Social Newton (labeled)
A depiction of a "social Newton", namely one who can "calculate the madness of men", as Newton longed for, via mechanistic, physics, chemistry, and or thermodynamical reasoning, and predictive governing equations.
In hmolscience, social Newton, abbreviation: SN, as compared to the phrase "another Newton", i.e. a future social Newton, refers to someone historically who has either been specifically referred to as a "Newton" of the humanities, e.g. "Newton of social science" (or "Newton of sociology"), and or whose work, being Social Principia-like, has outlined or developed a Newtonian, i.e. physical, chemical, and or rational mechanics, framed formulation of sociology, namely a social mechanics, social physics, or social chemistry conceptualized model of humans, as moving objects, on a surface, the way English physicist Isaac Newton completed a rational mechanics (or celestial mechanics) formulation for celestial bodies; which is a subject people "now have most need of" according to 1842 views of Auguste Comte.

Historically, the term “social Newton” or “Newton of social science”, among other variants, began to arise, semi-commonly, in the 19th century, and into the 20th century, attributed to four individuals, namely: Henry Carey, “Newton of social science” (Kate McKean, 1864) or “Newton of sociology” (Werner Stark, 1962); Charles Fourier, “Social Newton” (Moritz Kaufmann, 1874) or “Newton of the moral sciences” (Adam Ulam, 1976); Vilfredo Pareto, “Newton of sociology” (Bernard DeVoto, 1933) or “Newton of the moral world” (Werner Stark, 1963); Lester Ward, “American Aristotle” (Samuel Chugerman, 1939). The modern-day ranking of all known social Newtons, as per their work stands, is shown below.

Social Newtons | Classical
See also: Social Newtons (existive)
The following is the work-in-progress ranked listing of historical "social Newtons", with Hmolpedia citation ranking (CR) shown; the "±" column signifying that a seeming up or down (↑↓) adjustment in ranking is in order; in the chemical equilibrium ( \rightleftharpoons \,) column, the the "R" symbolizes that the used some semblance of "human chemical reaction theory", and the "E" signifying that the individual employed some type of reversible two-way equilibrium reaction logic; "Δ" column signifies the person used some type of thermodynamics logic in their theory (A=Affinity; T=Thermodynamics; CT=Chemical Thermodynamics; ST=Statistical Thermodynamics); the "Hu" column, signifies that the person used some type of human molecular theory logic, conceptualizing people as molecules "M" (human molecules) or chemicals "C" (human chemicals); the PCR symbol signifies that their work has been cited to have or has the potential to bring about a total "revolution" in social theory (see: Goethean revolution), i.e. a physicochemical revolution (PCR) in the humanities (see: physiochemical humanities); Hmolpedia like rankings (LR) are shown when available, e.g. the notation 2|30, in the LR column, signifies the person is the second most-liked individual in Hmolpedia, their article having 30 likes); the "LTE" symbol signifies if the person did the famous love thought experiment, in any sense of the matter (S = sort of), conceptualizing romantic relationships as chemical reactions governed by physicochemical principles:

Social Newtons | Classical

one bar white 15x7Person
 \rightleftharpoons \, Δ HuIQCitation[s] / Quotes
1 Goethe 75 newJohann Goethe
German polyintellect
PCR, LTE, LR:30|#2

Quote: “1642 [Newton’s birth] is the Christmas of the modern age.”
Quote: “The moral symbols of nature are the elective affinities:
A=-\left(\frac{\partial G}{\partial \xi}\right)_{p,T}
discovered and employed by Bergman.”

2.Henry Adams 75Henry Adams
American historian
LTE, LR:5|17

Quote: “A complete solution—to the future science of physico-chemical social dynamics— seems to call for the aid of another Newton.” (1910)
3.Vilfredo Pareto 75 newVilfredo Pareto
Italian engineer

“Newton of sociology” (Bernard DeVoto, 1933) (Ѻ)
“Newton of the moral world.” (Werner Stark, 1963) [13]
“If Pareto had truly joined the social sciences to the natural sciences, an achievement Henderson very much wanted to see, it is only to be expected that he would put Pareto in the great company of Gibbs, Bernard, and even Newton.” (Bernard Barber, 1970)
“A modern Galileo for the social sciences” (Henderson's view (c.1942), according to Barber, 1970)
French, Italian
4.Leon Winiarski 75Leon Winiarski
Polish social economist

In his Essay on Social Mechanics (1898), he attempted to base sociology on the Clausius inequality; which he discusses in the following form:
 \oint \frac{dQ}{T} = 0 \,
French, Italian
5.Norman Dolloff 75Norman Dolloff
American metallurgical engineering geologist

In his Heat Death and the Phoenix (1975), he gives the following what might be called "organism synthesis equation":
Dolloff organism formation equation
Classified as the transition point mindset of someone grappling to switch from the entropy "order/disorder" model of everything to the "free energy" model of everything; all done in the framework of explicit atheism.

