Human entropyThis is a featured page

Relative entropy (2007)
Danish chemist John Schmitz's 2007 estimation of the so-called "relative entropy" of a human over the course of its life-span: decreasing with age, becoming maximum at reaction end (death). [9]
In human thermodynamics, human entropy is the value of entropy associated with an individual human molecule (person), in a given state, or entropy of a system of human molecules (social configuration or social system) in a given state.

Discussion
The measure of the "entropy" of a human, physiologically or macroscopically, to note, is a very speculative subject, to say the least. The entropies of smaller molecules have been worked out rather accurately in the 1923 free energy table methods of Gilbert Lewis, and for so-called biochemical species in the 1957 table of Keith Burton, but estimate of entropies of human chemical species, in tabular form has never been done (Goethe's affinity table, aside). The subject of "human entropy" remains one of future science, at present; conjectural estimates, discussed below, are to be taken with a grain of salt, as extrapolate up methods involve numerous theoretical issues, when it comes to the calculation of the entropy of a human or a system of humans.

Overview
The first to discuss the idea that an individual person or might be associated with a value of relative "energy" but also "entropy" was American naval engineer William Fairburn, who in his 1914 book Human Chemistry employed human chemical theory to the effect that workers in a factory were types of chemicals that required efficient and intelligent handling by the foremen. [1]

In 1931, psychologists Siegfried Bernfeld and Sergei Feitelberg , in their article “The Principle of Entropy and the Death Instinct”, presented the results of their study where they attempted to measure a paradoxical pulsation of entropy within a living organism, specifically in the nervous system of a man. [16] Specifically, by comparing the brain temperature to the rectal temperature of a man, they thought to acquire evidence of paradoxical variations, i.e. variations not conforming to the principle of entropy as it functions in physics for inanimate systems. [17]

In the late 1980s, Japanese systems engineer Ichiro Aoki (1947-) began to make theoretical estimates of the entropy production in plant leaves and white-tail deer (1987), in day and at night; eventually applying these methods to humans, physiologically, into the 1990s. [14] The end result of Aoki’s work (2012), according to his conclusion, is that “entropy itself cannot be measured and calculated for biological systems, even for very small systems”, rather only “process variables, entropy flow, and entropy production can be quantified by the use of energetic data and physical methods.” [15]

In 1995, mining engineer Raj Singhal defines "human entropy" as the effect of individual variations in the efficiency of work of individuals and managers on the system. [6]

In 2002, American physicist Jack Hokikian defined the concept of the entropy of a human as as such: [10]

Human beings can be classified into low-entropic and high-entropic people.”

This view, to note, although in the right direction, is very elementary. To measure the entropy of a living structure, such as a mouse or a human, as American chemist Martin Goldstein explains, encounters numerous difficulties, but invariably is a measurement obtained in the same manner as are the entropies of simple chemical species obtained via laboratory experiments. [11]

In a 2004 article “Entropy and Information of Human Organisms”, Hungarian astrophysicist Attila Grandpierre claims that he was the first person to determined the entropy content of human being. [12] Likewise, in the 2007 article “Thermodynamic Measure for Nonequilibrium Processes”, Grandpierre, in association with Hungarian physicist Katalin Martinas, estimated the entropy of a 70-kg human to be 202 KJ/K and on this value estimate the extropy of a human to be 2.31 MJ/K. The calculation, although a good first attempt, is nearly baseless in that it's value is ascertained using entropy estimates of things such as glucose and water. [13] They even attempt a calculation of human enthalpy, using data such as the combustion of heat of fat, and use these estimates of S and H, to calculated a human Gibbs free energy G, using the formula G = H - TS (see: human free energy). These types of calculations are way off in that the Gibbs free energy of a human molecule is the summation of the Gibbs free energy component reactions involved in the synthesis of human beings over evolutionary time periods, starting from elementary components on the extent of reaction time line approaching millions or billions of years.
Human entropy table (Thims)
American electrochemical engineer Libb Thims's 2007 tabulation of the entropy components of a human, attributing the measure largely to neurological attributes. [2]

In 2007, American electrochemical engineer Libb Thims outlined the basic definition of the human chemical bond, i.e. electromagnetic attachments between people, being comprised of individual measures of enthalpies and entropies, according to which he defined the entropy of an average human, considering entropy as an ordering magnitude parameter of a human chemical reaction, formulaically, as follows: [2]

Human entropy (Thims, 2007)

where SP is the entropy associated with the personality (social graces + character + dependability), SO the entropy associated with the occupation (possessions + money), SI the entropy associated with the intelligence (information + education + knowledge), SS the entropy associated with status (prestige), and SN the entropy associated with the inner nature of a person (values + ambition).

In the 2007 book The Second Law of Life, Danish chemist John Schmitz estimated the so-called "relative entropy" of a human body over the course of its life-span, to decrease with age, becoming maximum at reaction end (death), as shown adjacent. [9]

Literature
In literature thermodynamics, the term “human entropy” is often associated, in an unsubstantiated manner, with a gradual but cosmic dissolution of life. [7] In the 1932, English writer Aldous Huxley explicitly used the term "human entropy" in relation to the energy of expansion released due to sexual restraint.

Into the 1950s, literature definitions on entropy likely began to stem from Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger’s 1944 conception of “positive entropy” and death, in connection to information theory, such as found in the work of Thomas Pynchon. In other cases, however, different definitions can be found.


