IQ: 200+This is a featured page

Brain (diagram)

Brain: the seat of intelligence.
In intellect categorizations, IQ: 200+ refers to the individuals, listed below, throughout history, who have had documented, tested, estimated, or childhood-ratioed intelligence quotients (IQs) at or above 200.
One of the original definitions of IQ, given by genius studies pioneer American psychologist Catherine Cox, in 1926, is:

IQ is thought to be a measure which expresses the relative brightness or intelligence of any given individual.”

The following 40 individuals, excluding eight (additions): Maxwell, Clausius, Young, Galileo, Euler, Copernicus, Majorana, and Gauss, have all be cited as having an IQ of 200 or above; below this photo collage, the collective group is re-ranked in a meta-analysis, smartest-of-all-time order:

Marnen Laibow-Koser 75Copernicus 75Terence TaoVoltaire 75Sidis (75px) newCurieLeonardo da VinciGrost 75
GalileoAdragon De MelloAlbert Einstein (1905) (75px)ShakespeareThomas WolseyIsaac Newton (75px)Sho YanoEmanuel Swedenborg
Dylan Jones 75Thomas Young 75Rick RosnerHypatiaJohn Stuart MillGoethe (75px)Gottfried Leibniz (75px)Ainan Cawley
Marilyn vos SavantMichael KearneyChristopher Hirata (small)Christopher LanganGauss 75Galton (75px)Nathan LeopoldMaxwell 75
Ettore Majorana 75Hugo GrotiusEdith SternClausius 75Kim Ung-YongNaida CamukovaTesla 75Euler 75

Each IQ is listed with a subscript, to signify source, as indicated:

 IQ_T \,Terman IQ An IQ determined by Stanford psychologist Lewis Terman, the inventor of the modern IQ scale (1916), in which IQ=100 is the value of the average intelligence; Terman, in 1917, assigned Francis Galton with the first-ever 200 IQ.
 IQ_C \,Cox IQThe assigned IQs of the three-hundred greatest geniuses who lived between 1450 to 1850, from the 1926 book Early Mental Traits of 300 Geniuses, determined by IQ-scale inventor Lewis Terman's PhD student Catherine Cox and a team of Stanford psychologists, based on both early mental traits and life-time intellectual accomplishments.
 IQ_B \,Buzan IQThe assigned IQs of the hundred greatest geniuses of all-time, from the 1994 Book of Genius, determined by English accelerated learning experts Tony Buzan and Ramond Keene, based on an 835-point genius scoring method.
 IQ_{CB} \,Cox-Buzan IQThe mean IQs of the thirteen agreed-upon geniuses common to both the Cox (1926) and Buzan (1994) listings; the big five anchor point geniuses being Goethe (213), Da Vinci (200), Leibniz (194), Newton (193), and Galileo (183).
 IQ_R \,Ratio IQAn IQ determined based on child age (1-16), a test score, and the age at which the test was designed for; there are dozens of "supposed" 200-range IQs calculated every year, often made by starry-eyed parents, using this method.
 IQ_M \,Mega Test IQ An extrapolated IQ based on the 48 question Mega Test, a perfect score said to assign a person with an IQ of 193-202, designed by American philosopher Ronald Hoeflin (IQ of 164), that ran in Omni magazine from 1985 to 1999.
 IQ_G \,Guinness Book IQAn IQ listed in the Guinness Book of World Records (c.1985-1991), under the section "Highest IQ"; in circa 1990, the section was removed on the grounds that the referenced justifications begin for such IQs were incoherent.
 IQ_P \,Psychologist IQAn IQ determined by an intelligence psychologist, e.g. in the 1940s, two different testers, one being Abraham Sperling, director of NY city's IQ testing, determined the IQ of William Sidis, before and after his death, to be between 250 and 300.
 IQ_O \,Other IQAn IQ determined by other means, e.g. a published opinion, or other contrived means, etc., each of which is discussed in detail on the IQ references page.
 IQ_? \,Estimated IQAn intuitively estimated IQ of what seem to be obviously overlooked 200-range IQ individuals, that seem to be missing from the above methods, as are discussed on the IQ: 200 (±) candidates page.

Those pictured to the right were involved in the development of either thermodynamics (T) or human thermodynamics (HT), or its precursors, e.g. differential equations, affinity chemistry, etc. The last column shows the modern function, depicted according to the laws of universe, indicative of each person's theory of existence, as described in each individual's self-defined greatest work. [1] The yesGreen tick(above 200) or noRed X(below 200) icons, as well as question mark Question mark(undecided) icon, gives a quick-mark idea as to if that person actually had a 200+ IQ as the references claim; theWikiicon links to a Wikipedia article on that person.

#Genius Rankings: IQ 200+ Name IQTheory
Goethe (75px) Johann Goethe
Green tick

 IQ_C \,=210
 IQ_B \,=215
 IQ_{CB} \,=213
 IQ_O \,=180, 225
A = TΔS – ΔH
AB + CD → BD + AC
Elective Affinities
Albert Einstein (1905) (75px)
Green tick

 IQ_B \,=205
 IQ_O \,=160, 200, 225

(E = mc²)
G ≠ Love
3Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci
Green tick

 IQ_C \,=180
 IQ_B \,=220
 IQ_{CB} \,=200
 IQ_O \,=210
Animal heat
Isaac Newton (75px)Isaac Newton
Green tick

 IQ_C \,=190
 IQ_B \,=195
 IQ_{CB} \,=193
 IQ_O \,=200
Affinity Chemistry
Differential Equations
Maxwell 75James Maxwell
Green tick

 IQ_? \,=190-205
Kinetic theory

Clausius 75Rudolf Clausius
Green tick

 IQ_? \,=190-205
Entropy (S)
Kinetic Theory
7Copernicus 75
Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543)
Question mark

 IQ_? \,=190-200
 IQ_C \,=160
 IQ_B \,=185
 IQ_{CB} \,=173
 IQ_T \,=100-110
Gottfried Leibniz (75px)Gottfried Leibniz
Green tick

 IQ_C \,=205
 IQ_B \,=182
 IQ_{CB} \,=194
Differential equations
(vis viva, vis mortua)
Sidis 75William Sidis
Green tick
(Will Hunting)

 IQ_P \,=250-300 (age 42)
 IQ_O \,=200
Black Holes
Entropy Reversal
Thomas Young 75Thomas Young (1733-1829)
Green tick

 IQ_? \,=185-200
Double Slits
Rosetta Stone
11Gauss 75
Carl Gauss
Question mark

 IQ_O \,=250-300
GalileoGalileo Galilei
Green tick

 IQ_C \,=185
 IQ_B \,=180
 IQ_{CB} \,=183
 IQ_? \,=185-200

Vacuum theory
13Euler 75
Leonhard Euler (1707-1783)
Question mark

 IQ_? \,=180-200
Reciprocity relation
Tesla 75Nikola Tesla
Question mark

 IQ_O \,=230-310
 IQ_O \,=200
 IQ_O \,=140-160

Defunct life theory
Human energy
William Shakespeare
Question mark

 IQ_B \,=210
(human chemistry)
Promethean heat
16Voltaire 75
Green tick

 IQ_C \,=190
 IQ_O \,=200
Hmol philosophy
Religious mythology
Ettore Majorana 75 Ettore Majorana (1906-1938)
Question mark

 IQ_O \,=183-200Quantum social mechanics
Exchange force
Chemical bond
18Emanuel Swedenborg
Emanuel Swedenborg
Question mark

 IQ_C \,=165
 IQ_G \,=210
 IQ_O \,=205

Nebular hypothesis
Atomic theory
Christopher Hirata (small)Christopher Hirata
Green tick
 IQ_R \,=225 (age 16)
X + Y ↔ XY
Relationship Physics
20John Stuart Mill

John Stuart Mill
Question mark

 IQ_C \,=180
 IQ_B \,=185
 IQ_{CB} \,=183
 IQ_O \,=200

Political philosopher
21Terence Tao
Terence Tao
Question mark

 IQ_R \,=220-230 (age 11)
 IQ_O \,=211

Green–Tao theorem
Question mark

 IQ_O \,=170-210

23Hugo Grotius
Hugo Grotius
Question mark

 IQ_C \,=200

24Thomas Wolsey
Thomas Wolsey
Question mark

 IQ_C \,=200

Marie Curie
Question mark

 IQ_B \,=180
 IQ_O \,=200

Galton (75px)Francis Galton
Red X

 IQ_T \,=200

Hereditary Genius
27Kim Ung-Yong
Kim Ung-Yong
Red X

 IQ_O \,=200
 IQ_G \,=210

Nuclear Physics
Civil Engineering
28Edith Stern

Edith Stern
Question mark
 IQ_O \,=200, 201-203
Computer Programming
29Dylan Jones 75
Dylan Jones
Question mark
 IQ_O \,=200 (age 10)
Computer Science
30Sho Yano
Sho Yano
Red X

 IQ_O \,=200 (age 10)

31Grost 75
Michael Grost
Red X
 IQ_R \,=200 (age 8)
32Naida Camukova
Naida Camukova
(c. 1976-)
Red X
 IQ_O \,=200
33Michael Kearney
Michael Kearney
Red X

 IQ_R \,=325 (age 4)
 IQ_O \,=200 (age 14)

Computer Science
34Adragon De Mello
Adragon De Mello
Red X

 IQ_R \,=400 (age 5)

35Ainan Cawley
Ainan Cawley

Question mark
 IQ_R \,=263-349 (age 7)
36Marnen Laibow-Koser 75
Marnen Laibow-Koser
Red X

Wikipedia user icon
 IQ_R \,=268

Computer science
37Nathan Leopold
Nathan Leopold
Red X

 IQ_O \,=200, 206-210

38Christopher Langan
Christopher Langan
Red X

 IQ_M \,=174, 190
 IQ_O \,=195, 190-210

Cognitive theoretic model
Intelligent Design
39Marilyn vos Savant
Marilyn vos Savant
Red X

 IQ_M \,=186 (age 39)
 IQ_O \,=127 (age 7), 167
 IQ_R \,=157
 IQ_G \,=228

40Rick Rosner
Rick Rosner
Red X

 IQ_R \,=140 (age 18)
 IQ_M \,=180-200
 IQ_O \,=250

TV Producer
Update: see Genius IQ table (expanded version of this page) a re-ranking of the 1000 greatest geniuses (with IQ over 140) of all time.


