In human thermodynamics, **Ichiro Aoki** (1947-) is a Japanese systems engineer noted for his 1987 efforts make theoretical estimates of the entropy production in plant leaves and white-tail deer, in day and at night; eventually applying these methods to humans (see: human entropy), physiologically, into the 1990s. [1] The end result of Aoki’s work (2012), according to his conclusion, is that “entropy itself cannot be measured and calculated for biological systems, even for very small systems”, rather only “process variables, entropy flow, and entropy production can be quantified by the use of energetic data and physical methods.” [2] Aoki has also theorized about "aging" in terms of entropy. [3]

References

1. (a) Aoki, Ichiro. (1987). “Entropy Balance of White-Tailed Deer During Winter Night” (abs), *Bulletin of Mathematical Biology*, 49(3): 321-27.

(b) Aoki, Ichiro. (1992). “Entropy Physiology of Swine: a Macroscopic Viewpoint”*, Journal of Theoretical Biology*, 157(3):363-71.

(c) Aoki, Ichiro. (1994). “Entropy Production in Human Life Span: A Thermodynamic Measure for Aging” (abstract). *Age *1: 29-31.

(d) Aoki, Ichiro. (1997). “Introduction to Entropy Physiology” (abs), *Siebutso Butsuri*, 37(3): 106-10.

2. Aoki, Achiro. (2012). *Entropy Principle for the Development of Complex Biotic Systems: Organisms, Ecosystems, the Earth*. Elsevier.

3. Aoki, Ichiro. (1994). “Entropy Production in Human Life Span: A Thermodynamic Measure for Aging” (abstract). *Age *1: 29-31.