Roger Penrose nsIn hmolscience, Roger Penrose (1931-) (CR:23) is an English mathematical physicist noted, in human thermodynamics, for his 1974 to 2005 work on entropy applied at the particle physics level, human level, and level of the universe.

Overview
In
1974, Penrose, in a series of papers, applied the second law to the universe as a whole; specifically, he estimated the entropy or disorderliness of the observable universe, finding it to be fantastically small compared with what it theoretically might be. [4]

In 1979, Penrose formulated his influential Weyl curvature hypothesis on the initial conditions of the observable part of the universe and the origin of the second law of thermodynamics. [2]

In
1989, Penrose, in his The Emperor’s New Mind, argued that each individual person (see: human entropy) is a "configuration of tiny entropy" as follows: [1]


“We ourselves are configurations of ridiculously tiny entropy.”

In contrast to this physics-based postulate, however, in his book Penrose predominately argues that the known laws of physics are inadequate to explain the phenomenon of human consciousness.

In 2004, Penrose, in his The Road to Reality, stated the second law, under the stipulation of a positive cosmological constant, as follows: [3]

“Entropy per baryon tends so increase relentlessly and stupendously with time.”

A baryon, to note, is a
composite particle made up of three quarks (as distinct from mesons, which comprise one quark and one antiquark). The most familiar baryons are the protons and neutrons that make up most of the mass of the visible matter in the universe. Electrons (the other major component of the atom) are leptons. As quark-based particles, baryons participate in the strong interaction, whereas leptons, which are not quark-based, do not. [5]

References
1. Penrose, Roger. (1989). The Emperor’s New Mind: Concerning Computers, Minds, and the Laws of Physics (ch. 7: Cosmology and the Arrow of Time, pgs. 391-449, esp. 410). Oxford University Press.
2. (a) Penrose, Roger. (1979). "Singularities and Time-Asymmetry". S. W. Hawking and W. Israel General Relativity: An Einstein Centenary Survey: 581–638, Cambridge University Press.
(b) Weyl curvature hypothesis - Wikipedia.
3. Penrose, Roger. (2004). The Road to Reality: A Complete Guide to the Laws of the Universe (ch. 27: The Big Bang and its Thermodynamic Legacy, pgs. 686-734). London: Jonathan Cape.
5. Baryon – Wikipedia.

External links
‚óŹ Roger Penrose – Wikipedia.

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