The following is a 56-minute four-part video overview of the above table:

(1 of 4)
(2 of 4)
(3 of 4)
(4 of 4)

200-range IQ tables | Historical
The backbone of the above table is the grouping of the 200+ range geniuses from both the 1926 Catherine Cox IQ list (of 300 geniuses) and the 1994 Tony Buzan IQ list (of 100 geniuses), merged together (see: IQ tables for full list), the two groups shown below, respectively:

Cox's 200-range Geniuses (1926) of 300-geniuses
Buzan's 200-range Geniuses (1994) of 100-geniuses

1.Goethe (75px) Goethe (IQ=210)Early Mental Traits of Three Hundred Geniuses
1.Leonardo da VinciDa Vinci (IQ=220)Buzan's Book of Genius (1994)
2.Gottfried Leibniz (75px) Leibnitz (IQ=205)
2.Goethe (75px) Goethe (IQ=215)
3.Hugo Grotius Grotius (IQ=200)
3.ShakespeareShakespeare (IQ=210)
4.Thomas Wolsey Wolsey (IQ=200)
4.Albert Einstein (1905) (75px) Einstein (IQ=205)

What is evidently striking about these two independent listings of genius IQs is odd coincidence of finding the same person (out of more than several dozen possible billion, come and gone) in the top-two spots, namely German polymath Johann Goethe, who by no coincidence is the core thinker in this encyclopedia of the 500+ EoHT biographies. To clarify, not only was each IQ assigned using completely different methodologies (Cox using a biographical-achievement method; Buzan using a 9-category, 835-point scoring method), but the Buzan listing, compiled with the help of English chess master and literature historian Raymond Keene, seems to have been done without knowledge of the previous work of Cox (and her group). Buzan's book does not mention Cox and they specifically state, in introducing their list, that: "what follows is the world's first attempt to rank the greatest geniuses of history". In sum, the above table was built by starting with these seven established 200+ range geniuses, but then adding to it other references and citations to individuals in the 200+ plus range (see: IQ: 200+ (references) for further discussion).

IQ: 200± candidates
See main: IQ: 200 (±) candidates
There may, in all probability, exist overlooked individuals (e.g. Maxwell, Clausius, Euler, Tesla, Helmholtz, Young, etc.) not listed above, who would seem to have likely had a 200-range IQ. Of dominance in this group is Scottish physicist James Maxwell, who produced such as large corpus and density of intellectual work, in many different areas, e.g. kinetic theory, thermodynamics, electromagnetic theory, intellectual mentor to Einstein (one of three photos Einstein kept on the wall of his study), photography, etc., in such a short lifespan (died at 48), that he seems to protrude significantly as a missing individual in ceiling range IQs. Some of these individuals, namely Maxwell, Clausius, and Copernicus, are included above.

Last man to know everything
See main: Last person to know everything
To situate the premise of the 200+ IQ in the context near mastery of knowledge, we will highlight those individuals who have been famously called “the last man to know everything”. To situate this postulate in the context of a date, French philosopher Pierre Levy argues, in his 1994 book Collective Intelligence, that the publication of Denis Didedot and Jean d’Almbert’s Encyclopedie (1751-1772) marks “the end of an area in which a single human being was able to comprehend the totality of knowledge.” [62] Some of the main "all-knowing" people, are listed chronologically below, one, from the above table, being Goethe (IQ=180-225), have been said to have be in possession of this trait of total knowledge attainment: [43]

Last All-Knowing Person
Quick Description
1.Athanasius Kircher 75Athanasius Kircher (1602-1680)
German scholar; described as the "master of a 100 arts".
2.Thomas Young 75Thomas Young (1733-1829)
English physician and scientist; translator of the Rosetta stone, inventor of the double slits experiment (1801), can first to coin the term energy (1807), in its modern formulation.
3.Goethe 75 new Johann Goethe (1749-1832)180-225German writer and scientist; described as the "prince of the mind"; founder of human chemistry.
4.Alexander Humboldt 75Alexander Humboldt (1769-1859)185German naturalist; the founder of biogeography.

Young deserves to be called a Renaissance man or uomo universale, like Goethe, Franklin, or Humboldt—or even, maybe, the most eminent example of such a man in his age.”
Andrew Robinson
Andrew Robinson 75 English science historian, The Last Man Who Knew Everything: Thomas Young (2006)
Goethe (200px)
Goethe: the ceiling genius.

Goethe: polymath, universal genius, the last 'true' man to know everything
Central among this group of all-knowing sages, as discussed further below, is German polymath Johann Goethe, whose ranking is unprecedented: largest active vocabulary (90,000 words); #1 Cox genius (out of 300); #2 Buzan genius (out of 100); #2 biggest world author (WorldCat literature: 2010);

● at age 7, to sugar the pill of grammar, he invented a novel in which the members of a family in various parts of the world wrote letters to each other in six different languages and styles;
● at age 16, entered the University of Leipzig;
● at age of 19, during his studies of Fraulen von Klettenberg and Paracelsus, was conducting chemical experiments to reveal the ‘principle that permeates the whole universe’;
● at age 20 he had published his first volume of poems and had studied enough medicine to qualify to as a physician;
● at age 21, he entered the University of Strasbourg, completing a liberal arts curriculum with courses in political science, history, anatomy, surgery, and chemistry; completed dissertation on “The Legislature, On the Power of the Magistrate to Determine Religion and Culture”; also completed PhD dissertation on history.
● by 22, prepared and defended 65 theses, received his law degree, and began practicing;
● by 24, he had written his great tale Werther and by 26 was world famous;
● at age 31 (1780), had worked out the basics of his evolution theory, a biological 'metamorphosis' theory, later to be cited by Darwin as being a forerunner to his own theory; at age 36 (1785), demonstrated through comparative osteology that humans posses an intermaxillary bone of the upper jaw as found in other animals, as proof that humans had evolved from lower animals;
● at age 47, in his Third Lecture on Anatomy, gave his first detailed description of 'affinity'.
● at age 50 (1799), founded the science of human chemistry, as explained in his theory of "human elective affinities"; publishing the final version in 1809 (age 60), in his Elective Affinities, in which the characters are not only governed by affinity chemistry but also discuss the theory amongst themselves;
● at age 61 (1810), he published his theory of colors, rival to Newton's theory of colors, to explain light and perception;
● at age 77, was working out a law to explain the blue color of the sky (a phenomenon not fully explained until 1871 by John Strutt); and was working to figure out French chemist Claude Berthollet’s 1799 theory of split affinities (a phenomenon not solved until the theory of 'valence' in the 1850s)
● at age 82, the year of his death (1832), finished the work he is best known-for Faust, the story of a man who is striving to learn everything that can be known and who sells his soul to the devil so to obtain the ultimate in knowledge possession.

Goethe's mastery of knowledge is summarized by the following collection of quotes, from the perspective of other famous polymaths, geniuses, genius studies experts, famous people, and Nobel Laureates, the last of which situates Goethe as the intellectual forefather to Einstein, who kept a bust of Goethe and a fifty-two volume set of Goethe's collected works in his study: [45]

“Goethe, he used to say, was the last man in the world who knew everything; after Goethe (d. 1832), there was too much to know for any one person to know it all.”
Anon German school teacher (circa, before 1966)

“Goethe, poet and philosopher: one of the greatest men of genius the world has produced.”
Francis Galton (IQ=200) Galton 75 new English polymath, Hereditary Genius (1869)

“Goethe was last true polymath to walk the earth."
George Eliot (IQ=185)Eliot 75 English novelist (1871)

“Goethe comes as close to deserving the title of a universal genius as any man who has ever lived.”
Sterling BrownSterling Brown 75African-American literature professor (1973)

“One rater (M) has scored on the basis of the record of Goethe’s youth an IQ of 225. Goethe’s true IQ may in the history of mankind have been equaled in a few instances; one may well wonder whether it has ever been exceeded?”

Catherine CoxCox 75American psychologist, Early Mental Traits of 300 Geniuses (1926)

Without intellectual and individual freedom there would have been no Shakespeare, no Goethe, no Faraday.
Albert Einstein (IQ=160-225)
Einstein 75 (older)German-born American physicist (1933), kept a plaster bust of Goethe in is drawing room.

“History is unkind to polymaths. No biographer will readily tackle a subject whose range of skills far exceeds his own, while the rest of us, with or without biographies to read, have no mental ‘slot’ in which to keep a polymath’s memory fresh. So the polymath gets forgotten or at best, squashed into a category we can recognize, in the way Goethe is remembered as a poet, despite his claim to have been a scientist.”
Alexander MurrayAlexander Murray 75Oxford historian, 1994 bicentenary symposium for English polymath William Jones

Scholars agree that Goethe was the last universal genius: practically nothing within reach of the human mind escaped his attention.”
Walter Wadepuhl Walter Wadepuhl 75German-born American German studies professor, Goethe’s Interest in the New World (1932)

“It was upon hearing Goethe’s beautiful essay on nature that I decided to go to medical school.”

Sigmund Freud (IQ=156)Freud 75Austrian psychologist, autobiograhical notes (1873)

“The middle of the eighteenth century witnessed the first powerful revolt against cultural tradition, which is marked by Rousseau. This tradition was restarted by universal genius Goethe. But it was restarted for the last time. Goethe had not been succeeded by another universal genius.”
– Ernst CurtiusErnst Curtius
German literary scholar, “The Medieval Bases of Western Thought” (1949)

“For what concerns chemistry, Goethe was not far from Newton.”
Ilya PrigoginePrigogine 75Belgian chemical thermodynamicist (1984), Nobel Prize thermodynamics (1971)

Since my method is juxtaposition, I delight in bringing together universal genius Goethe, with Sigmund Freud, Samuel Johnson, and Thomas Mann.
Harold Bloom
Harold Bloom 75American literary critique, Genius: A Mosaic of One-Hundred Exemplary Creative Minds (2002)

“In 1808, German polymath Johann Goethe used Bergman’s affinity tables as a basis for human behavior and in doing so wrote the classic novella Elective Affinities, a book that marks the start of the science of human chemistry.”
Libb ThimsThims 75American chemical engineer, Human Chemistry (2007)

Throughout his life Einstein was a man of the book, to a much higher degree than other scientists. The remarkably diverse collection of volumes in his library grew constantly. If we look only at the German-language books published before 1910 that survived Einstein’s Princeton household, the list includes much of the cannon of the time: Boltzmann, Buchner, Friedrich Hebbel, the works of Heine in two editions, Helmholtz, von Humboldt, the many books of Kant, Gotthold Lessing, Mach, Nietzsche, and Schopenhauer. But what looms largest are the collected works of Johann von Goethe in a thirty-six volume edition and another of twelve volumes, plus two volumes on his Optics, the exchange of letters between Goethe and Schiller, and a separate volume of Faust.”
Gerald Holton Gerald Holton 75 German-born American physicist (2008), Harvard PhD under Percy Bridgman, 1948

“The age of Faust [1772-1882] had been the age of the ‘Renaissance man’, a time when the possibility of a universal knowledge, mastery of the arts and sciences, still seemed to be open to the ambitious mind; [thereafter] the separation and dispersion of intellectual endeavors, dubbed the ‘two cultures’ by C.P. Snow, [resulted]; [in the years to follow, individuals such as] Thomas Young (IQ=200?), Humphry Davy (IQ=185), [and] William Hamilton (IQ=170), could all make serious claims to humanistic breadth, if not universality, in their intellectual accomplishments; nevertheless, a rift between the arts and the sciences was evident.”
– Frederick Burwick (1986), American literature scholar

To sum up this collections of quotes, Goethe once famously said that “if one does not know what went on for the last three thousand years, he or she remains ignorant, merely surviving from day-to-day.”