6.Nietzsche 75Friedrich Nietzsche
German philosopher

All that we need and that could possibly be given us in the present state of development of the sciences, is a chemistry of the ‘moral’, ‘religious’, ‘aestheticconceptions and feeling, as well as of those emotions which we experience in the affairs, great and small, of society and civilization, and which we are sensible of even in solitude.”
Friedrich Nietzsche (1778), aphorism #1 of 1,400 in: Human, All Too Human

7. Frederick Rossini 75Frederick Rossini
American chemical thermodynamicist
146 \rightleftharpoons \,CTC180

In his “Chemical Thermodynamics in the Real World” (1971), he stated very directly that via the following equation:
\ln K = -\frac{\Delta H^\circ}{R} \left( \frac{1}{T} \right)+\frac{\Delta S^\circ}{R}
we can come to understand the paradox between freedom and security in society.

8.Lawrence Henderson 75Lawrence Henderson
American physical chemist
177 \rightleftharpoons \,CTC180

Ran the Harvard Pareto circle (1932-1942) AND taught a Gibbs-Pareto system based "Sociology 23" course at Harvard (1938-1942).
9.Edwin Wilson 75Edwin Wilson
American mathematician

Taught a Gibbs-based "Mathematical Economics" course at Harvard (1935-1938) AND told Paul Samuelson to use Gibbs' "equation 133":

 U - TS + PV - M_1 m_1 - M_2 m_2 ... - M_n m_n \,

to formulate a theory of economic stability.

10.Henry Carey 75Henry Carey
American sociologist
“Newton of social science” (Kate McKean, 1864) (Ѻ)
“Newton of sociology” (Werner Stark, 1962) [5]

11.Ludwig Buchner 75Ludwig Buchner
German physicist-physician


12.Paul d’Holbach 75Baron d’Holbach


Newton of the atheists” (Ѻ)
13.John Tukey 75John Tukey
American chemist, mathematician, and statistician


14.Mehdi Bazargan 75Mehdi Bazargan
Iranian mechanical engineer

15.John G. Stewart 75John Q. Stewart
American physicist turned social physicist

16.Wilhelm Ostwald 75Wilhelm Ostwald
German physical


17.Eugene Roeber 75Eugene Roeber
German-born American electrochemcial engineer

18.Rankine 75William Rankine
Scottish engineer and mathematical physicist


19.Maurice Hauriou 75Maurice Hauriou
French lawyer turned social philosopher

20.Arthur Schopenhauer 75 (1815)Arthur Schopenhauer
German philosopher


21.Alfred Lotka 75Alfred Lotka



22.William Fairburn 75 2William Fairburn



2#.Kaj Lang 75Kaj Lang
Danish chemical engineer


23.Henry Bray 75Henry Bray
English-born American polymath

First Hmolpedia scholar wherein "social Newton term analysis" was performed; a technique later called Beg analysis (Thims, 2014).
24.Lester Ward 75 newLester Ward
American paleobotanist-trained sociologist

“American Aristotle” (Samuel Chugerman, 1939)
25.Adolphe Quetelet 75Adolphe Quetelet


His social physics work, building on the social mathematics of Marquis Condorcet (IQ:180|#149) (Cattell 1000:288), inspired the proposed Nightingale Chair of Social Physics.French
26.Ed Stephan 75Ed Stephan
American sociologist ↓

27.Spiru Haret 75Spiru Haret
Romanian mathematical physicist


28.image needed 75Emanuele Sella
Italian lawyer

29.Guillaume de Greef 75Guillaume de Greef
Belgian socialist

30.George Scott 75George Scott
American organic chemist

31.Arthur Iberall 75Arthur Iberall
American physicist and engineer ↑

32.image needed 75Julius Davidson
American economist
15 \rightleftharpoons \,ST

33.Elliott Montroll 75Elliott Montroll
American chemist, mathematician, and physicist ↓

34.Nicolas Rashevsky 75Nicolas Rashevsky
Russian-born American theoretical biologist and sociologist ↓

35.Charles Fourier 75Charles Fourier
French philosopher ↑↑

“Social Newton” + Social Principia (Moritz Kaufmann, 1874) [1]
“Newton of the moral sciences” (Adam Ulam, 1976)
36.Antonio Portuondo 75Antonio Portuondo
Spanish civil engineer and mathematician

37.image needed 75Eduard Sacher
Austrian science teacher ↑

38.Enrique Fatigati 75Enrique Fatigati
Spanish physicist, chemist, and thermodynamicist ↑

39.Francesco Algarotti 75Francesco Algarotti
Italian natural philosopher

Argued, in his Newtonianism for the Ladies (1737), via Newtonian celestial mechanics logic, that:

Algarotti eq 2f

namely that the force of love decreases with distance of separation.

