Robert Hooke nsIn existographies, Robert Hooke (1635-1703) (IQ:195|#19) [RGM:584|1,500+] (Murray 4000:13|CS / 20|P) (EPD:13|F) (EP:11) [Kanowitz 50:45] (Partington 50:23) (GPE:18) (GCE:#) [CR:125] was an English physicist, mechanical inventor, astronomer, microscopist, chemist, engineer, experimenter, and anti-chance natural philosopher, aka "England's Leonardo" (Chapman, 2004), noted for a number of achievements and inventions, firstly and foremost the construction of the gas law experimental device the "pneumatical engine", under commission of Robert Boyle, among numerous other theoretical insights, such as that heat is motion (volume expansion), evolution, cellular anatomy, purported co-discoverer of the inverse square law of gravity, light theory (wave theory of light), and others.

Vacuum pumps
In 1658 to 1659, Hooke, while working as an assignment of Robert Boyle, made a vacuum pump + air pump combination, based on earlier vacuum pump design of Otto Guericke, and a failed attempt to make one by Ralph Greatoriex:

“In 1658 or 1659, I contrived and perfected the ‘air-pump’ for Boyle, having first seen a contrivance for that purpose made for Boyle by Gratorix, which was too gross to perform any great matter.”
— Robert Hooke (c.1670), Posthumous Works (pg. iii-iv); cited by Richard Waller (1705) in “Life of Robert Hooke” [4]

Boyle, after seeing Greatorex’s device, when to London to get the barrel and other parts he could not get made at Oxford.

In this "first Hooke air pump" design (or first Boyle air pump), called the "pneumatical engine" by Boyle or the "air-pump" by Hooke, shown below, Hooke replaced Guericke's inlet valve with a cόck, the former suction method (or later crank arm), to move the piston, was upgraded to a a rack-and-pinion crank arm F (the piston rod had teeth cut in it, making it a rack E, which was connected to a toothed wheel or pinion E), and the former vacuum bulb was replaced with a over-sized glass receiver, wherein more experiments could be done. This first vacuum design, to note, lacked water seals (which Guericke's had): [30]

Boyle equipment 1

In 2004, Allan Chapman (Ѻ), a British historian of science, who in 2002 did some tests with an 80-year old version of a Hooke-Boyle pneumatical engine at the Science Museum, London, summarizes the three main improvements of the Hooke air pump, as follows:

“Apart from any new features that were special to the pumps or valves, Hooke's machine contained three design features that were of the greatest significance. The first of these was a large glass vessel some 15-inches in diameter, called the 'receiver', which contained the space to be evacuated. Secondly, a brass stopper some four inches in diameter set and cemented into the top of the glass receiver made it possible to gain easy access to the experimental area, and seal everything up before the pumper set to work. Thirdly, an ingenious secondary brass stopper with conical sides passed through the large stopper, so that when liberally coated with salad oil, it could be turned around without breaking the air seal. This rotating stopper could be used to pull a thread to actuate some experiment in vacuo. With Hooke's machine, therefore, the experimenter had easy physical access to a fairly large experimental site that was entirely visible through the thick walls of the glass Receiver. It was to be used to conduct a series of experiments which needed clear vision and the ability to ignite and move things.”
— Allan Chapman (2004), England’s Leonardo (pg. 24) [33]

Experiments using the pneumatical engine lead to the formulation of Boyle's law, the first of the gas laws. The first Hooke vacuum pump design served as the basis for the first vacuum pump made by Christiaan Huygens.

Hooke vacuum pumps (1659, 1662)

In 1662, Hooke made a second vacuum pump design, shown above right, wherein the entire barrel was submerged in water, so effect a better sealing (less leaks). The vacuum chamber, resting on the table, showns a small animal, a test done to see if animals could breath and or survived in a vacuum (see: bird in vacuum). [31] This water-immersed pump is also called “Boyle’s second air pump” (Ѻ).

English science historian Robert Gunther (1869-1940) suggests that Hooke probably made the observations and may well have developed the mathematics of Boyle's Law.