● Goethe, at the age of about 80, had a 5,000 book personal library.
● Newton’s personal library consisted of 1,752 books, of which 369 were scientific works.
● Young commented in his autobiography: “though he wrote with rapidity, he read but slowly, [and] perhaps the whole list of the works that he studied, in the course of 50 years, does not amount to more than a thousand volumes: while it is said that William King the poet read no fewer than seven thousand in the course of his residence of seven years at Oxford.”
● Photo’s of Einstein’s personal library shows about 600-700 books.

Top Five WorldCat Identities
According to computer cataloging of the world’s literature, as determined by WorldCat Identities, the five biggest names in world literature (excluding the names Jesus Christ and Mary, which derive from the Egyptian Osiris and Isis [stella maris] resurrection story (link), are as follows:

1.ShakespeareShakespeare: 39,345 works (Hamlet #1) in 110,020 publications in 138 languages and 4,387,523 library holdings (link). WorldCat Identities top 100

2.Goethe 75 newGoethe: 26,918 works (Faust #1) in 63,794 publications in 81 languages and 698,814 library holdings (link).

3.Mozart 75Mozart: 31,429 works (Le Nozze de Figaro #1) in 103,242 publications in 65 languages and 937,666 library holdings (link).

4.Lincoln 75Lincoln: 19,904 works in 30,491 publications in 65 languages and 1,143,104 library holdings (link).

5.Bach 75Bach:26,953 works (Brandenburg concertos #1) in 87,937 publications in 41 languages and 834,142 library holdings (link).
Love (Human Chemistry 101) icond
Chemical thermodynamics | of human relationships
One of the great unanswered questions of modern times is "what is love?" (or is love a chemical reaction?); along with what happens when you die? and what is the meaning of life? The question of the nature of love (and opposite hate) is one of the all-time greatest philosophical conundrums ever faced by modern man. Four of the 200+ IQ group have situated opinions and theories on this topic, shown below ranked by correctness of theory:

Theory of Relationships
1.Goethe 75 newJohann Goethe (IQ=180-225) ● At age 60 (1809), using a country estate and surrounding town as his "reacting system", used Bergman’s 64 affinity equations to write out 36 human chemical reactions, the overarching reaction being a double displacement reaction:

AB + CD → BD + AC (governing equation used: A = TΔS – ΔH)

2.Christopher Hirata 75pxChristopher Hirata (IQ=225) ● At age 20 (2000), using the undergraduate body of students (900) at CalTech as his “reacting system”, used thermochemistry theory learned in his chemistry classes, to model the formation and separation of student relationships as sets of reversible combination reactions:

X + Y ↔ XY (governing equation used: ΔG = ΔH – TΔS

He defined this subject as the "physics of relationships."
3.Isaac Newton (75px)Isaac Newton
● At age 43 (1686), commented on his mastery of the gravitational movement of the celestial objects, that:

“I wish we could derive the rest of the phenomena of nature by the same kind of reasoning from mechanical principles; for I am induced by many reasons to suspect that they may all depend upon certain forces by which the particles of bodies, by some causes hitherto unknown, are either mutually impelled towards each other, and cohere in regular figures, or are repelled and recede from each other.”

● At age 75 (1718), in his famous Query 31, verbally stated the experimental basis behind the construction of affinity tables, which thus later led to the development of the following expression (stated by Helmholtz in 1882):

A = -ΔG (used by Goethe and Hirata, above)

4.Einstein 75 (older)Albert Einstein (IQ=160-225) ● At age 41 (1920), when queried about his views on the science of love, commented: [53]

“Falling in love is not the most stupid thing that people do, but gravitation cannot be held responsible for it. How on earth are you ever going to explain in terms of chemistry and physics so important a biological phenomenon as first love?

Einstein, restricted to cold hard mathematical thinking, had very little to say on very complex topic of love; whereas, by comparison, intuitive mathematician Goethe, not only has a clue, but presented an entire theory (1809) on the physics and chemistry if love, in three layers of Gestalt, some hundred years prior to Einstein. What is puzzling, however, in Einstein's comment is that not only did he keep a bust of Goethe in is house, but in his library of books, what looms largest are the collected works of Goethe, contained in some 52-volumes: a thirty-six volume edition and another of twelve volumes, plus two volumes on his Optics, the exchange of letters between Goethe and Schiller, and a separate volume of Faust. In other words, Einstein, being such a student of Goethe, should have been quite knowledgeable of Goethe’s human affinity theories on love? On the other hand, although Einstein was well-steeped in thermodynamics, having written his first 30 papers on thermodynamics, the more advanced subject of chemical thermodynamics, would no essentially come into its own until after 1923, the publication of LewisThermodynamics and the Free Energy of Chemical Substances, wherein the translation of Goethe’s “affinities” to the modern “free energy” change becomes apparent. Possibly, Einstein had not yet made the connection in 1920, the time of his famous quote?

Age of first spoken word
The following gives a listing of the known ages of the first spoken word for known 200-range geniuses. The mean age at which children (N=241), tested, in the age range 2.5 to 12.5, on the Stanford-Binet, to have an IQ from 160 to 237+, speak their first word is nine months (link).



2 weeksAinan CawleySaid “Ayer” (water in Malay), whenever he was thirsty; also said “poo”, at five weeks, whenever he needed his diaper changed (link).
Ainan Cawley (IQ= 263-349)
6 weeksAdragon De MelloSaid “hello” at six weeks (link).
Adragon De Mello (IQ=400)
3 monthsMarnen Laibow-Koser 75Speaking first words and grammatically correct sentences (IQ:R).
Marnen Laibow-Koser (IQ=268)
4 monthsMichael KearneySaid “daddy and “mama” at four months (link).
Michael Kearney (IQ=200-325)
4 monthsKim Ung-Yong Spoke first word; also talking at five months; writing at seven months.
Kim Ung-Yong (IQ=200-210)
4 monthsNathan LeopoldSpoke first words.
Nathan Leopold (IQ=200-210)
6 monthsSidis (75px) newSaid “door”; also pointed to and said “moon” at seven months (link); at about nine months said "he liked things, doors and people, that move."
William Sidis (IQ=250-300)
6 monthsChristopher Langan Began talking at six months; reading at three years (link).
Christopher Langan (IQ=174-210)
8 monthsAlia SaburBegan talking at eight months (link)
Alia Sabur (1989-) (IQ=?)
12 monthsPerson icon (29x43)Spoke first word (IQ:C).
Ian Baker (1980-) (IQ=200)
13 monthsPerson icon (29x43)Spoke first word (IQ:C).
Adrian Seng (1977-) (IQ=233)
College graduation cap (s)
Youngest college graduate
The following gives a listing of the known youngest college graduates. Youngest BS obtained by Michael Kearney, age 14; the youngest MS obtained by Michael Kearney, age 14; the youngest PhD obtained Kim Ung-Yong, age 14 or 15 (this later age needs to be fact checked). [63]

8Michael KearneyMichael Kearney
AS geology
BS anthropology (age 10)
MS biochemistry (age 14)
MS computer science (age 17)
1992Completed associates degree in geology from Santa Rosa Junior College (age 8), BS in anthropology from the University of South Alabama (age 10), MS in biochemistry from Middle Tennessee State University (age 14), and MS in computer science from Vanderbilt University (age 17).
11Adragon De MelloAdragon De Mello
BS computational mathematics1987At 8 he was enrolled at Cabrillo College, a two-year community college in Santa Cruz, California, where he studied physics and mathematics getting straight As; at 10 he transferred to the University of California at Santa Cruz to major in computation mathematics, graduating a year later (age 11). He was listed in the Guinness Book as being the youngest college graduate in history (only to be beat by Michael Kearney in 1992).
12Sho YanoSho Yano
BS biology
PhD genetics (age 18)
MD (age 21)
2002 Completed BS in biology with minor in chemistry (age 12), from the Loyola University Chicago; entered combined MD-PhD program, in molecular genetics and cytology (age 13) at the University of Chicago Medical School; completed PhD in molecular genetics and cell biology (age 18); third year medical school student as of 2010.
12Person icon (29x43)Jay Luo
BS mathematics (age 12)1982Completed his BS mathematics at Boise State University in 1982 (age 12), with a B+ average, degree completed in three years (link); had started graduate work at Stanford afterward, but dropped out.
12?Kim Ung-YongKim Ung-Yong
BS physics
MS physics (14)
PhD physics (age 15)
PhD civil engineering (age 22)
1976?Admitted to the physics department of Hanyang University (age 5), BS physics (age 12), MS physics (age 14), and PhD physics (age 15) from Colorado State University (link); PhD civil engineering (age 22), from Chungbuk National University.
13Ruth LawrenceRuth Lawrence (1971-)
BS mathematics
BS physics (age 14)
PhD (age 17)
1985BS mathematics (1985) at age 13, BS physics (1986) age 14, and PhD (1989) age 17 at the University of Oxford; academic post at Harvard (1990) at age 19, and associate professor with tenure at the University of Michigan in 1997.
13Gregory SmithGregory Smith
(IQ=186, 200+)
BS mathematics
MS mathematics (age 16)
2002BS in mathematics, in 2002 (age 13) from Randolph-Macon College; in 2006 (age 16), he completed his MS in mathematics; as of 2010, he is working towards a second graduate degree in computational biology (link); plans to have four PhDs by age 27 (2016) in: math, aerospace engineering, international relations, and biomedical research (link).
13Balamurali Ambati 75Balamurali Ambati (1977-)
BS biology
MD (age 17)
1990Completed his BS biology, at age 13 from New York University; MD at age 17 from Mount Sinai School of Medicine; ophthalmology residency at Havard; in circa 1987; set a goal to become the youngest graduate of medical school after reading about Ben-Abrahman’s age 18 MD record in the Guinness Book (link), and did so at age 17 years, 294 days.
14Thomas WolseyThomas Wolsey
BS arts1486Completed his bachelor's in arts at Oxford University at age 14.
14Stephen A. Baccus 75Stephen A. Baccus
BS computer science
JD (age 16)
MS computer science (18)
PhD neuroscience (29)