40.Sigmund Freud 75 youngSigmund Freud
Austrian psychoanalyst


41.image needed 75George Gore

42.Francis Edgeworth 75Francis Edgeworth
Irish mathematical economist



43.George Lundberg 75George Lundberg
American sociologist

“Secondary form” of social mechanism (Stark classification, 1962)
“Newton of the social sciences” (Robert Bierstedt, 1981) (Ѻ)

44.Georges Guillaume 75Georges Guillaume
Swiss-French economist ↑

45.Ettore Majorana 75Ettore Majorana
Italian engineer and theoretical physicist



46.Eugene Roberty 75Eugene Roberty
Russian positivism sociologist ↑↓

Russian, Spanish
47.Teresa Brennan 75Teresa Brennan
Australian-American philosopher ↑↓

48.Albert Brisbane 75Albert Brisbane
American social theorist

49.David Hume 75David Hume
Scottish philosopher


“Newton of moral sciences” (John Passmore, c.1960) (Ѻ)
“Newton of the moral sciences” (Michael Foley, 1990)

50.Auguste Comte 75Auguste Comte


“Newton of sociology” (1871) (Ѻ)
51.Jean Sales 75Jean Sales
French philosopher ↑


Newton in Senegal (1777) French
52.Balfour Stewart 75Balfour Stewart
Scottish physicist

Social cannon ball model (1868)
53.Charles Montesquieu 75Charles Montesquieu


“Newton of sociology” (Crane Brinton, 1950) (Ѻ)
54.Honore Balzac 75Honore Balzac
French novelist

See: Balzac feelings and affinity dialogue
55.John BoodinJohn Boodin
Swedish-born American philosopher

56.John Desaguliers 75John Desaguliers

Was Newton's experimental assistant; his his The Newtonian System of the World: the Best Model of Government (1728), outlined a system of “Newtonian government”, arguing that the force of "attraction" exists in society as it does celestially, and that an ideal government should be a "natural government", run similar to celestial mechanics principles.
57.James Madison 75James Madison


Studied social physics at Princeton; wrote the US Constitution using Newtonian mechanics (i.e. Newtonian government)
58.George Berkeley 75George Berkeley
Irish-born English philosopher


Known for a particular social physics brand of “Newtonian sociology”, defended by Bernard Cohen (1994) but refuted by Pitirim Sorokin (1928), which attempted to outline a theory of laws of motion of souls akin to the laws of motion of planets, i.e. that souls were governed by something similar a force like the law of gravity.
59.Pierre Maupertuis 75Pierre Maupertuis


Penned Venus Physics (1745), which may have been on the physics of love {?}; also: System of Nature: Essay on Organized Bodies (1751), which contrasts ideas on feelings and soul with atomistic materialism ideas, from Epicurus to Descartes; his ideas that atoms “feel” attraction and repulsion, and possibly use of the material imagination theory, sometimes leads to comparisons with Goethe and his Elective Affinities.
60.Albert Weiss 75Albert Weiss

His Theoretical Basis for Human Behavior, defined a human as a “geometrical electron-proton pattern” (see: proton-electron configuration) or system, and human behavior as reduced to “movements between electron-proton systems”; went on to outline a “radical reductionism” form of behaviorism; his “rain-drop analogy” points to the need to deanthropomorphize our thinking about human movements.
61.Carl Snyder 75Carl Snyder
American chemistry historian, economist, and statistician ↑↑

Made a Gibbs and Goethe (+Empedocles) connection (1902), , wherein, citing Berthelot, stated that “line demarking the domains of organic and mineral chemism is a figment of the mind, the selfsame powers rule in each”, then published The World Machine: the First Phase, the Cosmic Mechanism (1907), and had a draft The Social Mechanism working.
62.image needed 75Lady Professor
English science professor

Her posthumous The Romance of Mathematics (1886) deals with social force, kinetic and potential energy, and science applied to sociology, government, and politics.

CR \rightleftharpoons \,Δ Hu

Of note, the mean IQ of a social Newton, per average of the above 14 IQ estimates, is 185.7 or 186, rounded.