Steam engines
Compare: Giovanni Porta
In Oct 1675, Hooke, we will note, in his A Description of Helioscopes and some other Instruments, presented his future invention he intended to publish or make, invention number nine of which was a “New Invention in Mechanics of Prodigious Use, Exceeding the Chimera’s of Perpetual Motions for Several Uses”, the secret of which, when decoded by Hooke out of his Latin anagram, was: "Pondere premit aer vacuum quod ab igne relictum est" which translates as: “the vacuum left by fire lifts a weight” (Inwood, 2003). [24]

“Hooke’s ‘pondere [weight] premit [exerts] aer [air] vacuum [vacuum] quod ab igne [from] relictum [left] est [it is]’ is one of the principles upon which Savery's late invented engine for raising water is founded.”
— Richard Waller (1705), The Posthumous Works of Robert Hooke (pg. xxi)

“This [Hooke engine principle], which was restated by Jean de Hautefeuille [1678] and Huygens [1678] in the late 1670s, was regarded by some of Hooke’s admirers as the principle behind the invention of the steam pump by Thomas Savery in the 1690s.”
— Stephen Inwood (2002), The Main Who Knew Too Much (pg. 211)

It is difficult to see exactly what type of engine Hooke had in mind here, but it could have been a gunpowder engine, or combustion engine, a Papin engine (1690), or possibly a Hero engine of some sort?

Hooke, it seems, was also responsible for the promotion of French physicist Denis Papin’s steam engine theories in England, as found in Papin’s 1690 treatise "A New Method to Obtain Very Great Motive Powers at Small Cost", particularly in Hooke’s failed efforts to dissuade English engineer Thomas Newcomen to erect a machine on Papin’s theory of making a speedy vacuum under a piston, by attempting to fault Papin’s theory.

Pneumatical engine (Robert Hooke)
An un-annotated version of the pneumatical engine built by Hooke (1659), under the commission of Robert Boyle, with which the first gas law (Boyle's law) was derived.
Hooke is also noted for having been one of the first (see: volume expansion), following Francis Bacon, to state that heat is motion of the parts of bodies:

“Heat is nothing else but a very brisk and vehement agitation of the parts of a body.”
— Robert Hooke (1665), Micrographia (pg. 12)

“Hooke's kinetic theory of heat and matter was then forgotten for many years, until the Swiss scientist Daniel Bernoulli rediscovered the kinetic theory of gases in 1738. Bernoulli's work was in turn ignored until the idea was revived by two uninfluential English amateurs, John Herapath and John Waterston, in 1820 and 1845. Only with the work of James Joule in the 1840s, and Rudolf Clausius and James Maxwell in the 1860s, did the kinetic theory of heat and matter achieve general acceptance.”
— Stephen Inwood (2001), The Man Who Knew Too Much (pg. 276)

Hooke statement, accordingly, is one of the earliest the heat as motion theories.

Boerhaave's law
Hooke, in circa 1685, was among the first to assert that thermal expansion and contraction might be a general property of matter, in his statement that "this property of expansion with heat , and contraction with cold, is not peculiar to liquors only, but to all kinds of solid bodies, especially metals." [6] This principle later came to be encapsulated by the name of Boerhaave's law, owing to a version of this statement from Dutch chemist Herman Boerhaave's 1724 Elements of Chemistry.

In 1664, Hooke had made a variety of spirit thermometers, and notably used the bulb immersed in ice water as the zero mark on the thermometer, similar to Daniel Fahrenheit (who did the same in 1724), then made further marks on the tube to represent an expansion of 1/500th of volume of the fluid in the bulb. [4]

Hooke, to note, is the 23rd most cited chemist of English chemist James Partington’s famous 1937 A Short History of Chemistry, based on name index page count. [1]

The law of elasticity, formerly known as "Hooke's law", was derived by Hooke.

Hooke was person to coin the word "cell" for the cell of an organism, owing to the noted anecdote that the entities he was viewing seem to him to resemble prison "cells" in their shape.

Gravitation | Newton
On reading English physicist Isaac Newton’s 1686 Principia, Hooke is said to have claimed that the idea of an inverse square law for gravitation had been stolen from him. Hooke, supposedly, did have such an idea independent of Newton and also realized that an object falling towards the earth had the same motion as earth falling towards the sun. Hooke’s lack of mathematical ability, however, was, supposedly, was what hindered his claim to fame.