IQ estimated by psychologist Aaron Stern (father of Edith Stern [IQ=203]), following an age 10 interview; BS computer science, University of Miami; entered University of Miami’s law school at 14, graduating at 16, making a name for himself by successfully suing the State of New York for its age restrictions on the bar exam after receiving a special waiver in Florida; began practicing law at 17; MS computer science from NYU age 18; made partner in a firm by 19 (link); PhD in neuroscience age 29 at University of Miami (link); currently neurobiology professor at Stanford Medical School.
14Eric DemaineEric Demaine (1981-)
MS mathematics (age 15)
PhD (age 20)
1995BS age 14; MS mathematics age 15; PhD age 20; joined the MIT faculty in 2001, at age 20, reportedly the youngest professor in the history of MIT.
14Alia SaburAlia Sabur
BS applied mathematics
MS (age 17)
PhD materials science and engineering (age 18)
2003Completed BS (2003) in applied mathematics from Stony Brook University at age 14; MS (2006) and PhD in materials science and engineering at Drexel University; professor of mathematics at age 19.
14Kathleen Holtz 75 Kathleen Holtz (1989-)
JD (age 18)
2003 Holtz started at Cal State LA at age 10; entered UCLA Law at 15, earning a spot on the law review; passed the bar exam, first time around in 2007 (age 18).
15Grost 75Michael Grost
BS mathematics
MS mathematics (age 17)
PhD mathematics (age 23)
1969Graduated from MSU, at age 15, with BS in mathematics; MS age (17); PhD in mathematics from the University of Michigan at age 23.
15Person icon (29x43)Edith Stern
BS science
PhD mathematics (age 18)
1967Enrolled in college at 12; BS in science from Florida Atlantic University (age 15), assistant professor of mathematics at MSU at 15; PhD in mathematics at age 18.
15Person icon (29x43)Adrian Seng (1977-)
MS (age 17)
1992completed BS at age 15; completed MS at age 17; then won major scholarship to study math at a prestigious American university.
16Sidis (75px) newWilliam Sidis
BS mathematics1914 Passed Harvard medical school anatomy exams (age 6); MIT entrance example (age 8); graduated high school (age 9); BS mathematics at Harvard in 1914 (age 16); professor of mathematics at Rice University (age 17), while pursuing PhD; age 18 to 19 was in Harvard Law School, then quit in his last semester, while in good academic standing, for no apparent reason; age 22, working on advance physics problems at MIT, but soon resigned, after learning of the military applications.
16Dylan Jones 75Dylan Jones (1992-)
BS mathematical and computer science; minor in bioengineering and life sciences2007Engineering freshman at Colorado School of Mines at age 10 (link); switched majors to graduate with a BS in math and computer science, with a minor in bioengineering and life sciences (age 16); completed first year of medical by age 17 (2009) and taking into account a seven-year residency, plans to be a board certified neurosurgeon by the time he's 28 (2020) (link)
17John McClellan 75 John McClellan (1896-1977) JD (age 17)1913 Admitted to the Arkansas Bar Association in 1913 at age seventeen, having previously studied law in his father’s office.
18Christopher Hirata 75pxChristopher Hirata
BS physics
PhD physics (age 22)
2001At age 14 entered Caltech; began working with NASA at age 16 on a project exploring the possibility of colonizing Mars; completed BS at age 18 from Caltech with a 4.2 GPA; completed PhD in physics (2005) at age 22 at Princeton; currently is an assistant professor of astrophysics at CalTech.

Prodigy-on-prodigy influence
The following are known cases of prodigies hearing stories of other prodigies (such as burnout) and being particularly driven or influenced by this:

● Early on, the Tao family (Terence Tao) had met Jay Luo during a trip to the US and noted the pitfalls of the approach of parental fixation with child’s IQ as evidenced by Luo’s burnout (link); Jay Luo (1970-) had completed his BS mathematics at Boise State University in 1982 (age 12), with a B+ average, degree completed in three years (link); had started graduate work at Stanford afterward, but dropped out.
● Sho Yano, who had been told his IQ was tested at about 200, was told before age 12, by his mother, of the story of another child prodigy whose IQ registered 220, and how as the child grew into adulthood, he did nothing with his intelligence, and was never heard from again; after which Yano was determined not to let the same fate happen to him.
● Michael Kearney, early on, had learned of Adragon De Mello’s age 11 college graduation record, and followup fate, and specifically set out to beat De Mello’s record by one year, which he did.
● Balamurali Ambati (1977-) mastered calculus age 4; BS age 13 from New York University; MD at age 17 from Mount Sinai School of Medicine; ophthalmology residency at Havard; in circa 1987, set a goal to become the youngest graduate of medical school after reading about Ben-Abrahman’s record in the Guinness Book (link), did so at age 17 years, 294 days.

Parentally-created geniuses
The following are the geniuses known to have been a product of their father’s view or "experiment" that geniuses are made not born:

John Stuart Mill (IQ=200) is the classic example. He was the eldest son of the Scottish philosopher, historian, and economist James Mill and Harriet Burrow. John Stuart was educated by his father, with the advice and assistance of Jeremy Bentham and Francis Place. He was given an extremely rigorous upbringing, and was deliberately shielded from association with children his own age other than his siblings. His father, a follower of Bentham and an adherent of associationism, had as his explicit aim to create a genius intellect that would carry on the cause of utilitarianism and its implementation after he and Bentham had died.

● Adragon De Mello (IQ=400) is the extreme example of a paternal-driven genius child. Adragon seems to have had the same relationship to his father as Beethoven had to his. Beethoven's father wanted to create the next Mozart and drove him relentlessly from birth to adulthood, beating him along the way, to achieve perfection. Before Adragon was born, Agustin De Mello, Adragon’s father, had written a book about a child prodigy that was born that went on to save the world, so to speak, with his great intellect. Cathy Gunn, Adragon’s mother, said she was horrified by the father's obsessive pressure on their son but there was nothing she could do about it, she says. She eventually had to leave the family, fearing for her life. Agustin De Mello would go to any lengths to get his way, according to Gunn. "He threatened to kill himself in front of me. He did that in front of A.D. in order to get him to do things," she recalls. Adragon's father would yell at the top of his voice and scolding the child to no end to achieve his vision. After Adragon began to burnout, his father threatened to come into the college with a hammer and bash the teacher’s heads in if they did not give Adragon his degree. Adragon eventually was put into foster care.

William Sidis (IQ=250-300) is a another person in the paternal-driven category. Sidis’ father, Boris Sidis, before William was born, was locked in body-sized cell for one-year in Russian for teaching presents to read and was released on the condition that he never teach again, after which he escaped to American, and considered the Boston Public Library to be something akin to walking into the gates of heaven, in his own words. With the birth of his son, he hypothesized that if he used William James reserve energy theory of the mind, in the accelerated raising of his son, who he named after William James, that he could achieve a genius mind of ability never before seen. William Sidis was later locked in his parent’s asylum, eventually running away, and describing some of the events, in retrospect, as the “old tortures”.

● Edith Stern (IQ=200-203) is noted for her father Aaron Stern's famous “Edith experiment” (or Edith Project), which he carried out on his daughter, a premise that by using the certain type of progressive education, he could turn even a tribal child into a genius. “Aaron Stern, whose daughter Edith is the subject of his book The Making of a Genius (Renaissance Publications, 1971), stated that he could foster the same meteoric IQ in the children of the Tasaday tribe, a Stone Age people living in the Philippines.”

● Susan Polgar, Judith Polgar, and Sofia Polgar (IQs in the 170 to 180 range) were part of an "educational experiment" carried out by their father László Polgár, who sought to prove that children could make exceptional achievements if trained in a specialist subject from a very early age. "Geniuses are made, not born," was László's thesis. He and his wife Klara educated their three daughters at home, with chess as the specialist subject.

● Sufiah Yusuf (1984-), a child math prodigy who entered Oxford at age 13, but eventually ran away and become a $400 per date ($95,000 annually) escort. Her domineering father Farooq Yusuf, early on subjected her to his "accelerated learning technique", in which her days revolved around stretching and breathing exercises in freezing-temperature rooms so as "to keep her brain attentive"; Sufiah would then study hard and be forced to play tennis with just as much intensity as fanatical Farooq drove her on. The routine was so effective, that Sufiah was seeded number eight in the country for under 21s (link). After three years at Oxford (age 15), Sufiah ran away, sparking a massive police hunt. In 2008, she commented that “she is still haunted by her hellish childhood-subjected to her father Farooq's accelerated learning technique, where she studied math day in day out in rooms kept freezing cold to improve her concentration. "As I grew older I began to clash with my father," she says. "He was violent on occasions. Because he pushed me so far academically, I became more confident for a girl of my age. I grew up too quickly. From 11, I was studying maths all the time. I didn't have any friends. I wasn't in the Brownies. My father said they didn't teach Muslim values. I hardly ever played with other children" (link). She passed her maths A level aged 12 and started at St Hilda's College, Oxford. "It was an amazing place but I was too young. By the time I was 15, I wanted to be in control of my life. I fought back." Sufiah sparked a two week nationwide police hunt when she ran away instead of going home at the end of term, saying she'd "had enough of 15 years of physical and emotional abuse".

● Asia Carrera (IQ=156) is similar to Yusuf’s story is the story; Carnegie Hall pianist (age 13); studying Japanese and economics at Rutgers University; homeless by age 17, after running away from home because of the pressure her demanding parents put on her; after which she turned to stripping, and then to porn, so to never be homeless again, in her own words.

Others who might well fall in the parentally created category include: Michael Kearney (whose father had absenteeism regrets) and Ainan Cawley (whose father seems to have missed or failed prodigy regrets in himself).