In 1875, of note, American theological philosopher Robert Wright published Principia: Basis of Social Science, the first attempt at a so-called Social Principia, wherein he grappled with Auguste Comte, Carey, and Fourier, in efforts to expunge the “atheism” aspects of the latter so to make a theological-framed politics for post-civil war America

SN Rankings | Origin
In 2011, Thims, in order to keep track of “key thinkers”, from among the 100s of existographies growing in Hmolpedia, when was at the 2,200-article level, began to collect “spotlight thinkers” (Ѻ), not ranked in any particular order, in a bottom section of the Hmolpedia main page; the following is the 7 Jul 2013 version of the spotlight thinkers section:

person icon black 75
Léon Winiarski (1865-1915)
Antonio Portuondo 75
Antonio Portuondo
Gustave Hirn 75
Gustave Hirn (1815-1890)
Lewis caricature (chemistry and thermodynamics) (labeled)
In thermodynamics we trust (tight)
Wilhelm Ostwald 75
Wilhelm Ostwald (1853-1932)
person icon black 75
Georges Guillaume
Francis Edgeworth 75
Francis Edgeworth (1845-1926)
Frederick Rossini 75
Frederick Rossini (1899-1990)
Erwin Bauer 75
Erwin Bauer
Pitirim Sorokin 75 new
Pitirim Sorokin
Mehdi Bazargan 75
Mehdi Bazargan (1907-1995)
Neumann 75
John Neumann
Spiru Haret 75
Spiru Haret
Robert Lindsay 75
Robert Lindsay (1900-1985)
Teresa Brennan 75
Teresa Brennan
person icon black 75
Jeffrey Wicken (1942-2002)
Arthur Iberall 75
Arthur Iberall
person icon black 75
Morris Zucker
Ettore Majorana 75
Ettore Majorana (1906-1938)
Ed Stephan 75
Ed Stephan
Jeremy Adler 75
Jeremy Adler
Jurgen Mimkes 75
Jurgen Mimkes
The "ΘΔics" symbol, the icon found at the bottom of every Hmolpedia article, James Maxwell's famous coded shorthand for "thermodynamics", the science that governs the known universe, shown on a US one dollar bill, meaning, for the modern physical scientist, "In Thermodynamics We Trust" is our motto; substituted for the original 1956 now-defunct statement "In God We Trust", as adhered to in the belief systems of the general public (see: existence of God).Sture Nordhom 75
Sture Nordholm

Reiner Kummel 75
Reiner Kummel
Adriaan de Lange 75
Adriaan de Lange
Hauriou 75
Maurice Hauriou
Enrique Serrano 75
Enrique Serrano
person icon black 75
Eduard Sacher
Henry Adams 75
Henry Adams
Yuri Tarnopolsky 75
Yuri Tarnopolsky
Lester Ward 75
Lester Ward
Schopenhauer 75
Arthur Schopenhauer
John G. Stewart 75
John Q. Stewart (1894-1972)
Henry Carey 75
Henry Carey
Nicolas Rashevsky 75
Nicolas Rashevsky

This group of spotlight thinkers, in some sense, was a forerunner to the (above) now-ranked “social Newton” article. The more one reads into the works of spotlight thinkers, the more progressively a respective ranking becomes apparent, albeit not immediately.

On 16 Oct 2013, this "social Newton" page, in particular, was prompted (Ѻ) into inception, following discovery of the citation, by Moritz Kaufmann (1874), referring to Charles Fourier’s The Theory of the Four Movement as being a “social Principia” and Fourier as having aimed to become a “social Newton”. By the end of day, revision 4 (Ѻ), Thims had made a first draft ranking of 29 “classical social Newtons” and 13 “active social Newtons”, as shown below:

Social Newton (2013 rankings) (1st draft)

As of 5 Dec 2016, 58 "historical" social newtons were listed, in ranked order, as shown above, and 18 "existive" social newtons were listed, on a separate page.

Newton in Senegal (labeled)
An illustration of Jean Sales’ 1777 satirical play “Reasonable Drama”, aka Newton in Senegal, showing Newton, as “social Newton”, fictionally depicted as a vegetarian, eavesdropping on a conversation between a meat-eating Merman, a talking oyster, pleading for it’s life, amid which an African, who believes in a scarab-conceptualized god, enters the scene; at the end of which Newton reasons that he should only attempt to explain morality to the African, since he alone, with his type of belief system, might obtain a soul, or something along these lines.
Candidates | Tentatives
The following are noted and or newly-discovered possible "social Newtons" in potential need of ranking:

Percy Shelley (1792-1822)
Witold Gombrowicz (1904-1969)
Oliver Reiser (1895-1974)
John Fiske (1842-1901)
Robert Burton (1577-1640)
Henry Finck (1854-1926)
Edmund Noble (1853-1937)
Frank Carlton (1873-1961)
William Paterson (1745-1806)
Michael Macrakis (1924-2001)
John Boyd (1927-1997)
Robert Wright | published: Principia: Basis of Social Science (1875)

Remote | Social Newton
The following are prototype, precursory, stepping stone, preliminary work type of "in the remote neighborhood" social Newton type thinkers: Etienne Marey (first to address the unbridgeable gap), Morris Zucker, (add)

Ward | American Aristotle
American sociologist Lester Ward, to note, does not have an actual "social Newton" reference, but (a) he does have a “American Aristotle” (Samuel Chugerman, 1939) citation and (b) he does seem to be the sole American advocate of Winiarski's social mechanics theories, and (c) he is cited by Bruce Lindsay as one of the pioneers of physical sociology, seemingly on par with in conceived to be in like company with Pareto:

“Many years ago in the brashness of youth the writer prepared an article [“Physical Laws and Social Phenomena”, 1927] on the possible use of physical principles and concepts in the description and understanding of social phenomena. He called attention to the earlier efforts of social scientists like Auguste Comte, Herbert Spencer, and Lester Ward to apply physical concepts and laws more or less directly to social explanation. He emphasized the difficulties encountered in the use of such analogies, e.g., the attempt to introduce a ‘social force’ analogous to ‘force’ in mechanics, overlooking the highly specific meaning attributed to the term in physics, not always clearly grasped by the nonphysicist and indeed for a long time not even too precisely clear to many physicists and engineers. It was only later that his attention was drawn to the ideas and criticisms of Vilfredo Pareto, who in his monumental work Treatise on General Sociology (1916) stresses in great detail the same difficulties.”
Bruce Lindsay (1983), “Social Exemplifications of Physical Principles

(add discussion)

Newton of moral sciences
The term “Newton of the moral sciences” has been attributed to a few people, some of which are listed above, of the enlightenment:

“The recurrence during the eighteenth century Enlightenment of the aspiration to be the ‘Newton of the moral sciences’ testifies to the prestige not just of celestial mechanics, but of the ‘experimental method’ more generally.”
— Stefan Collini (1993), ‘Introduction’ to C.P. Snow’s The Two Cultures [6]

Some of these so-called “moral Newtons” include: John Locke (Ѻ), David Hume, Immanuel Kant (Ѻ), and Charles Fourier (Ѻ), along with Vilfredo Pareto who Werner Stark (1963) refers to as the “Newton of the moral world.” [13]

5. Section
Chap. 343. Since the Renaissance
A. Machiavelli
B. Wave theories as concrete periodizations
C. [Pierre] Bayle
D. Mendelssohn, Kant
E. Goethe (#1)
F. [Heinrich] Leo [or Judah Leo?]
G. Heine
H. [Pierre] Proudhon
J. Henry Adams (#2)
K. Hauriou (#13)
L. Pareto (#3)
M. Louis Weber
N. Ortega y Gasset
O. [Karl] Joel
P. [Nicolai] Berdjajew
Q. Russell
Section 5, chapter 343 “Since the Renaissance”, by German writer Johan Hendrik Jacob Van Der Pot (1918-), from his 1985 two-volume Encyclopedia of Technological Progress: A Systematic Overview of Theories and Opinions, which seems to cover the work and theories of a very focused selection of “social Newtons”; though, to note, this is need of corroboration (via a reading of the 2004 English-translation). [10]
The following quote gives a ripe comparison of Pareto (SN:3) and Adams (SN:2):

Pareto’s Treatise on General Sociology is the hardest boiled book I have ever read. Three times, since I passed my puberty, has my mind been made over. Once by a nexus of which Henry Adams was the center, once by a matrix of which [James] Frazer (Ѻ) (Ѻ) burned brightest, and once by a long study of genetics and evolution. Pareto is doing the job a fourth time, and far more vitally than any others.”
Bernard DeVoto (1928), personal note reflection [8]

This, of course, is two cultures social Newton genius comparison at its near finest, Goethe (SN:1) aside. Although there does not, in paragraph form, similar to above, seem to be anyone who has been perspicacious enough to make the illusive and very difficult Goethe-Adams-Pareto connection, the closest Goethe-Adams comparison or connection is as follows:

“The English Navy, Goethe tells us, had all its ropes manufactured each with a single red thread, twisted so intimately among the fibers of the rope, throughout its length from beginning to end, so that the red thread could be removed only by complete destruction of the rope. Even the shortest section of a rope of the Royal Navy could therefore be identified instantly by the red thread, always present and always visible. The ‘red thread’ has come to mean, in the German and Scandinavian languages, a subtle but vital theme, always present and always visible, which runs inexorably through a body. In this examination of texts of Goethe from 1809, of Henry Adams from 1909 and of Thomas Pynchon from 1973, we have, I think never lost the read thread.”
Richard Schowen (1984), ‘Elective Affinities: Science, Certainty and Freedom in Goethe, Henry Adams and Thomas Pynchon’

The following prophesy quote, concerning the modern social Newton ranking of Pareto, from about 92 years ago, if fairly telling, i.e. accurate:

“And now the astonishing and perturbing suspicion emerges that perhaps almost all that had passed for social science, political economy, politics, and ethics in the past may be brushed aside by future generations as mainly rationalizing. John Dewey has already reached this conclusion in regard to philosophy. Veblen and other writers have revealed the various unperceived presuppositions of the traditional political economy, and now comes an Italian sociologist, Vilfredo Pareto, who, in his huge [1912] treatise on general sociology, devotes hundreds of pages to substantiating a similar thesis affecting all the social sciences. This conclusion may be ranked by students of a hundred years hence [2021] as one of the several great discoveries of our age.”
— James Robinson (1921), Mind in the Making (Ѻ) (Ѻ)

The term "Newton of sociology", to note, is Czechoslovakian-born English sociologist Werner Stark's 1962 term for American physical sociologist Henry Carey; the term "Newton[s] of social theory", is English philosopher Stephen Toulmin's 1992-2002 terminology for the French social physicists, e.g. Auguste Comte, and which often tends to refer to someone who in the past has attempted to formulate the humanities mechanistically, e.g. via social mechanism theory, done with great precision, in the same way that English physicist Isaac Newton famously formulated the movements of planets mechanistically. American historian Bernard Cohen (2008) cites Grane Brinton’s 1950 usage of the term “Newton of social science” in a discussion of Charles Montesquieu’s 1748 The Spirit of the Laws, wherein he compares a well-working monarch with the systems of the universe, employing some type of social gravitation theory. (Ѻ)

In 1850, some were referring to “some coming Newton of sociology” (Ѻ); and in 1871, some were referring to Auguste Comte as the “Newton of sociology”. (Ѻ)

An early reference to a social Newton is the work of French philosopher Charles Fourier, namely his 1808 The Theory of the Four Movement, which contains his views of the world in general, and his 1822 The Association of Domestic and Agricultural Economy, which contains his special views of the social system. [1] In 1874, Moritz Kaufmann, e.g., described Fourier as follows: [1]

“In order to judge of his system it is necessary to note one or two salient points in his conception of the constitution of man and the universe. Happiness he acknowledges is our being's end and aim’; and the only true science which leads to its attainment is sociology. As the doctrine of the material movements in the universe has been fixed by Newton's discoveries, so too the laws which regulate the movements in the social world must first be ascertained before we can hope to render mankind happy. To become such a social Newton was undoubtedly Fourier's ambition, and this is the fundamental law of his social Principia.”

In 1968, sociologist Daniel Rossides used the term “Social Newtonianism” as a type of categorization. [3]

A rare few are "self-proclaimed" social Newton's, so to speak, and some are rather forthcoming about this aim. One striking example being French-born Italian mathematical engineer and physical socioeconomist Vilfredo Pareto own words, as he states in opening paragraphs of his monumental four-volume Treatise on General Sociology: [4]

“My wish is to construct a system of sociology on the model of celestial mechanics, physics, and chemistry.”

In this perspective, of the known 1,000 or so Hmolpedia biographies, the table above, in ranked order, is a well rounded "top social Newtons" of history ranking.

American writer Charles Curtis, in his 1945 Practical Cogitator, seems to have also made some type of Goethe-Adams-Pareto connection, in a roundabout sense.

English physicist Isaac Newton (1643-1727) himself having seeded the social Newton revolution with his last and final Query 31, which Goethe, naturally enough ranked number one by far, based his "best book" on, namely his physical chemistry based Elective Affinities, wherein his human chemical theory is explained in layers of hidden code. Newton, himself, freely admitted that social mechanics formulation is far more difficult that celestial mechanics formulation:

“I can calculate the movements of stars, but not the madness of men.”
— Isaac Newton (c.1690), after losing his hat in a market collapse

Winiarski may, to note, result to be ranked above Pareto, but being that his work is yet to be fully translated into English the final call in this matter is incomplete.

A social Newton, in sum, refers to someone who has sought to explain human movement and or experience using one or more of the physical sciences (mechanics, chemistry, physics, thermodynamics, etc.) according to laws the same way Newton formulated the laws of motion for bodies in general; someone who aims to write a Social Principia, so to say.