Human computer systems
In computer science, the conception of human entropy E(S) related to the interactions involved in a computer-human system was introduced in 1992 by Polish-born, American industrial engineer Waldemar Karwowski, in what seems to be based on a type of fuzzy entropy logic. [3] Strangely, Karwowski uses the symbol “E” for entropy and "S" for system. In any event, according Karwowski, using a bit of argument, the “system entropy” E(S), such as a person in their office interacting with a computer, can be defined as the difference between the human entropy E(H) and the entropy of a system regulator E(R), which he defines as “ergonomic intervention efforts”, or in equation form: [4]

E(S) ≥ E(H) – E(R)

This view, to note, seems to have little connection to actual thermodynamics.

See also
Shannon Entropy and Thermodynamic Love – my thoughts (2009) – Hmolpedia threads.

References
1. Fairburn, William Armstrong. (1914). Human Chemistry, (entropy, pgs. 34-35). The Nation Valley Press, Inc.
2. Thims, Libb. (2007). Human Chemistry (Volume One) (entropy components of the human chemical bond, pgs. 270-72). Morrisville, NC: LuLu.
3. (a) Karwowski, Waldemar. (1992). “The human world of fuzziness, human entropy, and the need for the general fuzzy systems theory.” Journal of Japan Society for Fuzzy Theory and Systems, 4, 591-609.
(b) Karwowski, Waldemar. (1995). “A general modeling framework for the human-computer interaction based on the principle of ergonomic compatibility requirements and human entropy.” In Grieco, A. Molteni, G., Occhipinti, E. and Piccoli, B. (eds.) Work witrh Display Units 94 (Amesterda: North-Holland), pgs. 473-8.
4. Jacko, Julie A. and Sears, Andrew. (2003). The Human-computer Interaction Handbook: Fundamentals, Evolving Technologies, (pgs. 1229-30). Lawrence Erlbaum Assoicates.
5. (a) Huxley, Aldous. (1938). Ends and Means: An Enquiry Into the Ideals and Into the Methods Employed for their Realization (pg. 368). Chatto & Windus.
(b) Word Study (1969). G. C. Merriam Co.
6. Singhal, Raj K. (1995). Mine Planning and Equipment Selection 1995, (pg. 928: “human entropy”). Taylor & Francis.
7. Docherty, Thomas. (1986). John Donne, Undone. (pg. 19, 23, 76). Routledge.
8. Smith, Sam. (1992). “Global Dumbing: the Politics of Entropy”, Progressive Review, April.
9. Schmitz, John E.J. (2007). The Second Law of Life: Energy, Technology, and the Future of Earth as We Know It (pg. 119). William Andrew Publishing.
10. Hokikian, Jack. (2002). The Science of Disorder: Understanding the Complexity, Uncertainty, and Pollution in Our World (pg. 48). Los Feliz Publishing.
11. Goldstein, Martin and Goldstein, Inge F. (1993). The Refrigerator and the Universe: Understanding the Laws of Energy (section: Entropy of a mouse, pgs. 297-99). Harvard University Press.
12. Grandpierre, Attila. (2004). “Entropy and Information of Human Organisms and the Nature of Life.” Frontier Perspectives, Vol. 13, pg. 16. Mar. 22.
13. Martinas, Katalin and Grandpierre, Attilia. (2007). “Thermodynamic Measure for Nonequilibrium Processes”, Interdisciplinary Description of Complex Systems, 5(1): 1-13.
14. (a) Aoki, Ichiro. (1987). “Entropy Balance of White-Tailed Deer During Winter Night” (abs), Bulletin of Mathematical Biology, 49(3): 321-27.
(b) Aoki, Ichiro. (1992). “Entropy Physiology of Swine: a Macroscopic Viewpoint”, Journal of Theoretical Biology, 157(3):363-71.
(c) Aoki, Ichiro. (1994). “Entropy Production in Human Life Span: A Thermodynamic Measure for Aging” (abstract). Age 1: 29-31.
(d) Aoki, Ichiro. (1997). “Introduction to Entropy Physiology” (abs), Siebutso Butsuri, 37(3): 106-10.
15. Aoki, Achiro. (2012). Entropy Principle for the Development of Complex Biotic Systems: Organisms, Ecosystems, the Earth. Elsevier.
16. (a) Bernfeld, Seigfried, Feitelberg, Sergei. (1931). "The Principle of Entropy and the Death Instinct" ("Der Entropiesatz und der Todestrieb"). Int. J. Psycho-Anal., 12:61-81.
(b) Kapp, R.O. (1931). “Comments on Bernfeld and Feitelberg's 'The Principle of Entropy and the Death Instinct”. J. Psycho-Anal., 12:82-86.
(c) Spring, W.J. (1934). “A Critical Consideration of Bernfeld and Feitelberg's Theory of Psychic Energy”. Psychoanal Q., 3:445-473.
17. Lacan, Jacques and Miller, Jacques-Alain. (1991). The Ego in Freud’s Theory and in the Technique of Psychoanalysis, 1954-1955 (entropy, pgs. 77, 81, 83, 95, 114, 327, 334; Bernfeld and Feitelberg, pg. 115). W.W. Norton & Co.

Further reading
● Guskin, Dave. (2010). “Entropy and People”, GuskIntelligence, Jan 15.

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Sadi-Carnot
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