See main: Greatest mathematician ever; See also: History of differential equations
An interesting benchmark, among individuals claiming or being cited with a 200+ IQ, as well as other unknown IQs listed on this page, is the age at which calculus was learned. Firstly, of course, Newton (1665) and Leibniz (1674), independently invented calculus and later differential equations:

Isaac Newton (75px)Isaac Newton (IQ=190-200)at age 22 (1665) invented the first form of the calculus, which he called "the method of fluxions and fluents" (link) (link).
Gottfried Leibniz (75px)Gottfried Leibniz (IQ=205)at age 28 (1674) independently invented his own variant of the calculus (link).

The following individuals, whose calculus age are known, are ranked by age at which calculus was learned or mastered:

1.Kim Ung-YongKim Ung-Yong (IQ=200-210)3 Began to learn differential calculus at age 3 (link); solving integral calculus problems at age 4 (1967) (link); on Nov 2, 1967, at age 4, he solved an advanced stochastic differential equation (link); at age 5, was solving complicated differential and integral calculus problems (link).
2.Balamurali Ambati 75Balamurali Ambati (IQ=?)4mastered calculus at age 4 (1981) (link).
3.Michael KearneyMichael Kearney (IQ=325)6 at age 6 (1988) was wrapping up homework on calculus to get his high school diploma (link).
4.Terence TaoTerence Tao (IQ=211-230)7 started to learn calculus when he was 7 (1982), at which age he began high school; by 9 he was already very good at university-level calculus; by 11, he was thriving in international mathematics competitions (link).
5.John von Neumann John Neumann (IQ=163-180)8learned calculus at age 8 (link).
6.Adragon De MelloAdragon De Mello (IQ=400)9learned calculus at age 9 (1985) (link).
7.SidisWilliam Sidis (IQ=200-300)9mastered differential and integral calculus at 9 or 10 years (link).
8.Grost 75 Michael Grost (IQ=200) 10 before age 8, had worked 2 to the 80th power, on a black board, in two hours time; mother could not help much with calculus questions, so at age 10 (1964) enrolled at Michigan State University. (link)
9.Sky ChoiSky Choi (IQ=?)11taking Calculus II, Physics with Calculus I, at age 12 (2009), at Florida International University (link).
10.John Stuart MillJohn Mill (IQ=180-200)11learned calculus by age 11 (Catherine Cox).
11.Albert Einstein (1905) (75px)Albert Einstein (IQ=160-225)12taught himself calculus at age 12 (1891); integral and differential calculus by 13 (link) (link); in 1935, a rabbi in Princeton showed Einstein a clipping of the Ripley’s column with the headline “Greatest living mathematician failed in mathematics.” Einstein laughed. “I never failed in mathematics,” he replied, correctly. “Before I was fifteen I had mastered differential and integral calculus” (link).
12.Christopher Hirata (small)Christopher Hirata (IQ=225)13at age 14 (1997), upon arriving at Caltech, he registered one of the highest scores in history on the Institute's mathematics diagnostic tests, thereby enabling him to forego freshman calculus and sophomore differential equations for a more difficult upper-division class (link).

Other interesting people include: Nobel Laureates Murray Gell-Mann (IQ=?), who taught himself calculus at age 7 (link) and Richard Feynman (IQ=125) was reading Calculus for the Practical Man, at age 13 (link), and had learned differential and integral calculus by 15 (link).

In the context of mathematics, it is interesting to note that there has been much discussion on Goethe’s relationship with mathematics, the subject of which, along with astronomy, he seemed to have peculiar relationship with. [49] To exemplify, in 1826, in his discussion of his objection to the work on light and color by English physicist Isaac Newton, Goethe comments: [57]

“I receive mathematics as the most sublime and useful science, so long as they are applied in their proper place; but I cannot commend the misuse of them in matters which do not belong to their sphere, and in which noble science as they are, they seem to be mere nonsense. As if things only exist when they can be mathematically demonstrated. It would be foolish for a man not to believe in a woman’s love for him because she could not prove it to him mathematically. She can mathematically prove her dowry, but not her love. The mathematicians did not find out the metamorphosis of plants. I have achieved this discovery without mathematics, and the mathematicians were forced to put up with it. To understand the phenomena of color nothing is required but unbiased observation and a sound head, but these are scarcer than folks imagine.”

Ironically, Goethe did prove that love exists mathematically, 17-years prior, in his 1809 Elective Affinities, when he used the chemical mathematics of Swedish chemist Torbern Bergman's 1775 affinity tables, to present a treatise on the additions and subtractions of human chemical reactants when brought together, to participate in human chemical affinity reactions [39] The point expressed by Goethe, above, is exemplified by ridiculous incorrectness of the conclusions reached in the 1962 stable marriage problem, using pure mathematics, versus conclusions reached using the more realistic circa 1975 Gottman stability ratio (measurement + psychology + mathematics), versus even more realistic modern synthesis of circa 2005 human chemical bonding theory (measurement + chemistry + thermodynamics + physics + evolutionary psychology + mathematics).

On the topic of mathematical physics, he said “number and proportion, in their nakedness, destroy all form, and banish the spirit that informs real perception.” Goethe seemed to use mathematics in his own unique way. The following excerpt, from the 1985 article “Goethe, Faraday, and Mathematics” by philosopher Nick Thomas, sums up the view of Goethe’s style of mathematics: [5]

“In recent centuries there have been two great men who have shown, in their approach to scientific research, that man is capable of proceeding like a true mathematician even thought he is not using mathematics in the accepted sense. These two men were Goethe and Faraday.”

Considered mathematics “the most sublime and useful science”, but was guarded against its misuse or misapplication, where it can become reduced to nonsense. Curiously, Goethe seemed to have been attacked by fellow scientists for his non-direct use of mathematics. In the opening to his 1826 treatise On Mathematics and its Misuse, in comment to individuals, such as d’Alembert and Lagrange, Goethe states: [52]

“It pleased me not to find my intentions were falsely interpreted. I have heard accusations against me as though I were an opponent, an enemy of mathematics altogether; yet there is none who holds it in greater esteem than I, for it is able to do the very thing which to perform has totally denied me.”

Low estimates indicate that the average person is said to have an active vocabulary of about 5,000 words, of which most can be ‘recognized’, a little over 1,000 of which are used in general conversation, and slightly fewer than 1,000 of which are used in writing. [24] A 1991 report, estimated that a typical child aged five to six will have a working vocabulary of 2,500 to 5,000 words. [28] Another 1995 study estimated the vocabulary size of the average high-school graduate at 12,000 words and the college graduate at 17,000 words. [29] English language encyclopedist David Crystal stated in 2003 that values often cited in the media for a modern college graduate run as his as 20-25,000 words (and may be even higher for one with specialty degrees such as chemistry or botany), but that these high-end estimates tend to be meaningless as no significant research has been done on this topic. Crystal also states that there must always be two totals when presenting the size of a person’s vocabulary: one reflecting active vocabulary (lexemes actively used in speech or writing) and passive vocabulary (lexemes known but not used). [27] The following are known estimates of number of active words used in the vocabulary of 200+ IQ individuals. The highest count goes to Goethe:

1.Goethe (75px)Johann Goethe (IQ=180-225)50,000-90,000 words Quote: “Goethe has been described as the man with the largest vocabulary in history. He had a vast vocabulary of 50,000 words, twice that of Shakespeare.” [24]
Quote: “Goethe’s active vocabulary, which is currently being processed in the multi-volume Goethe-Worterbuch on the basis of his writings and recorded dialogues, ran to an astonishing c. 90,000 words.” [25]
2.ShakespeareWilliam Shakespeare (IQ=210)
17,000-30,000 words Quote: “Shakespeare, in his writing alone, used a greater vocabulary than any English writer has ever done: an extraordinary 25,000 words.” [24]
Quote: “Crystal in ‘The Language of Shakespeare’ estimates the size of Shakespeare’s vocabulary as being between 17,000 and 20,000 words”; “Shakespeare could be treated as having a vocabulary of 30,000 words.” [26]
Anon girl (age 5) (IQ=200-220)7,000 wordsQuote: “Langenbeck (1915) who described a young girl who at age 5 had a mental age of 11 years (and thus a ratio IQ of over 200), and an oral vocabulary of almost 7,000 words.” [9]

Greatest mathematician
See main: Greatest mathematician ever
The following is W.C. Eells’ 1962 published a listing of the 100 greatest mathematicians of all time (Mathematics Teacher, 7(55) (link)):

  1. Newton (CB IQ=193)
  2. Leibnitz (CB IQ=194)
  3. Lagrange (Cox IQ=185)
  4. Euler
  5. Laplace (Cox IQ=190)
  6. Euclid (Buzan IQ=182)
  7. Gauss
  8. Archimedes (Buzan IQ=190)
  9. Descartes (CB IQ=178)
  10. Cardano
  11. Legendre
  12. Pitagora
  13. Monge
  14. D'Alembert
  15. Cauchy
  16. Fourrier
  17. Fermat
  18. Napier
  19. Pascal
  20. Apolonije
  21. Fibonacci
  22. Viete
  23. Ptolemej
  24. Huygens
  25. Regiomontanus
  26. Diofant
  27. Mac Laurin
  28. Bernulli, Jacob
  29. Pappus
  30. Cavalieri
  31. Jacobi
  32. Bernulli, Johan
  33. Wallis
  1. Hamilton (Cox IQ=170)
  2. Tartaglia
  3. Heron
  4. Poncelet
  5. Riemann
  6. Poisson
  7. Abel
  8. Chasles
  9. Cremona
  10. Roberval
  11. Boskovic
  12. Galilei
  13. Clairaut
  14. Lambert
  15. Barrow
  16. Strum
  17. Stevin
  18. De Morgan
  19. Taylor
  20. Kepler
  21. Bernulli, Daniel
  22. Desargues
  23. Briggs
  24. Sylvester
  25. Camot (Cox IQ=170)
  26. Maupertius
  27. Babbage
  28. Hermite
  29. Tales
  30. Smith, H.J.S.
  31. Kovaljevska
  32. Pacioli
  33. Hipokrat
  1. Gerbert
  2. Clebsch
  3. Plucher
  4. Grassmann
  5. Dirichlet
  6. Cayley
  7. Al-Hovrismi
  8. Cotes
  9. De Moivre
  10. Boole
  11. Weierstrass
  12. Lie
  13. Lobacevski
  14. Ahmes
  15. Borda
  16. Beltrami
  17. Frisi
  18. Galois
  19. Torricelli
  20. Montucla
  21. Hesse
  22. Jordanus
  23. Platon
  24. Poincare
  25. Steiner
  26. Halley
  27. Ampere
  28. L'Hospital
  29. Thomson (Lord Kelvin)
  30. Boethius
  31. Tschirnhausen
  32. Bhaskara
  33. Eratosten
  34. Zenon

