See main: Greatest astronomer everThe following is the succession of astronomical genius:
→ Aristotle→ Ptolemy→ Al-Battani→ Regiomontanus→ Copernicus→ Brahe→ Kepler→ Galileo→ Newton
|Two animations of the Copernican model of the world.|
1. The center of the earth is NOT the center of the universe, but only of gravity and of the lunar sphere (meaning the moon revolves around the earth).
2. All the spheres revolve about the sun as their midpoint, and therefore the sun is the center of the universe.
3. The earth performs a complete rotation on its fixed poles in a daily rotation.
“I have thought it well, for the sake of brevity, to omit from this sketch the mathematical demonstrations, reserving these for my larger work.”
“I reject as folly the [supposed] discovery of Copernicus, because in the Bible ‘Joshua bade the sun, not the earth, stand still’.”
“Copernicus is a fool [who] wants to turn the whole art of astronomy upside down!”
“[Some think it] a distinguished achievement to construct such a crazy thing as that Prussian astronomer who moves the earth and fixes the sun. Verily, wise rulers should tame the unrestraint of men’s minds.”
“The American hereditarian Lewis Terman, the man most responsible for instituting IQ tests in America, retrospectively calculated Gallon's IQ at above 200, but accorded only 135 to Darwin and a mere 100-110 to Copernicus (see pp. 213-218 on this ludicrous incident in the history of mental testing). Darwin, who approached hereditarian arguments with strong suspicion, wrote after reading Hereditary Genius: ‘You have made a convert of an opponent in one sense, for I have always maintained that, excepting fools, men did not differ much in intellect, only in zeal and hard work’ (in Galton, 1909, p. 290). Galton responded: ‘The rejoinder that might be made to his remark about hard work, is that character, including the aptitude for work, is heritable like every other faculty’.”— Stephen Gould (2006), The Mismeasure of Man 
● Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) (IQ:185|#58) [RGM:21|1,260+] (Cattell 1000:341)
● Charles Darwin (1809-1882) (IQ:180|#104) [RGM:13|1,260+] (Cattell 1000:116)
● Francis Galton (1822-1911) (IQ:145|#472) [RGM:325|1,260+] (Cattell 1000:N/A)
See also: Last wordsOn 24 May 1543, Copernicus ceased to move, for the last time; his last day is recounted by Tiedemann Giese to Georg Rheticus as follows:
“Copernicus death was caused by a hemorrhage and subsequent paralysis of the right side on 24 May, his memory and mental alertness having been lost many days before. He saw his treatise only at his last breath on his dying day.”
“So large is the number of fools.”— Galileo (1596), note to Kepler on his refrain from publishing on Copernicus
“Of all discoveries and opinions, none may have exerted a greater effect on the human spirit than the doctrine of Copernicus. The world had scarcely become known as round and complete in itself when it was asked to waive the tremendous privilege of being the center of the universe. Never, perhaps, was a greater demand made on mankind—for by this admission so many things vanished in mist and smoke! What became of Eden, our world of innocence, piety and poetry; the testimony of the senses; the conviction of a poetic-religious faith? No wonder his contemporaries did not wish to let all this go and offered every possible resistance to a doctrine which in its converts authorized and demanded a freedom of view and greatness of thought so far unknown, indeed not even dreamed of.”— Johann Goethe (1808) 
|A 2005 facial reconstruction of Copernicus, from his supposed skeletal remains. (Ѻ)|
“Copernicus’ book  was not removed from the Index of Forbidden Books for more than two-hundred years .”— Jack Repcheck (2007), Copernicus’ Secret (pg. 194)
“When I attribute certain motions to the terrestrial globe, they will immediately shout to have me and my opinion hooted off the stage. Therefore, when I weighted these things in my mind, the scorn which I had to fear on account of the newness and absurdity of my opinion [that the earth moves] almost drove me to abandon a work already undertaken. In fact, I kept [the manuscript] hidden among my things.”— Nicholas Copernicus (c.1540), a reference, supposedly, to the earlier work of al-Zarqali and al-Battani