Social Clausius | Bergmans | Lavoisiers | Gibbsians
Some of these so-called “social Newtons”, e.g. Adams, Buchner, etc., might also be or better be classified as “social Lavoisiers” (on Antoine Lavoisier), or “social Bergmans” (on Torbern Bergman) in Goethe and Schopenhauer case, or “social Gibbsians” (on Willard Gibbs), in the Henderson and Rossini case, in that they attempted to script our outline: A Dissertation on Elective Attractions (Bergman), Elements of Chemistry (Lavoisier), On the Equilibrium of Heterogeneous Substances (Gibbs) stylized versions of social chemistry or human chemistry, or something to this — the latter classification, i.e. social Gibbsian, become a bit more complex, being that Gibbs subsumed Newton, via Clausius, via Lagrange, into his chemical equilibrium scheme model of spontaneous change.

One remote example is Claude Levi-Strauss who, in his 1951 social structure theories, mixes together and compares Newtonian time (reversible), Gibbsian time (irreversible), and Bergsonian time (type?), as applied to anthropological change; though his work tends to steer clear of "chemical" like thinking, the characterization of Levi-Strauss as being "Gibbsian", in a statistical mechanical sense, is near enough to being "Gibbsian" in a chemical thermodynamic sense, thought the latter tends require prerequisite training in physical chemistry and or chemical engineering (see: human free energy). (Ѻ)

Austrian science teacher Eduard Sacher (#28), author of the 1881 Outline of a Mechanics of Society, according to Spanish applied mathematics historian Jose Pacheco, was inspired into the field of social mechanics, by Rudolf Clausius directly who gave a talk on “On the Energy Supplies of Nature and the Utilization of them for the Benefit of Mankind” (published in book).

Newton of economics | Darwin of sociology
Related terms include: “Newton of economics”, “Darwin of sociology”, and or “Darwin of economics”. Joseph Schumpeter, e.g., as summarized by Paul Samuelson, referred to Leon Walrus as the true Newton of economics, “above Marshall and the rest”. (Ѻ) Other so-called Newtons of economics include: Adam Smith, David Ricardo, Jeremy Bentham, Alfred Marshall (also referred to as the “Darwin of economics”), and John Mill. Karl Marx has been referred to as the “Darwin of sociology” and or the “Newton of economics”.

These economic epitaphs, however, to note, are of a lesser illustrious title variety, as compared to a "social Newton epitaph", being that the so-called celestial mechanics like mapping of things like money, interest rates, and supply and demand are peripheral indicator matters, unlike the actual social movements of humans.

In the early 20th century, people, supposedly, were referring to Darwin as the “Newton of biology”. On this assertion, Joseph Woodger (1929) stated that: [15]

“To suppose Darwin a Newton is to suppose biology to have reached a degree of theoretical development comparable to what of physics in the eighteenth century, which is preposterous.”

Biology, in Woodger’s estimate, as summarized by Michael Simon (1971), has yet to find its Galileo. There are no equivalent celebrated experiments from the campanile at Pisa, nor pendulum experiments, etc., in biology. Simon goes onto state that the “Galileo of chemistry”, if there is one, presumably, is Lavoisier. [16]

The following are noted quotes:

“Few people have the imagination for reality.”
Goethe (Ѻ)

“If Carey fancied himself as the Newton of sociology, Simmel, in so far as he was a formalist, wanted to be its Euclid.”
Werner Stark (1962), The Fundamental Forms of Social Thought [5]

“Why were the first human scientists so determined to be the Newton's of social theory? Surely, the activities of human beings are not like the motions of planets in their orbits, or rigid spheres rolling down inclined planes? Surely, they are far more like the behavior of living creatures? So why did the initial creators of the human sciences not rely on models from biology in their theory-building, rather than on implausible analogies with physics.”
Stephen Toulmin (1998), “The Idol of Stability” [7]