Another way to rank geniuses, similar to that used to rank geniuses by active vocabulary and WorldCat Literature ranking, is to rank geniuses by their use of or formulations of equations, which uses the language of mathematics. Opinions on the matter the ranking of the world's greatest equations tend to vary depending on point of view. The following tables give different points of view on the topic of greatest equations rankings. A good starting point are the five equations found in the 1995 book Five Equations that Changed the World, by American physicist Michael Guillen. [31]

Guillen's Five Equations that Changed the World (1995)
1.F = G \frac{M m}{d^2}Isaac Newton (75px)Newton (IQ=190-200)Law of universal gravitation1687
2.P + \tfrac12\, \rho\, v^2\, =\, \text{constant}\,Bernoulli 75Coriolis 75Bernoulli-CoriolisLaw of hydrodynamic pressure1738
3.\nabla \times E = -\frac{\partial B}{\partial t}FaradayMaxwell 75Faraday (IQ=180)-MaxwellLaw of electromagnetic induction1831
4.E = mc^2 \,\!Einstein 75 (older)Einstein (IQ=160-225)Mass-energy equivalence1905
5. \Delta S_{universe} > 0 \,Clausius 75Clausius
Second law of thermodynamics1865

In 2002 book It Must Be Beautiful: Great Equations of Modern Science, edited by English physicist Graham Farmelo, eleven essays were written by various scientists on the big equations of the 20th century. These equations are shown below, in order of chapter listing: [33]

Farmelo's Great Equations of Modern Science (2002)
1.E = hf \!Planck 75Einstein 75 (older)Planck-Einstein (IQ=160-225)Planck-Einstein equation for the energy of a quantum1900

The logistic map

Drake equation
4.E = mc^2 \,\!Einstein 75 (older)Einstein (IQ=160-225)Mass-energy equivalency relation1905

The Molina-Rowland chemical equations and the CFC problem
Schrodinger 75SchrodingerSchrodinger wave equation1926

Dirac equation

Mathematics of evolution
Einstein 75 (older)Einstein (IQ=160-225)Einstein equation of general relativity

ShannonShannon’s information theory equations1948

Yang-Mills equation

Although Farmelo's list is not a ranked greatest equations of all-time, it did inspire a follow-up readers poll on this topic. In May 2004, stimulated by Farmelo’s equation list, American science historian Robert Crease wrote an article in Physics World entitled “The Greatest Equations Ever” in which he asked readers to send in their shortlists of great equations, explaining why their nominations belonged on the list and why, after which he received about 120 responses, proposing about 50 different equations. [34] The poll results were published in a followup article, which showed Maxwell's equations and the Euler equation topped the poll. The top 20 greatest equations are show below, listed in order of the number of people who proposed them: first two received about 20 mentions each out of a total of about 120; the rest received between two and 10 each: [35]

Crease's Twenty Greatest Equations of All-Time (2004)
Original List

\nabla \cdot \mathbf{D} = \rhoGauss 75Maxwell 75Gauss-Maxwell

Maxwell's equation

20 Greatest Equations (formatted)
\nabla \cdot \mathbf{B} = 0Gauss 75Maxwell 75Gauss-Maxwell
\nabla \times E = -\frac{\partial B}{\partial t}FaradayMaxwell 75Faraday (IQ=180)
\nabla \times \mathbf{H} = \frac{\partial \mathbf{D}} {\partial t} + \mathbf{J} Ampere 75Maxwell 75Ampere-Maxwell
2.e^{i \pi } + 1 =0\,Euler 75EulerEuler's identity1755
3.\mathbf{F} = m\mathbf{a} \!Isaac Newton (75px)Newton (IQ=190-200)Newton's second law of motion1687
4.a^2 + b^2 = c^2\!\,Pythagoras 75Pythagoras Pythagorean theorem 530BC
5.E\Psi = H \Psi \, Schrodinger 75SchrodingerSchrodinger equation1926
6.E = mc^2 \,\!Einstein 75 (older)Einstein (IQ=160-225)Mass-energy equivalence relation1905
7.S = k \ln W \!Clausius 75Boltzmann 75Planck 75Clausius-Boltzmann-PlanckBoltzmann equation
(statistical second law)
8.1 + 1 = 2 \, Photo needed (icon)Robert Recorde 75Grammateus-RecordeAddition equation1518
9. \delta S = 0 \, Hamilton 75Hamilton (IQ=170)Hamiltonian variational principle1835



13. C = 2 \pi r \, Archimedes 75 ArchimedesCircumference of a circle250BC




18.~ PV = nRT ~
Bernoulli-Boyle-Charles-Lussac-PlanckIdeal gas law1738

20. E = h \nu \, Planck 75Einstein 75 (older)Planck-EinsteinPlanck equation1900

This polling effort resulted in the 2008 book The Great Equations: Breakthroughs in Science from Pythagoras to Heisenberg. [36] Another short two-equation list comes from German physicist Ingo Muller's 2007 book A History of Thermodynamics, who comments that "S = k ln W is easily the second most important formula in physics, next to E = mc², or on par with it." [32]

Muller's Two Most Important Formulas of Physics (2007)
1.E = mc^2 \,\!Einstein 75 (older)Einstein (IQ=160-225)Mass-energy equivalence1905
2.S = k \ln W \!Clausius 75Boltzmann 75Planck 75Clausius-Boltzmann-PlanckBoltzmann equation
(statistical second law)
Chemistry (icon)
See main: Greatest chemist ever; also: History of chemistry
In theme to previous equation tables, ranked generally according to the view of mathematicians and physicists, another way to gain insight into intellectual rank is by a ranking of all-time famous equations, theories, and discoveries used in the hard science field of chemistry. The top ten greatest chemists according to English chemist James Partington’s (JP) famous 1937 A Short History of Chemistry (according to name index page count), which is the shortened version of his three-volume treatise, are: Jacob Berzelius (52), Justus Liebig (39), Jean Dumas (38), Robert Boyle (30), Antoine Lavoisier (26), Friedrich Kekule (22), Joseph Priestley (23), Henry Cavendish (21), Carl Scheele (20), and Claude Berthollet (19). These big ten chemists are followed by Humphry Davy (17), Joseph Gay-Lussac (17), Joseph Black (16), Johann Helmont (16), Friedrich Wohler (16), Edward Frankland (15), Hermann Kolbe (15), John Dalton (14), August Laurent (13), Thomas Thomson (13), Robert Bunsen (12), August Hofmann (12), Robert Hooke (12), Michael Faraday (11), John Mayow (11), Julius Meyer (10), Amedeo Avogadro (10), Richard Kirwan (10), Adolf Baeyer (10), Georg Stahl (9), Torbern Bergman (9), Aristotle (9), Fourcroy (9), Hales (8), Gmelin (8), Avicenna (7), Herman Boerhaave (7), Werner (7), Paracelsus (7), Albertus Magnus (6), Guyton Morveau (6), Graham (6), Johann Becher (6), Isaac Newton (6), Wilhelm Ostwald (6), Cannizzaro (6), Ernest Rutherford (6), J.B. Richter (6), Pasteur (6), Marcellin Berthelot (5), Willard Gibbs (3), Geber (2), Johann Goethe (1), among others in the near 1-4 page range.
Nobel Prize
Two-time Nobel Prize winners
See also: Nobel Prize winners in thermodynamics and thermodynamics awards
Another angle at which to gain perspective on IQ estimates is to compare intellectuals that have received two Nobel Prizes, which are yearly awards given out to those who make outstanding contributions in physics, chemistry, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine, for the betterment of humankind. Those who have won this prize two separate times are listed below, ranked by estimated IQs (where known): [36]

1.CurieMarie Curie (1867-1934)180-200Physics (1903): discovery of radioactivity
Chemistry (1911): isolation of pure radium
Mother and sister died before she was 11[37]
2.Pauling 75Linus Pauling (1901-1994)160-170 ● Chemistry (1954): hybridized orbital theory
● Peace (1962): nuclear test-ban treaty activism
Father died when he was 9 [38]
3.Bardeen 75John Bardeen (1908-1991)
● Physics (1956): invented the transistor
● Physics (1972): superconductivity theory
Mother died when he was 12
4.Sanger 75Frederick Sanger (1918-)
● Chemistry (1958): insulin molecule structure
● Chemistry (1980): virus nucleotide sequencing

Nietzsche’s uberman
Another perspective on criterion for a universal genius, is that the person is of the magnitude to be a replacement for God. This logic comes from the from German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche’s 1883 description of the hypothetical “uberman” (overman or superman) prophesized to replace god in the future, as famously discussed in his Thus Spoke Zarathustra, in which he expresses the fundamental contention that since traditional values, represented primarily by Christianity, had lost their power in the lives of individuals, expressed by the proclamation “god is dead”, that there would inevitably be a god-like someone to emerge in the future to fill this void. Nietzsche saw the Superman as the answer to the nihilistic rejection of all religious and moral principles that would be consequent on a widespread acceptance that god is dead. The uberman being the exemplar of true humanity. Although he explicitly denied that any uberman had yet arisen, he mentions several individuals (ranked below by date) who could serve as models: [42] English philosopher and mathematician Bertrand Russell was said to have interpreted Nietzche’s overman as a person with an IQ of at least 180 and considered himself to have this IQ (link).

Uberman PrototypesGoethe - Walk of Ideas (2006)

40-ft statue of 17 great authors at the 2006 Walk of Ideas, Germany, to commemorate the invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg, in circa 1450, with Goethe as the foundation, upon which the others rest.
1.Socrates 75Socrates (469-399BC)IQ=160
2.Caesar 75Julius Caesar (100-44BC)IQ=170
3.Leonardo da VinciLeonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) IQ=180-225
4.MichelangeloMichelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564) IQ=175-180
5.ShakespeareWilliam Shakespeare (1564-1616) IQ=210
6.Goethe (75px)Johann Goethe (1749-1832)IQ=180-225
7.Napoleon 75Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821)IQ=145

Napoleon and Goethe, to note, were mutual admirers of each other, Goethe viewing Napoleon as an exemplar of the eternally striving person; Napoleon keeping a copy of Goethe’s Werther in his campaign library (claiming to have read it seven times). In comment on meeting both Napoleon and Beethoven, Goethe stated that he was impressed with the former but not the latter.

Does God Exist?

Religion 250
Does God exist?