Upon hearing this accusation, Newton, promptly removed all mention of Hooke from the Principia, and refused to have anything to do with the Royal Society, Hooke’s employer, agreeing to become president only after Hooke’s death in 1703. When Newton did become president, Hooke’s portrait hanging in the Royal Society mysteriously disappeared. [5] The inference here being that the reason that no pictures of Hooke exist in modern times, is the result of Newton.

Huygens | Hooke dispute
(add) [8]

Combustion theory

Hooke abjured from mention of religion discussion of the implications of his theories, that is until his later years wherein he attempted to show that there was no conflict between his moving earth theories, terrestrial lava upheaval theories, evolution theories, and genesis of the Bible.

Image | Physical descriptions
The following are verbal descriptions of the likenesses of Hooke according to various biographers:
“He is but of middle stature, something of a crooked, and his face but little below, but his head is large; his eyes full and popping, and not quick; a grey eye. He has a delicate head of hair, brown, and of excellent moist curl. He is and ever was very temperate, and moderate in diet”; he was “of great suavity and goodness.”
— John Aubrey (c.1688)

“As to his person, he was despicable, being very crooked, though I have heard from himself, and others, that he was straight until about 16 years of age when he first grew awry, by frequent practicing with a turn lathe, and the like incurvating exercises, being but of a thin weak habit of body, which increased as he grew older, so as to be very remarkable at last.”
— John Aubrey (c.1688)

“As to his person he was but despicable, being very crooked. This made him but low of stature, though by his limbs he should have been moderately tall. He was always very pale and lean, and laterly nothing but skin and bone, with a meagre aspect, his eyes grey and full, with a sharp ingenious look whilst younger; his nose but thin, of a moderate height and length; his mouth meanly wide, and his upper Lip thin; his chin sharp, and forehead large; his head of a middle size. He went stooping and very fast (till his weakness a few years before his death hindered him) having but a light body to carry, and a great deal of spirits and activity, especially in his youth?”
— Richard Waller (c.1700), “Description of Robert Hooke”; cited by Stephen Inwood (2002) in The Man Who Knew Too Much (pg. 52)

“Hooke was meanly ugly, very pale and lean.”
— Tom Shactman (1999)

“Friends who described him in his middle and later years agreed that he was a sorry sight, with his thin and crooked body, his over-large head, sharp facial features and protruding eyes.”
— Stephen Inwood (2002), The Man Who Knew Too Much (pg. 11)

There has been some recent conjecture that Hooke might have suffered from severe kyphosis (a condition known as Scheuermann’s kyphosis, 1921), a type of progressive forward curvature or hunchbacking of the spine, based on Waller's description of Hooke as "straight until about sixteen years of age when he first grew awry, by frequent practicing with a turn lathe, and the like incurvating exercises", a statement which in itself makes little sense. [19]

Hooke photos (six possible)
Six artistic reconstruction attempts at what Hooke might have looked like, based in extant verbal descriptions of him.
Artistic | Reconstructions
The following is a summary of the six main artistic reconstructions of Hooke, based on above verbal accounts, as numbered A to F adjacent, as well as G, H, I, below, being three oft-misatributed photos:

A. 2004 artistic reconstruction of Robert Hooke, by Royal College artist Rita Greer, based on combined descriptions of his appearance and facial features. [3]
B. 2010 observational painting of Robert Hooke (by Peter), based on contemporary comments on his appearance, for a new book on 400 years of telescopic astronomy. [13]
C. Depiction of Robert Hooke on the cover of Mary Gow’s 2006 Robert Hooke: Creative Genius, Scientist, Inventor (defect attribute: too much of an evil genius look; good attributes: thin; moist curly hair). [7]
D. Reconstruction of Robert Hooke by Jonas Ranson, one of the 2003 tercentenary portraits commissioned by the Royal Society (defect attributes: small head, hair not currly; good attribute: popping eyes). [15]
E. 2011 reconstruction portrait of Hooke by Rita Greer, on display in the Hooke Room, at the Institute of Physics, London [22]
F. 2004 reconstruction sketch of Hooke by Royal College science historian artist Rita Greer.
Hooke photos (misattributed)
G. 1728 engraving of a bust of Robert Hooke.
H. An unlikely bust (based on his description as thin, weak, and full popping eyes) of Robert Hooke (of unknown origin) at the Hooke Museum, Isle of Wight, UK; possibly the same one shown in the 1728 edition of Chambers' Cyclopedia. [10]
I. The unsourced dubious 1939 Time magazine image of Robert Hooke. [12][17]
J. Dutch iatrochemist Johann Helmont (coiner of the term "gas"), who prior to 2004 was often listed as Robert Hooke; such as on the cover of Lisa Jardine's 2003 book The Curious Life of Robert Hooke. [20]

