893). “The Scientific Work of Gustav Adolph Hirn in 7 Chapters (1845-1888)” (pgs. 145-201); Ch. V: Human thermodynamics, pg. 176-83)”, Transactions of the Manchester Association of Engineers (table of contents: human thermo-dynamics, pg. 176). Herald & Walker Printers.
16. (a) Levy, Pierre. (1994). L'intelligence collective. Pour une anthropologie du cyberespace. Paris: La Découverte.
(b) Levy, Pierre. (1997). Collective Intelligence: Mankind's Emerging World in Cyberspace, Page 52, New York: Basic Books.
17. Ullis, Karlis (1999). Age Right - Turn Back the Clock with a Proven Antiaging Program, (section: "Human Thermodynamics", pg. 34-36) New York: Simon & Schuster.
18. Allan, Forbes. (1999). Milton's Progress (Chapter 21). Rowanlea Grove Press.
19. Gatto, John T. (2000). The Underground History of American Education (ch. 17: The Politics of Schooling, section: “The Planetary Management Corporation”). Oxford Village Press.
20. Gladyshev G. P. (2006). "The Principle of Substance Stability is Applicable to all Levels of Organization of Living Matter", International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Vol. 7, pgs. 98-110 (quote pg. 107).
21. Anderson, John P. (2006). Mann’s Doctor Faustus: Gestapo Music (pgs. 23). Universal Publishers.
22. Ejike, Satch U. (2008). Find a Good Man and Keep Him (ch. II: What is Love?, pgs. 9-40, section: Physics of attraction, pgs. 27-; keyword: Libb Thims, pgs. 29-30; 102, 163, 252) (Google Books). AuthorHouse.
23. Lipkowski, Wil. (1979). "The Social Thermodynamics of Ilya Prigogine." Chemical and Engineering News, 56(13): 30-33. April 16.
24. Daniel, Vera V. (1955). “The Uses and Abuses of Analogy”, Operational Research Society, 6(1): 32-46; Paper given to the Operational Research Society, 19 Nov 1954.
25. Lotfalian, Mazyar. (2004). Islam, Technoscientific Identities, and the Culture of Curiosity (ch. 3: A Techno-Cosmopolitan in the Context of the Secular State: The Discourse of a Muslim Engineer/Politician, pgs. 31-53; human thermodynamics (definition), pg. 49). University Press of America.
26. HumanThermodynamics.com (value) – MySiteCost.com.
27. Bazargan, Mahdi. (1956). Love and Worship or Thermodynamics of Humans, 216-pgs. (Farsi: Eshq va Parastesh ya Thermodynamic-e Ensan) (Persian PDF: عشق و پرستش ي ا ترمودينام يك انسان). Tehran: Enteshar Publications.
28. (a) Human Thermodynamics (Bogdan) – LocalRec.ro.
(b) EP Cover (500x475px) – Bogdan | Human Thermodynamics EP (2010).
(c) Phase transition (song 2) (listen) – Surround-around-sound.blogsopt.com.
29. Hirn, Gustave. (1868). Philosophical Implications of Thermodynamics (Métaphysique et conséquences philosophiques de la thermodynamique: l'analyse fondamentale de l'univers) (Metaphysics and Philosophical Implications of Thermodynamics: Basic Analysis of the Universe). Paris: Gauthier-Villars.
30. Hauriou, Maurice. (1899). Leçons sur le Mouvement Social (Lessons on Social Movement) (thermodynamique, 23+ pgs; entropie, 19+ pgs; quote, pg. 79). Paris: Larose.
31. Winiarski, Leon. (1898). “Essay on Social Mechanics - IV: Social Energy and its Measurements” (“Essai Sur La Mecanique Sociale - IV: L’Energie Sociale et Ses Mensurations”), Comp. Essai sur la mecanque sociale, Revute Philos., Avril 1898 et juin 1899. Differentes parties de cet Essai ont paru en allemande (Soc. Monatshefte, 1898-99), en italien (Rivista italiana de Sociologia, 1899), in russe (Rev. scientifique de St-Petersbourg, 1897), et en polonaise (Athenoeum de Varsovie, 1897-99); in: Essais Sur la Mecanique Sociale (editor: Giovanni Busino) (§10:244-90; quote, pg. 250-51; thermodynamique, 13+ pgs). Librairaie Droz, 1967.
32. Human thermodynamics (online course) – Udemy.com.
33. Winiarski, Leon. (1900). “The Teaching of Pure Political Economy and Social Mechanics in Switzerland”, (pgs. 1497-1500), Sociology at the Paris Exposition of 1900. Government Printing Office.
34. Helm, Georg F. (1887). The Doctrine of Energy (Die Lehre von der Energy). Leipzig: Felix.
35. Helm, Georg F. (1887). Die Lehre von der Energie: Historisch-kritisch entwickelt: Nebst Beitragen zu einer allgemeinen Energetik (The Doctrine of Energy: historical-critical development: in addition to contributing to an overall energetics). Leibzig: Verlag von Arthur Felix.
36. Nye, Bill. (1993). Bill Nye the Science Guy’s Big Blast of Science (pg. 50). Basic Books.
37. (a) Cleveland, Cutler J., and Morris, Chris. (2006). Dictionary of Energy (“At what time does the dissipation of energy begin?” —William Thomson (1885; applying the terminology of his studies of thermodynamics to a question for his wife about their plans for an afternoon walk), pg. 497). Elsevier.
(b) Bell, Eric T. (1999). Men of Mathematics. Turtleback Books.
(c) Entropy (Kelvin) – Anecdotage.com.
38. Gooch, George P. (1913). History and Historians in the Nineteenth Century (human molecule, pg. 240). Longmans, Green, and Co.
39. Brown, Zack. (2012). “Thermodynamics of Love”, Stickmen with Martinis, Feb. 02.
● Amar, Jules. (1920). The Human Motor: or the Scientific Foundations of labour and Industry (human thermodynamics, pg. 191). Routledge.
● Jeffers, Ruby. (1992). E=mc2 and the Thermodynamics of Being in the Human System of Organization: the Dream of Engineering Precision. 23-pgs. Ireland.
● Georgescu-Roegen, Nicholas. (1993). “Thermodynamics and We, the Humans”. In Entropy and Bioeconomics: Proceedings, first International Conference of the E.A.B.S., Rome 28-30 November 1991 (pgs. 184-201). J. Dragan, E. Seifert and M. Demetrescu. Milan: European Association for Bioeconomic Studies.
● Taylor, Michael. (2010). “The Love Equation and Human Thermodynamics”, The Pattern Connection, Jun 06.
● Human thermodynamics (Alexa: 2,100,000; Jun 09) - HumanThermodynamics.com.
● Journal of Human Thermodynamics (launched 2005) - IoHT, Chicago.
● Quantcast demographics - of human thermodynamics readers.
● Human thermodynamics - Knol beta (Google).
● Human thermodynamics – Pipl Profles.
● Human thermodynamics (term papers) - AcaDemon.com.
● Human thermodynamics – Connotea.
● Human thermodynamics | Carbon-Entromorphology.com.
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