See main: Existence of god
A standing rule, concerning 200+ IQs, particularly for those born after 1895, a belief in God or gods is an automatic disqualification from the 200+ IQ range. This question, in fact, should be the first question asked on any standard high IQ test, whereby an answer of “yes” would result in an unequivocal 15% reduction in the final IQ score. The reason for this is that one’s opinion on the matter of religion, and particularly on the great ‘theory of god’, is a huge demarcation or insight into one’s intellectual framework. God is humankind’s oldest scientific theory, conceived by genius men of olden days. Subsequently, if one is a true modern-day genius, it is a matter of duty to question everything, especially those most established ideas. The theory is so dominant, that, in fact, at a minimum, seventy-two percent of the world's population currently believe this theory.

The theory of god serves its purpose for the masses, but for the all-knowledgeable genius, prior to the early 19th century, one may have been excused for adherence to the theory of god, in its various forms, but after 1822, the year in which the cryptic Rosetta stone was deciphered by English physicist Thomas Young, after which it was possible to see clearly that the main tenets of the major modern day religions (Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, etc.) were simply reformulated Egyptian mythology, particularly the story of the birth of the sun god Ra out of the water or choas of beginning god Nu, and the afterlife, rebirth, and reincarnation theories that followed:

Etyptian-Hindu-Jewish theology (table)Abraham-Brahma faiths (table)
A Diagrammatic Tracing of the Nu-Ra story into Hinduism and Judaism. 2002 World Religions (grouped by thematic origin)

This issue of religious syncretism became even clearer to the inquisitive genius reader when in 1895 Egyptologist Wallis Budge published The Egyptian Book of the Dead (Papyrus of Ani), wherein after “untold numbers of people began to write books, papers, and dissertations on the parallels between Jesus and Osiris (Ra’s great grandson). [54] The issue of the Egyptian origin to the modern world religions can be said to have solidified, without doubt, after the publication of American religious scholar and Egyptologist Gary Greenberg’s 2000 101 Myths of the Bible, wherein he steps through ever story in the Bible and shows the original Egyptian version (Pyramid texts + Coffin texts), from which these stories (Bible, Koran, Rig Vida, etc.) originated. [55] Beyond this the modern "human molecule" view of human existence, from which humans are of the same family as hydrogen atoms, would forever would act to inter the age-old theory of god, along with other now defunct scientific theories, including: vitalism, caloric theory, flat earth theory, spontaneous generation, and life, in the mind of the true modern universal genius. In this context, the following opinions on the theory of god, expressed by the listed 200+ IQ group, gives a creditable intellectual litmus test as to the truthfulness of each person's estimated IQ:

Religious Beliefs

Goethe 75 (age 38)Johann Goethe
180-225 ● At age 21, at the University of Strasbourg, completing a dissertation (rejected on the grounds that it was unorthodox) on “The Legislature, On the Power of the Magistrate to Determine Religion and Culture”, in which he contended, among other things, that “Jesus Christ is not the author of Christianity, but rather a subject composed by a number of wise men and that Christian religion is merely a rational, political institution.” [65] pass

SidisWilliam Sidis
200-300● At age 6, was a confirmed atheist. [60]
● At age 21, when asked in court if he believed in god, he replied “No” and clarified that evolution was his god; when pressed further about this he stated that he did not believe in the “big boss of the Christians”, but that he did believe in something “that is in a way apart from a human being”. [60]

Einstein 75 (older)Albert Einstein
160-225● At age 75, gave his opinion that “the word of God is nothing more than an expression of human weakness"; described the Bible as “pretty childish”; and stated that “all religions are incarnations of the most childish superstitions.” [56]pass

Maxwell 75James Maxwell
190-205● At age 48, in his last year (the same age his mother passed from the same infliction [stomach cancer] he would pass from), wrote out his final private thoughts about the relationship of science and religion, the soul, choice and chance, and death and eternity his is riddle poem “A Paradoxical Ode”. ?

CurieMarie Curie
180-200● At age 11, after both her mother and oldest sister had died (from tuberculosis and typhus, respectively), she fell into a profound depression and concluded that God did not exist. [64] pass

Voltaire 75Voltaire
190-200● Quote: “I want my lawyer, my tailor, my servants, even my wife to believe in God, because it means that I shall be cheated and robbed and cuckolded less often. ... If God did not exist, it would be necessary to invent him.” pass

Michael KearneyMichael Kearney
200-325 ● At age 21, commented: “You have to be focused on the things that make you a human and not a golden god. You have to focus on just living.” (link) ?

Marnen Laibow-Koser 75Marnen Laibow-Koser
268● At age 4, engaged in “mystical behavior”; saw his recently deceased Aunt Bessie being carried up an a flight of stairs, assisted by two old ladies, while at the funeral reception (although no one else could see these invisible stairs or invisible ladies), but supposedly described Bessie’s funeral dress and arrangement exactly and communicated with her, even though he had never really met here (Nature’s Gambit, pgs. 187-203).
● At age 34, stated "once again, God / the universe / whatever has reminded me that you get what you want (or what you think you want) when you're not really looking for it." (link)

Christopher LanganChristopher Langan
174-210 ● Began to question god as a child; later returned to god, and is currently writing a treatise called the cognitive theoretic model of the universe, a type of intelligent design themed argument for the existence of god.
● At age 48, commented “Regarding evolution and creationism, the linkage is simple: Biblical accounts of the genesis of our world and species are true but metaphorical, our task is to correctly decipher the metaphor in light of scientific evidence also given to us by God.” (link)

Sho YanoSho Yano
200 ● Name means “happiness with god” (link).
● At age 14, commented that “I’m gifted. I got my gift from God, and I think I better not waste it” (link).

Grost 75Michael Grost
200 ● Grost mostly likely believes in god. In the biographical book of him (Genius in Residence, 1970) written by his mother, when he was 16 (and old enough to object), the first page opens to a description of describing Michael as a “miracle of God”, and the last page concludes with “may we offer those successes my son has experienced in the past, and God willing, those successes he may experience in the future …” fail

Savant 75Marilyn vos Savant
186-228 ● Quote: “Suppose you have bet on horse number 1 in a 3 horse race in which there is no favorite. After you have placed your bet, omniscient god, who, of course, knows the horse destined to win and how you have bet tells you, ‘It’s not going to be horse number 3’. Depending on God’s other attributes, e.g. whether God seeks to guide people towards the right decisions, you should probably switch to horse 2 if you have the opportunity.” (link)
● Quote: “Religions cannot be proved true intellectually. They come from the heart—and your parents—not the mind.” (link)

Rick RosnerRick Rosner
140-250 ● At age 7, in his own words, “when my parents returned, they found me spinning clockwise (so that I wouldn't accidentally travel backwards in time) and chanting to God. I was taken to a child psychiatrist and given more IQ tests, including parts of a Stanford-Binet.” [59] fail

Naida CamukovaNaida Camukova (c.1976-)140-200● Believes in God and creation; has read the Koran multiple times, and re-reads it frequently; uses phrases such as “God willing”, etc. (link). fail

Date day formula
A curious phenomenon among prodigies is the ability to name the day of the week for any given date in history; a tool often used to entertain people at social gatherings and on talk shows. The algorithm is a relatively memory trick, named the "doomsday rule" by English mathematician John Conway in 1982. The trick for doing calendars is actually a very simple trick: simply remember the first day of every month. January 1, 2010, for example, was a Friday so one wants to know what it would have been in 1982 it would also be a Friday, as every 28 years is a repeat; if you need to go back by say 4 years it should fall on a Sunday since every 4 years is a leap day; if you want to know 2014, we know it will fall on Wednesday. Once one gets to the year and month it is all about adding 7's and then 1's from there on. Whatever the adding trick used, the phenomenon seems to arise naturally in such individuals. Sidis, for instance, by the age of five had devised a formula whereby he could name the day of the week for any given historical date. [30]
Goethe (age 15)
Captioned picture of Goethe (age 15) from the 1927 Journal of Heredity article “The Child Hood of Genius”, by scientist Paul Papenoe, with the caption: “Goethe at the age of fifteen. ‘His IQ may in the history of mankind have been equaled in a few instances, one may well wonder whether it has ever been excelled.’ From the facts which are known of Goethe’s childhood he is credited with a youth intelligence quotient of 180, which means that at five years of age he was far advanced as the average child of nearly ten. When he was twelve he amused himself by planning and sketching out a novel written in seven languages.” [3]

150+ IQ thermodynamicists
Among other notable high-IQ pre-thermodynamicists, thermodynamicists, and human thermodynamics, there is English philosopher and mathematician Bertrand Russell who is said to have either claimed his own IQ was 180 or that a psychologist determined this for him via an intelligence test.

In Cox’s 1926 listing: Antoine Lavoisier (IQ=170), formulator of the caloric theory, Lazare Carnot (IQ=170), father of Sadi Carnot and founder of the École Polytechnique, the first “school” of thermodynamics”, and William Hamilton (IQ=170), author of the 1934 pre-Clausius paper “On a General Method in Dynamics”, Herman Boerhaave (IQ=165), formulator of Boerhaave's law (precursor to caloric theory), of James Watt (IQ=165), steam engine pioneer,
Stephen Hawking (IQ=160), a founder of black hole thermodynamics and outliner of concepts such as neurological entropy, as well as as well as Sigmund Freud (IQ=156), founder of psychodynamics.

Another noted high IQ HT pioneer is American mathematician Norbert Wiener, a former child prodigy who completed his BS in mathematics from Tufts College at age 14 and PhD in mathematics from Harvard at age 18, who while in the class of Harvard mathematics professor Edward Huntington’s (circa 1909-11) commented about his classmate William Sidis: [16]

“Both Sidis and I were in the class, and it was there that I first became aware of the boy's real ability and how great a loss mathematics suffered in his premature breakdown.”

During his first year of classes, Sidis left Harvard for some months because of a nervous breakdown shortly after having given his speech, at age 11, on four dimensional bodies. To note, Wiener's human thermodynamics theories, as found in his 1948 Cybernetics and 1950 The Human Use of Human Beings, are on par or comparible to those of Sidis.

Another noted high IQ child prodigy was Hungarian-born American mathematician John Neumann (IQ=163-180), one of the founders of quantum thermodynamics, who by the age of six was able to divide eight-digit numbers in his head, exchange jokes in classical Greek, and to memorize the names, numbers, and addresses in phone books (displayed as a game to guests), and at the age of 23, simultaneously competed a BS degree in chemical engineering, from the Technische Hochschule Zurich, and a PhD in mathematics, with a thesis on set theory, from Pázmány Péter University in Budapest.