A 2004 article summary of Robert Hooke and his combustion theory, in the context of Joseph Black's Lectures on Chemistry, from, which indicates that a bust was made of Hooke (likely the one at the Hooke Museum, Isle of Wight, UK). [11]

A 2010 Photoshop collage of Robert Hooke (hypothetical image) made by science illustrator Kathryn Killackey. [14]

Image | Spurious depictions
A number of false representations of Hooke, often using the image of Flemish chemist Jan van Helmont (among others), can be found on book covers (e.g. Lisa Jardine), internet pages (e.g. NNDB), and television (e.g. BBC).

Also, to note, in 1939 Time magazine, in a centennial celebration to commemorate the discovery that cell (1739), an alleged portrait of Robert Hooke was shown, based on a photo purchased by Ismar Lachman, of the Historical Picture Service, New York. [12]

This depiction of Hooke, of which photos were famously said to be non-existent, prompted Ashley Morgan to do some investigation, according to which, as discussed in his 1941 Isis article “A Spurious Portrait of Robert Hooke”, he explained how Lachman told him that the photo engraving, which was no longer in his possession, of which he was unable to give the source, neither had a name nor engraver. [17]

Little, supposedly, is known about Hooke's early years. From about the time Hooke was ten, however, his father became ill and this contributed to Hooke being left to educate himself in the highly practical way that interested him.

“Hooke’s father, John Hooke, briefly hoped that he might be trained for a career in the Church, but study gave the boy headaches, and John, whose own health was failing, abandoned his son’s education. The smell of paint, like the study of religion, made his head ache.”
— Stephen Inwood (2002), The Man Who Knew Too Much (pgs. 7 & 10)

In 1648, Hooke, age 13, was orphaned, following his father's suicide (his brother John Hooke also hung himself is 1678), and was left £40 inheritance by his father, together with all his father's books, after which his family sent him to London to become an apprentice to the Peter Lely, a portrait painter. [18] Hooke soon decided, however, that it would waste his money studying under Lely, and he made the decision that what he really needed was a school education.

Hooke thereafter shortly, circa 1650, age 15, enrolled in Westminster School, boarding in the house of the headmaster Richard Busby. Busby is said to have realized he had a quite remarkable pupil, noting, e.g., that Hooke had mastered the first six books of Euclid's Elements by the end of his first week at school and so encouraged Hooke to study by himself in his library. [16]

Quotes | On
The following are quotes on Hooke:

“Thanks for the extracts from Hooke. I know him very well. He understands no geometry at all. He makes himself ridiculous by his boasting. I know his name machine [for grinding lenses] well – it is quite inept. And a bad example of his mechanical algebra.”
Christiaan Huygens (1665), “Letter to Father” [26]

“I acknowledge my indebtedness to the very famous Master Robert Hooke for this experiment—by which the lungs are kept continuously dilated for a long time without meanwhile endangering the animal's life—and the opportunity thereby given me to perform this piece of work.”
— Richard Lower (1669), On the Heart (Ѻ); cited by Stephen Inwood (2002) in The Man Who Knew Too Much (pg. 106)

“What Des-Cartes did was a good step. You have added much several ways, & especially in taking ye colours of thin plates into philosophical consideration. If I have seen further it is by standing on ye sholders of Giants [sic].”
Isaac Newton (1678), “Letter to Hooke”, Feb 5 [21]

“The screw-propeller, which, as has been stated, was probably first proposed [by Leonardo da Vinci (c.1495) (Ѻ)] by Robert Hooke (Ѻ) in 1681, and by Daniel Bernoulli [1752], of Groningen, and by Watt in 1784, was, at the end of the century, tried experimentally in the United States by David Bushnell, an ingenious American, who was then conducting the experiments with torpedoes.”
Robert Thurston (1878), A History of the Steam Engine (pg. 292)

