Thermodynamics and the Free Energy of Chemical SubstancesThis is a featured page

Thermodynamics (1923)In famous publications, Thermodynamics and the Free Energy of Chemical Substances is a 1923, 653-page, 762-equation, textbook, written by American physical chemists Gilbert Lewis and Merle Randall, that introduced the science of thermodynamics to the chemists of the world. It is one of the founding books of modern chemical thermodynamics. Into the 1960s, it was being proclaimed as the "thermodynamic bible" or the "bible" to students of chemistry working in this field. [6]

This influential book, by 1956, according to American chemistry historian Henry Leicester, led to the replacement of the term “affinity” by the term "free energy" in much of the English-speaking world. [1] The general function of the book was to make the methods of America mathematical physicist Willard Gibbs' very-dense 1876 On the Equilibrium of Heterogeneous Substances accessible to the chemists.


Tributes
In 1967, authors Stanley Angrist and Loren Helper stylized Lewis and Randall's textbook as: [2]

"The world's most quoted scientific book."

In 1993, authors Greg Anderson and David Crerar stated in reference to Lewis and Randall that their work is: [3]

"One of the more significant books on [thermodynamics] after Gibbs."

According a 2005 review of American chemical engineer Libb Thims' thermodynamics book collection, the citation "Lewis and Randall (1923) Thermodynamics", is by far the most referenced or used citation. [3]

Famous quotes
Of the many famous thermodynamics quotations of history, one is found on the opening page of Lewis and Randall's Thermodynamics: [5]

“The fascination of a growing science lies in the work of the pioneers at the very borderland of the unknown, but to reach this frontier one must pass over well traveled roads; of these one of the safest and surest is the broad highway of thermodynamics”

References
1. Leicester, Henry. (1956). The Historical Background of Chemistry (pg. 206). New York: Dover.
2. Angrist, Stanley W. and Helper, Loren G. (1967). Order and Chaos – Laws of Energy and Entropy, (pg. 27: "most-quoted"). New York: Basic Books.
3. Anderson, Greg, M. and Crerar, David A. (1993). Thermodynamics in Geochemistry - the Equilibrium Model, (pg. 3). New York: Oxford University Press.
4. The "most referenced" book in the reference sections of all of the books in American chemical engineer Libb Thims' 200+ thermodynamics book collection is Lewis and Randall's Thermodynamics.
5. (a) Lewis, Gilbert & Randall, Merle. (1923). Thermodynamics and the Free Energy of Chemical Substances, (pg. x). New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc.
(b) Cavazox-Gaither A.E. (2002). Chemically Speaking: A Dictionary of Quotations, (section: “Thermodynamics”, pg. 428). CRC Press.
6. (a) Devine, Elizabeth. (1983). Thinkers in the Twentieth Century (quote: ‘it soon became the “bible” in the field for chemistry students’, pg. 333). MacMillan.
(b) Author. (1962). “article”, Journal of the American Chemical Society (quote: ‘it was also a thermodynamic bible for many of Lewis’ students and for some of us’, pg. 3792), Vol. 84.

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