Kalyan AnnamalaiIn human thermodynamics, Kalyan Annamalai (c.1943-), or Kalyan Thakkolam Annamalai, is an Indian-born American mechanical engineer noted for his 2011 inclusion of human molecular theory in his Advanced Thermodynamics Engineering chapter on the thermodynamics of animate systems (chnopsological systems) or "Thermodynamics and Biological Systems", as they entitle it (see: defunct theory of life, for terminology discussion), the chapter co-authored with Venezuelan-born American mechanical engineer Carlos Silva, wherein they cite American electrochemical engineer Libb Thims’ 2002 molecular formulation (see also: Sterner-Elser human molecular formula, 2000); specifically, they specifically define a human, formulaically, as a such: [1]

“Humans may be called a 26-element energy/heat driven dynamic atomic structure.”

This, of course is a long-overdue upgrade definition of a human, in the context of standard engineering thermodynamics, since English physicist C.G. Darwin’s famous 1952 definition of the science of human thermodynamics as the study of conservative dynamical systems of human molecules. [2]. Scaling laws for metabolic rate, oxygen consumption rate,lung volume, breathes per min, blood volume, blood circulation rate, heart mass, entropy generation rate and life span were derived in Chapter 14 of ref. [1].
Advanced Engineering Thermodynamics
Annamalai's 2011 Advanced Thermodynamics Engineering, co-written with Ishwar Puri and Milind Jog, wherein the Thims-based 26-element human molecular formula definition of a person is employed (§14.4.1: Human body | Formulae). [1]

Aging thermodynamics
Annamalai and Silva are also noted for their 2008-2009 articles on aging, lifespan, entropy (heat) stress of vital organs and their relation to leading causes of death [3] [4].

Annamalai completed his BS in mechanical engineering in 1966 at the University of Madras (Anna University, Guindy, Chennai), his MS in internal combustion engineering in 1968 at Indian Institute of Science, and PhD in mechanical engineering in 1975 at Georgia Institute of Technology. In 1981, Annamalai joined the Texas A&M engineering department. Currently, he is Paul Pepper Professor of mechanical engineering and conducts research in the area of Combustion and Gasification of Coal and Biomass and Thermodynamics. He had written graduate level text book on Combustion Science and Engineering where he discusses the effect of deficiency of oxygen on combustion rate of fuel particle clouds. [5].
1. Annamalai, Kalyan, Puri, Ishwar K., and Jog, Milind A. (2011). Advanced Thermodynamics Engineering (§14: Thermodynamics and Biological Systems, pgs. 709-99, contributed by Kalyan Annamalai and Carlos Silva; §14.4.1: Human body | Formulae, pgs. 726-27; Thims, ref. 88). CRC Press.
2. Darwin, Charles G. (1952). The Next Million Years (Introduction, pg. 26). London: Rupert Hart-Davis.
3. (a) Silva, Carlos and Annamalia, Kalyan. (2008). “Entropy Generation and Human Aging: Lifespan Entropy and Effect of Physical Activity Level”, Entropy, Vol. 10 (2), pgs. 100-23.
(b) Silva, Carlos A. and Annamalai, Kalyan. (2009). “Entropy Generation and Human Aging: Lifespan Entropy and Effect of Diet Composition and Caloric Restriction Diets”, Journal of Human Thermodynamics, Jan 23.
4. Annamalai K., Silva C. Entropy Stress and Scaling of Vital Organs over Life Span Based on Allometric Laws. Entropy. 2012; 14(12):2550-2577.
5. Annamalai, Kalyan, and Puri, Ishwar K. (2007). Combustion Science and Engineering, CRC Press.

External links
Annamalai, Kalyan – WorldCat Identities.
Kalyan Annamalai (faculty) – Texas A&M University, Engineering.
Kalyan Annamalai (profile) – CRC press.
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