“Hooke’s great work, the Micrographia, published in 1665, contains his theory of combustion, a theory similar to that of John Mayow which did not appear until 1674, except that whereas Mayow's presentation is indirect, rather complicated, at times even obscure, Hooke's postulates are simply, clearly, and concisely stated. For a period of about seventeen years, from February, 1663 to about 1680, Hooke performed experiments before the Royal Society to prove the correctness of his theory. Besides these direct efforts he worked with Richard Lower in his experiments on respiration and was all during this period, according to the ‘Diary’, a very frequent visitor to the home and laboratory of Robert Boyle.”
— Clara Milt (1939), “Robert Hooke, Chemist” [29]

Hooke’s name is mentioned, in the index of the authoritative Instruments of Science: an Historical Encyclopedia (1998) (Ѻ), more times than that of any other inventor: eighteen entries for Lord Kelvin and Carl Zeiss, eleven for Jesse Ramsden, eight or nine for Isaac Newton, James Maxwell, and Ptolemy, and twenty for Robert Hooke.”
— Stephen Inwood (2002), The Man Who Knew Too Much (pgs. 4-5)

“Isaac Newton's seven pages of densely packed notes on Micrographia still exist among his papers in the Cambridge University Library. They show that he was interested in Hooke's theory of combustion, his ideas on the congruity of matter, and his description of the nettle's sting, and had thought of several ways of pursuing the problem of atmospheric refraction. The section of Micrographia which stimulated him the most, though, was Hooke's work on light and colours. Newton was not convinced by Hooke's theory that light was composed of waves, like sound, and he could not see why Hooke's 'weaker' waves should travel as fast as 'stronger' ones. ‘Why then may not light deflect from straight lines as well as sounds &c? How doth the foremost weak pulse keep pace with the following stronger & can it be then sufficiently weaker?’ Still, he accepted that the rings of colour produced by thin plates (which we now call Newton's rings) might provide clues to the nature of light and colour, and set to work on them.”
— Stephen Inwood (2002), The Man Who Knew Too Much (pg. 76)

Quotes | By
The following are quotes by Hooke:

“The vacuum left by fire lifts a weight.”
— Robert Hooke (1675), “A New Invention in Mechanics of Prodigious Use, Exceeding the Chimera’s of Perpetual Motions for Several Uses”, in: A Description of Helioscopes and some other Instruments (future invention #9) (penned as the following encrypted Latin cypher: "Pondere premit aer vacuum quod ab igne relictum est", the key for which he did not divulge until a decade or two later)

“The calm prosperity of your reign has given us the leisure [see: flow state] to follow these studies of quiet and retirement.”
— Robert Hooke (1665), “Epistle to the King” of Micrographia [25]

“Avoid dogmatizing and espousal of any hypotheses not sufficiently grounded and confirmed by experiment.”
— Robert Hooke (1665), 1st rule of Royal Society, in: “Foreword to Royal Society” of Micrographia [25]

“Thus all the uncertainty, and mistakes of humane actions, proceed either from, the narrowness and wandering of our senses, from the slipperiness or delusion of our memory, from the confinement or rashness of our understanding, so that it’s no wonder, that our power over natural causes and effects is so slowly improved, feeing we are not only to contend with the obscurity and difficulty of the things whereon we work, and think, but even the forces of our own minds conspire to betray us.”
— Robert Hooke (1665), “Preface” to Micrographia [25]

“So many are links, upon which the true philosophy depends, of which, if any one be loose, or weak, the whole chain is in danger of being dissolved; it is to begin with the hands and eyes, and to proceed on through the memory, to be continued by the reason; nor is it to stop there, but to come about to the hands and eyes again, and so, by a continual passage round from one faculty to another, it is to be maintained in life and strength, as much as the body of a man is by the circulation of the blood through the several parts to the body, the arms, the feet, the lungs, the heart, and the head.”
— Robert Hooke (1665), "Preface" to Micrographia; cited by Lawrence Henderson in “Sociology 23” (pg. 77)