To have conceived of a type of human thermodynamics theory, as Goethe, Sidis, and Hirata did, one must have been to near adulthood age by about the year 1718 the year in French chemist Etienne Geoffroy made the first affinity table, a tabulation of the forces of reaction between chemical species, the measure of this force, after 1882 (via Hermann Helmholtz), being determined through free energy change calcuations.

Burnout/detached/defunct/overestimated IQs
Based on the ceiling IQ benchmark , discussed above, if one reads or hears claims of individuals scoring past the Cox-Buzan ceiling (213+) on an IQ test, e.g. De Mello (400), Kearney (325), Sidis (300), Tao (230), Savant (228), Hirata (225), or others (discussed below), we would define these as "false positive IQs" or overestimated that may have ended in intellectual burnout, in that they may have been miscalculated over-estimates. In other words, these overestimates result from age-ratio biasing and which tend to be indicative of productivity burnout prior to age 25, as evidenced by four of six of these individuals: De Mello (age 11 burnout), Kearney (age 17 burnout), Sidis (age 22 burnout), and Savant (never burned). Then we have individuals who as children had estimated 200+ IQs, supposedly in the genius range, but as adults did not seem to realize their supposed genius potential of getting into historical genius ceiling stardom, not necessarily "burning out", but fettered out into the anonymous average or above average crowd, in terms of adulthood occupational achievements. These prodigies, listed below, can be considered to have "deburned" their potential or stepped out of the lime light burn.

1.Adragon De MelloAdragon De Mello (1976-)400 (age 5)Set a world record by graduating from college at age 11 (BS computational mathematics); after which he returned to junior high school; and now works at Home Depot.
2.Michael KearneyMichael Kearney
325 (age 4), 200 (age 14)Set world record by graduating from college at age 10 (BS anthropology); MS biochemistry (age 14); MS computer science (age 17); now plays poker and enters game shows for a living.
3.Sidis 75William Sidis
200, 250-300 (age 42)Tested out in Harvard Medical school entrance exams (age 9); set record by entering Harvard at age 11; had a "breakdown" at about age 12; graduated BS mathematics (age 16); Harvard Law school age 17; published work on thermodynamics age 22; withdrew from public life at age 24; became vagabond thereafter.
4.Leopold 75Nathan Leopold
200, 206-210 Reported to be a child prodigy with an IQ of 210 who spoke his first words at four months; graduated from the University of Chicago at the age of 19 (1923) with honors; entered Chicago Law School that same year and while making plans to transfer to Harvard Law School in the fall, he and another prodigy named Richard Loeb, who was himself the youngest graduate in the history of the University of Michigan, kidnapped and killed Loeb’s second cousin Bobby Franks (age 14), the son of a Chicago millionaire.
5.Marnen Laibow-KoserMarnen Laibow-Koser
268Speaking grammatically correct sentences at three months of age; at age 3.5, he read, wrote, and spoke several languages, studied mathematics, and composed music, played the violin; at age 7-8 was attending the MIT computer lab doing programming; obtained a perfect score on the Stanford-Binet at age of about 8; the term “omnibus prodigy” was coined to describe him, as his talents were not bounded within a single domain; child scholar expert Halbert Robinson commented that “Adam was perhaps the most gifted child ever tested on the Stanford-Binet”; he is currently a computer programmer and music composer, and is listed as the premier case of the “gifted underachiever”.
6.Savant 75Marilyn vos Savant
228 (age 10), 186 (age 40)Perfect Stanford-Binet score (age 10); pregnant at age 16; college dropout shortly thereafter; then began working in the family laundry business; at the age of 37 (1983) was having dinner with a lawyer Andrew Egendorf who wanted to write a book about high IQ societies (Savant was in Mensa), and suggested to Savant that they "cash in" on her 1956 test score by sending it to Guinness Book; which he did the following year, and by 1985 she was listed as the IQ record holder, and owing to this fame landed a job as newspaper columnist at Parade Magazine.
7.Kim Ung-YongKim Ung-Yong
200-210Started taking physics in college at age 4; began working with NASA at age 12; PhD in nuclear physics age 14; burned out at age 16, returned to Korea, wishing to remove himself from the public eye; re-entered a mediocre local university obtaining a PhD degree in an easier field of civil engineering; in an interview with the press, on this switch, he has commented “I was not a loser, but just wanted to live ordinarily.”
8.Grost 75Michael Grost
200 (age 8)Supposedly had an “IQ so far above 200 it could not be measured meaningfully”; giving college lectures age 8; BS (age 15), MS (age 17), and PhD (age 23) all in mathematics; works as a systems architect at Detroit computer company.
9.Photo needed (icon)Edith Stern
200, 201-203BS science (age 15), PhD mathematics (age 18), in 2000 was working for IBM in secret computer software research and development.

Sidis, however, is a curiosity in this group, in that his only major work was the 1920 book The Animate and the Inanimate, published at age 22, he is judged by other high IQ peers, such as American mathematician Norbert Wiener, a former child prodigy himself (BS in mathematics from Tufts College at age 14, PhD in mathematics from Harvard at age 18), to have had “real ability” and was still testing out in the 250+ range into his 40s.

A point to note, regarding the terms intellectual "brightness", all-time "star" genius, "burnout" IQs, and "deburners", etc., is that these are not simply figures of speech or pure analogy (as many would argue), but rather terms modeled on the phenomenon of hydrogen burning inside of stars, where gravitation pressure acts to squeeze central "star" hydrogen atoms, causing chain thermonuclear reaction which result to release energy.

On this model of stellar 'brightness', a human being can be considered as a large hydrogen atom (made of 26-elements to precise), defined technically as a "human molecule", and this same pressure-induced burning phenomenon acts in the human sphere, in which human electromagnetic pressure acts to squeeze central "star" human molecules, e.g. Geothe, Da Vinci, Newton, Einstein, etc., causing human thermonuclear reactions (an high energy type of human chemical reaction) which result to release energy.

These types of high-energy reaction are indicative of the laws, workings, and movement of the universe. Those individuals forced into this universal current, so as to become adult star "human molecules" or all-time "bright" geniuses, are thus different than those who may have had the potential to become stars, but failed to react, for whatever reason.

The following are related quotes:

“People who talk about their IQ are losers.”
Stephen Hawking, when asked in a New York Times interview what his IQ was.

The references to this page have been moved to separate page: IQ: 200+ (references); as this page became too long (20-30 pages) at which point wiki editor stops working.

Further reading
● Sommer, Julia K. (1931). “Three Hundred Geniuses: Their Early Mental Traits”, World Theosophy Magazine (pgs. 143-47), February 1931-June 1931.
● Hollingworth, Leta S. (1942). Children Above 180 IQ: Stanford-Binet Origin and Development. Arno Press.
● Stanley, J. and Benbow, C. (1983). “Extremely Young College Graduates: Evidence of Their Success.” College and University: American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers, Vol. 58, pgs. 361-71.
Identifying the most intelligent person in the world – Helium (14+ articles).

Related videos

Jan. 2009 Domino's pizza commercial with Rick Rosner, subtitling him as someone with an IQ of 200, playing the game go with a fifth grader.Sep. 29, 2008 video “Top 10 IQ Geniuses” by Iraqi student San Khorany; list: 1. Goethe (IQ: 210), 2. Da Vinci (IQ: 205), 3. Swedenborg (IQ: 205), 4. Leibniz (IQ: 205), 5. Mill (IQ: 200), 6. Pascal (IQ: 195), 7. Wittgenstein (IQ: 190), 8. Fischer (IQ: 187), 9. Galileo (IQ: 185), 10. De Stael (IQ: 180).

● The Kid with the 200 I.Q. (1983).
● Real Genius (1985) supposedly based on real students from California Institute of Technology (link).
● Good Will Hunting (1997) was based on the life of William Sidis (IQ=250-300) (see: Good Will Hunting (William Sidis)).
● The 2006 film The Genius Club, premised on a scientist with an IQ of over 200 who builds a bomb and threatens to blow Washington DC up unless the President brings together all the people he can find with IQs over 200 to an abandoned building in DC to play a game. The game consists of a Q & A with questions all relating to solving the world's problems. The participants (which turns out to be seven geniuses with IQs over 200) are taken from their lives on Christmas Eve and are put through the test and if they can amass 1,000 points before dawn the next morning, they can walk and DC is safe. At times, the discussion is said to be reminiscent of university lectures, but as the questions progressed to being more moral, the feel of the movie changes. The discussions, however, come off as more like those of a randomly selected group of reasonably intelligent people, who end up discussing rather mundane questions, such as why toner ink is so expensive, war, famine, etc., the culmination of which is an attempt to arguably prove the existence of god, albeit a discussion that results to be the same old tired Rene Descartes and C.S Lewis arguments.

● Pfeffer, Adam. (2011). The Genius with the 225 IQ. iUniverse.

External links
List of child prodigies – Wikipedia.
William James Sidis | Maza’s Weblog (19 Feb 06) – Ranks: #1 Sidis, #2 Da Vinci, #3 Goethe, #4 Voltaire, #5 Newton.
How do I get a man with an IQ over 200 to father my babies? – Yahoo Answers.
Child Prodigies Through History –
Top 50 Geniuses of All Time (random order) – 2008 list by Drew at

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Anonymous Guess my IQ 3 Feb 28 2014, 10:37 PM EST by Anonymous
Thread started: Jan 4 2014, 2:34 AM EST  Watch
One of the following is correct:
1) 120-150

The only other details I am going to provide you with is that I consider myself to be the smartest male from my high school and college by far.
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GeniuCity Pop Culture Contests 3 Feb 4 2014, 12:07 PM EST by Anonymous
Thread started: Feb 3 2014, 12:41 PM EST  Watch
Can you answer just this query from me? Did Michael Kearney appear on "Who wants to be a millionaire?" game show and if he did how much money he left with?
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Anonymous I wonder what IQs some of the following would have 1 Nov 21 2013, 11:08 AM EST by Sadi-Carnot
Thread started: Feb 20 2010, 9:32 PM EST  Watch
Ed Wittten, Murray Gell-Mann, Richard Garwin, Marvin Minsky,Grigori Perelman, Saul Aaron Kripke
and Erik Demaine. From years past who are no longer alive I would have likes to know what Kurt Godel's
or Herbet Simon(One of the founders of AI as well as having a nobel prize in economics as well as
the turing award which can be thought of as the equivalent award for computer science), Gauss, Euler
and many more listed already on this page but only as estimates.
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