See also
Stark classification

1. Kaufmann, Moritz. (1874). Socialism: its Nature, its Dangers, and its Remedies Considered (social Newton, pg. 119). Henry S. King & Co.
3. Rossides, Daniel. (1968). Society as a Functional Process: an Introduction to Sociology (Social Newtonianism, pgs. 6, 155, 319). McGraw-Hill.
4. (a) Pareto, Vilfredo. (1916). Treatise on General Sociology (§20, pg. 16). Publisher.
(b) Stark, Werner. (1962). The Fundamental Forms of Social Thought (quote, 126-27). Routledge.
5. Stark, Werner. (1962). The Fundamental Forms of Social Thought (Newton of sociology, pg. 149). Routledge & Kegan Paul.
6. Collini, Stefan. (1993). “Introduction”, in: The Two Cultures (by Charles Snow) (pg. x). Canto.
7. (a) Toulmin, Stephen. (1992). Cosmopolis: the Hidden Agenda of Modernity (Newton, 52+ pgs). University of Chicago Press.
(b) Toulmin, Stephen. (1996). “Introduction”, in: Beyond Theory: Changing Organizations Through Participation (editors: Stephen Toulmin and Bjorn Gustavsen) (“Newton” of social theory, pg. 1). Johns Benjamins Publishing Co.
(c) Toulmin, Stephen. (1998). “The Idol of Stability”, Tanner Lectures on Human Values, University of Southern California, 9-11 Feb.
(d) Toulmin, Stephen. (2001). Return to Reason (‘Newtons’ of social theory, pg. 47). Harvard University Press.
(e) Schubert, Violeta D. (2011). “Equilibrium, Chaos, and Macedonian Nationalism”, in: Force, Movement, Intensity: the Newtonian Imagination in the Humanities and Social Sciences (§15, quote, pg. #). (editors: Hage Ghassan and Emma Kowal). Melbourne University Press.
(f) Stephen Toulmin – Wikipedia.
8. Stegner, Wallace E. (2001). The Uneasy Chair: A Biography of Bernard DeVoto (course, pg. 82; derivation, pg. 110; §: Seminar on Pareto, pg. 138-43; Pareto, 26+ pgs; three times, pg. 138). University of Nebraska Press.
9. (a) Pacheco, Jose M. (2008). “Does More Abstraction Imply Better Understanding: Ampuntes de Mecanica Social by Antonio Porunondo). Max Planck Institute for the History of Science, Preprint 351.
(b) Clausius, Rudolf. (1885). Über die Energievorräthe der Natur und ihre Verwerthung zun Nutzen der Menschheit (On the Energy Supplies of Nature and the Utilization of them for the Benefit of Mankind). Bonn: Verlag von Max Cohen & Sohn.
10. (a) Van der Pot, Johan H.J. (1985). Die Bewertung des Technischen Fortschritts: Eine Systematische Ub̈ersicht der Theorien (volume 1). Uitgeverij Van Gorcum. (b) Van der Pot, Johan H.J. (1985). Die Bewertung des Technischen Fortschritts: Eine Systematische Ub̈ersicht der Theorien (volume 2). Uitgeverij Van Gorcum. (c) Van der Pot, Johan H.J. (1999). Sinndeutung und Periodisierung der Geschichte: eine Systematische Ub̈ersicht der Theorien und Auffassungen (Of Meaning and Periodization of History: a Systematic Overview at Theories and Concepts) (pg. 959). Brill. (d) Van der Pot, Johan H.J. (2004). Encyclopedia of Technological Progress: a Systematic Overview of Theories and Opinions, 2nd Edition (2-volumes) (Ѻ) Eburon. (e) Note: found via keys: “Goethe, Henry Adams, Pareto” GB search (Ѻ).
11. Cohen, I. Bernard. (1994). “Newton and the Social Sciences: with Special Reference to Economics, or, the Case of the Missing Paradigm”, in: Natural Images in Economic Thought: Markets Read in Tooth and Claw (editor: Philip Mirowski) (§3). Cambridge University Press.
12. (a) Lindsay, Robert B. (1927). “Physical Laws and Social Phenomena”, The Scientific Monthly, 25(2): 127-32.
(b) Lindsay, Robert B. (1983). “Social Exemplifications of Physical Principles”; in: Old and New Questions in Physics, Cosmology, Philosophy, and Theoretical Biology: Essays in Honor of Wolfgang Yourgrau (editor: Alwyn Merwe) (§B7:647-58). Plenum Press.
13. (a) Stark, Werner. (1963). “In Search of the True Pareto”, British Journal of Sociology, 14:103-12.
(b) Lopreato, Joseph and Ness, Robert C. (1966). “Vilfredo Pareto: Sociologist or Ideologist?” (abs), The Sociology Quarterly, 7(1):21-38.
14. Foley, Michael. (1990). Laws, Men and Machines: Modern American Government and the Appeal of Newtonian Mechanics (pg. 12). Routledge, 2014.
15. (a) Woodger, Joseph H. (1929). Biological Principles (pg. 483). Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1967.
(b) Simon, Michael A. (1971). The Matter of Life: Philosophical Problems of Biology (pgs. 37-38). Yale University Press.
16. Simon, Michael A. (1971). The Matter of Life: Philosophical Problems of Biology (pgs. 37-38). Yale University Press.

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