“The truth is, the ‘science of nature’ has been already too long made only a work of the ‘brain’ and the ‘fancy’: It is now high time that it should return to the plainness and soundness of observations on material and obvious things. It is said of great empires, that the best way to preserve them from decay, is to bring them back to the first principles, and arts, on which they did begin. The same is undoubtedly true in philosophy, that by wandering far away into invisible notions, has almost quite destroyed itself, and it can never be recovered, or continued, but by returning into the same sensible paths, in which it did at first proceed.”
— Robert Hooke (1665), "Preface" to Micrographia (preface) [23]

“Who could be so sottish as to think all those things [e.g. flying mechanism of insects] the productions of ‘chance’ [see: anti-chance]?”
— Robert Hooke (1665), Micrographia (pgs. 171-72); cited by Stephen Inwood (2002) in The Man Who Knew Too Much (pg. 73)

“Some may say I have turned the world upside down for the sake of a shell.”
— Robert Hooke (1687), “Lecture in support of his Axial Tilt Theory of a Prolonged Global Flood”, Feb 19; the ‘turned the world upside down’ is from John Wallis and his criticism of Hooke’s theory on Biblical grounds [27]

“If we must not believe our senses, if we must not judge of things by trials and sensible proofs, but must remain tied up to opinions we have received from others, and disbelieve everything, though never so rational, if our received histories do not conform to them.”
— Robert Hooke (1694), “On the the ‘species’ of nature, in respect to the beginning of things”, Royal Institute, Jul 25 [24]

