In science, philosophy is the "reasoning art" (Aurelius, 167AD); the "daughter of reason and the future mother of truth" (Schopenhauer, 1936); the study of topics concerning the whys and hows of human existence; generally those which have not yet been quantified by the hard sciences.
The term "philosophical thermodynamics", refers to the penetration of exacting logic of thermodynamics on various philosophical questions. In human chemistry, since the time of German polymath Johann Goethe’s 1809 Elective Affinities, the logic of the chemical reaction in regards to human chemical reactions, has led to debates on the issue of free will and choice among other topics. 
The following are some of the noted branches of philosophy:
|1.||Materialistic philosophy||he views of Epicurus and Thomas Hobbes (Henderson, 1917). |
“The first to use the term [philosophy], and to call himself a philosopher or lover of wisdom, was Pythagoras; for, said he, no man is wise, but god alone. Heraclides of Pontus, in his De mortua, makes him say this at Sicyon in conversation with Leon, who was the prince of that city or of Phlius. All too quickly the study was called wisdom and its professor a sage, to denote his attainment of mental perfection; while the student who took it up was a philosopher or lover of wisdom. Sophists was another name for the wise men, and not only for philosophers but for the poets also. And so Cratinus when praising Homer and Hesiod in his Archilochi gives them the title of sophist.”— Diogenes Laertius (c.230BC), The Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers (1:12) (Ѻ)
“Philosophy, the pursuit of wisdom, has had a twofold origin; it started with Anaximander on the one hand, with Pythagoras on the other. The former was a pupil of Thales, Pythagoras was taught by Pherecydes. The one school was called Ionian, because Thales, a Milesian and therefore an Ionian, instructed Anaximander; the other school was called Italian from Pythagoras, who worked for the most part in Italy. And the one school, that of Ionia, terminates with Clitomachus and Chrysippus and Theophrastus, that of Italy with Epicurus. The succession passes from Thales through Anaximander, Anaximenes, Anaxagoras, Archelaus, to Socrates, who introduced ethics or moral philosophy; from Socrates to his pupils the Socratics, and especially to Plato, the founder of the Old Academy; from Plato, through Speusippus and Xenocrates, the succession passes to Polemo, Crantor, and Crates, Arcesilaus, founder of the Middle Academy, Lacydes, founder of the New Academy, Carneades, and Clitomachus. This line brings us to Clitomachus. There is another which ends with Chrysippus, that is to say by passing from Socrates to Antisthenes, then to Diogenes the Cynic, Crates of Thebes, Zeno of Citium, Cleanthes, Chrysippus. And yet again another ends with Theophrastus; thus from Plato it passes to Aristotle, and from Aristotle to Theophrastus. In this manner the school of Ionia comes to an end. In the Italian school the order of succession is as follows: first Pherecydes, next Pythagoras, next his son Telauges, then Xenophanes, Parmenides, Zeno of Elea, Leucippus, Democritus, who had many pupils, in particular Nausiphanes [and Naucydes], who were teachers of Epicurus.”— Diogenes Laertius (c.230BC), The Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers (1:13-15) (Ѻ)
“The truth is, the ‘science of nature’ has been already too long made only a work of the ‘brain’ and the ‘fancy’: It is now high time that it should return to the plainness and soundness of observations on material and obvious things. It is said of great empires, that the best way to preserve them from decay, is to bring them back to the first principles, and arts, on which they did begin. The same is undoubtedly true in philosophy, that by wandering far away into invisible notions, has almost quite destroyed itself, and it can never be recovered, or continued, but by returning into the same sensible paths, in which it did at first proceed.”— Robert Hooke (1665), Micrographia (preface)