1. Boyle, Robert. (1660). New Experiments: Physico-Mechanical, Touching the Spring of the Air, and its Effects: Made, for the most part, in a New Pneumatical Engine. Publisher.
2. Partington, J.R. (1957). A Short History of Chemistry. MacMillan and Co.
3. (a) Greer, Rita. (2006) "Robert Hooke (drawing)"; based on descriptions by two close friends – John Aubrey and Richard Waller. Note the popping eyes, thin face and nose, sharp chin and small mouth with a thin upper lip, also a highly intelligent appearance.
(b) Robert Hooke (by Rita Greer, 2004) – Wikipedia.
(c) Paintings by Rita Greer – Wikipedia Commons.
(d) Shachtman, Tom. (1999). Absolute Zero and the Conquest of Cold (Quote: Hooke was described as "meanly ugly, very pale, and lean", pg. 42). Mariner Books.
4. Moran, Jeffrey B. (2001). How Do We Know the Laws of Thermodynamics (pg. 33). The Rosen Publishing Co.
5. Segre, Gino. (2002). A Matter of Degrees - What Temperature Reveals About the Past and the Future of Our Species, Planet, and Universe (pg. 51). London: Penguin Books.
6. (a) Shachtman, Tom. (1999). Absolute Zero and the Conquest of Cold (pg. 42). Mariner Books.
(b) Quote, supposedly, from lecture by E.N. da C. Andrade before the Royal Society, printed in its Proceedings, 1950.
7. Gow, Mary. (2006). Robert Hooke: Creative Genius, Scientist, Inventor. Enslow Publishers.
8. Jardine, Lisa. (2000). Ingenious Pursuits: Building the Scientific Revolution. Random House Digital.
9. Lewandowdki, Tim. (2011). "Reconstruction of Robert Hooke" (commission by Libb Thims), based on descriptions by (a) John Aubrey, (b) Richard Waller, and (c) Tom Shachtman (Absolute Zero and the Conquest of Cold, pg. 42).
10. (a) Artist. (date). “Bust of Robert Hooke.” Hooke Museum on the Isle of Wight, UK.
(b) Bust of Robert Hooke (display case) –
(c) The engraved frontispiece to the 1728 edition of Chambers' Cyclopedia shows a drawing of a bust of Robert Hooke (link). The extent to which the drawing is based on an actual work of art is unknown.
11. Robert Hooke (2004) –
12. Artist (Historical Pictures). (1939). “Science: Old-Fashioned”, Time (photo, pg. 39), July 3.
13. Robert Hooke (by Peter, 2010) –
14. (a) Robert Hooke –
(b) Robert Hooke (by Kathryn Killackey) – Flickr.
15. Anon. (2003). “Revenge on Isaac Newton”, BBC news, Jul 01.
16. O'Connor, J J; E F Robertson. (2002). "Hooke biography." School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, Scotland.
17. Monttagu, M.F. Ashley. (1941). "A Spurious Portrait of Robert Hooke (1635-1703) (abs)", Isis (photo, pg. 16), 33(1): 15-17.
18. Robert Hooke (about) –
19. (a) Inwood, Stephen. (2005). The Forgotten Genius: Biography of Robert Hooke 1635-1703 (pg. 10). MacAdam/Cage Publishing.
(b) Kyphosis – Wikipedia.
20. Jardine, Lisa (2003). The Curious Life of Robert Hooke (image of Johann Helmont on cover 2003 to cover 2004 editions; corrected thereafter). Harper Collins.
21. "The correspondence of Isaac Newton, volume 1", edited by HW Turnbull, 1959, page 416.
22. Robert Hooke (2011) – by Rita Greer.
23. (a) Hooke, Robert. (1665). Micrographia: Or, Some Physiological Descriptions of Minute Bodies Made by Magnifying Glasses, with Observations and Inquiries Thereupon (pg. #). Martyn and Allestry.
(b) Inwood, Stephen. (2003). The Man Who Knew Too Much: the Strange and Inventive Life of Robert Hooke 1653-1703 (Brain and the fancy, pg. 1). Pan MacMillan.
24. Inwood, Stephen. (2003). The Man Who Knew Too Much: the Strange and Inventive Life of Robert Hooke 1653-1703 (senses, pg. 2; pg. 212; back on London, pg. 352). Pan MacMillan.
25. Hooke, Robert. (1665). Micrographia: Some Physiological Descriptions of Minute Bodies made by Magnifying Glasses, with Observations and Inquiries Thereupon. Science Heritage, 1667.
26. (a) Heese, Mary B. (1966). “Hooke’s Philosophical Algebra” (abs), Isis, 57:73.
(b) Inwood, Stephen. (2003). The Man Who Knew Too Much: the Strange and Inventive Life of Robert Hooke 1653-1703 (pg. 76). Pan MacMillan.
27. (a) Hooke, Robert. (1705). Posthumous Works (pg. 411-12). Publisher.
(b) Inwood, Stephen. (2003). The Man Who Knew Too Much: the Strange and Inventive Life of Robert Hooke 1653-1703 (pg. 381). Pan MacMillan.
28. Needham, Joseph. (1987). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 5, Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Part 7, Military Technology: The Gunpowder Epic (pg. 563). Cambridge.
29. De Milt, Clara. (1939). “Robert Hooke, Chemist” (abs), Journal of Chemical Education, 16:503-10.
30. (a) Boyle, Robert. (1660). New Experiments Touching the Spring of the Air. Publisher.
(b) Helden, Anne. (1991). “The Age of the Air-Pump” (pdf) (Hooke engines, pgs. 159-60), Tractrix: Yearbook for the History of Science, Medicine, Technology, and Mathematics, 3:149-72.
31. (a) Boyle, Robert. (1669). A Continuation of New Experiments. Publisher.
(b) Helden, Anne. (1991). “The Age of the Air-Pump” (pdf) (Hooke engines, pgs. 159-60), Tractrix: Yearbook for the History of Science, Medicine, Technology, and Mathematics, 3:149-72.
32. Hooke, Robert. (1705). The Posthumous Works of Robert Hooke (§: The Life of Dr. Robert Hooke, pgs. i-xxviii; air-pump, iii-iv) (editor: Robert Waller). Publisher.
33. Chapman, Allan. (2004). England’s Leonardo: Robert Hooke and the Seventeenth-Century Scientific Revolution (Greatorex, pgs. 23, 272; receiver, pg. 24). CRC Press.

Further reading
● Drake, Ellen T. and Hooke, Robert. (1996). Restless Genius: Robert Hooke and his Earthly Thoughts. Oxford University Press.
● Bennett, James A. (2003). London’s Leonardo: the Life and Work of Robert Hooke. Oxford University Press.
● Jardine, Lisa. (2008). The Curious Life of Robert Hooke: the Man Who Measured London. Paw Prints.

External links
Robert Hooke – Wikipedia.
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