Smart Atheism (four chiefs)In atheism, atheism types by denial and belief refers to weighted ranking of the various 20+ classical and neo-modern "brands" of atheism, near-atheism, and proto-atheism, ordered by density of number of denials (god, afterlife, soul, spirit, life, etc.) and concordant beliefs (morals, free will, chance, determinism, dualism, monism, etc.) if known. Adjacent is the famous Goethe-Schopenhauer-Nietzche intellectual triad; the main knowledge conduit of modern morality and meaning based atheism.

“I am really amazed, really delighted! I have a precursor, and what a precursor! I hardly knew Spinoza: what brought me to him now was the guidance of instinct. Not only is his whole tendency like my own, to make knowledge the most powerful passion, but also in five main points of his doctrine I find myself; the most abnormal and lonely think is closest to me in these points precisely: he denies free will, purposes, the moral world order, the nonegoistical, evil; of course the differences are enormous. I summa: my solitariness which, as on the very high mountains, has often, often made me grasp for breath and lose blood, is now at least a solitude for two.”
Friedrich Nietzsche (c.1885), comment to close friend in his later yeas [16]

(add)

Overview
The following table shows a work-in-progress ranking of the various "types" of atheism (see: atheism types), and proto-atheism (or near-atheism) varieties, ranked by "level of denial", i.e. the more foundationless (religio-mythology rooted) dogma a thinker denies the more of an extreme atheist they are; shown also are respective and concordant beliefs (if promulgated):

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Disbeliefs | Denials

Beliefs | Creeds






#

Type

Atheism
God icon T
(deny: god)
Achristism
Christ icon T
(deny: Christ)
Mortalism
Afterlife icon 75x75
(deny: afterlife)
Abioism
Bio icon T
(deny: life)
Asoulism
Soul icon T
(deny: soul)
Aspiritism
Spirit symbol T
(deny: spirit)
Dating system
BC/AD icon
(godless)
Moralism
Right Wrong icon T
(morals: exist)
Purpose
Purpose icon
(meaning)
Chance
Dice icon
(anti-determinism)
Determinism
Determinism icon T
(Fate/Destiny
)
Free will
Choice icon
(choice)

Dualism
Dualism
(two nature)
Monism
Energy icon T
(one nature)

Composition
Puzzle icon
(genealogy)

Refs
























1.Libb Thims (2013) 75Thimsian atheism
(Libb Thims)
|→ Extreme atheism

2016Yes
[FA:128]
[science disabused]
[religio-mythology]
[disproved]
Yes
(Osiris myth)
Yes
(continuity theory)
[concept upgrade]
[term upgrade]
Yes
(term upgrade)
[anthropism]
Yes
[concept issue]
(coupling)
YesYes
(BG/AG)
(Goethean calendar)
[2015=265AG]
Yes
[Bergmanian/Gibbsian]
(Moral symbols)

[concept upgrade]
Yes/No
"potentials"
[concept upgrade]
[term upgrade]
(Lindsay/Blum)

Yes
(Holbach's demon)
NoNoYes
(one nature)
Bracket 7+ (15x135) Darwinism
Physicochemical atheism

Goetheanism

Holbachian atheism
Schopenhauerian atheism
Buchnerian atheism
Ostwaldian atheism
Nietzschean atheism




2.Paul d’Holbach 75Holbachian atheism
(Baron d'Holbach)
|→ Extreme atheism
1770Yes
[FA:37]


NoYes



No
(anti-chance)
YesNo


Meslierian atheism



3.Nietzsche 75Nietzschean atheism
(Friedrich Nietzsche)
1888Yes
[HD:40][FA:71]
No
(Ѻ)





Yes?
(complex naturalism)






Bracket 13x96Schopenhauerian atheism
Kantianism
Buchnerian atheism
Feuerbachian atheism
Helmholtzianism




4.Epicurus 75Epicurean atheism
[Epicureanism]
(Epicurus)
300BCYes/No
[FA:9]
(inactive)
N/A
(Dionysus)


No
(atomic)
(immortal)
(Ѻ)


Yes
(Ѻ)

YesNo
(Ѻ)
Yes
(Clinamen)








5.Percy Shelley 75nShelleyan atheism
(Percy Shelley)
1811












Yes
(one nature)






6.Arthur Schopenhauer 75 (1855)Schopenhauerian atheism
(Arthur Schopenhauer)
1844Yes
[HD:21][FA:55]






Yes
(Compassion)







Goetheanism



7.Wilhelm Ostwald 75Ostwaldian atheism
(Wilhelm Ostwald)
1909Yes
[FA:73]




No
Yes
(Energetic imperative)






 \Biggl\{ \,Energetics
Kantianism




8.Ludwig Buchner 75Buchnerian atheism
(Ludwig Buchner)
|→ Extreme atheism
1855Yes
[FA:63]






Yes
(system relative)




NoYes
(Ѻ)
 \Bigl\{ \,Goetheanism
Physicochemical atheism




9.Alfred Rogers 75Rogers' atheism
(Alfred Rogers)
2016Yes
[DN:6/10]
Yes
[N1]
Yes
(one existence)
Yes
Yes
[N1]
N/A
(pragmatic)
[N1]
YesNo
[N1]
Yes
[N1]
No
[N1]









10. Bertrand Russell 75Russellian atheism
(Bertrand Russell)
1927Yes
[age 18]
NoYes
[age 15]

Yes
[loosely]


Yes
(Utilitarianism)
[Age 14]

Yes
No
[age 15]

Yes
(Ѻ)
Bracket 13x96 Darwinism [age 13]
Utilitarianism [age 14]
Cartesian dynamics
Shelleyan
Hegelian

[20]

11.Jean Meslier 75 nMeslierian atheism
(Jean Meslier)
|→ Extreme atheism
1729Yes
[FA:28]



Yes





No

 \Bigl\{ \,Montaigne (evidence)
Vanini (evolution)




12. Julien la Mettrie 75Mettriean atheism
(Julien la Mettrie)
|→ Extreme atheism
1747Yes
[FA:31]



YesYes













13.Jefferson 75Jeffersonian atheism
[Jeffersonianism]
(Thomas Jefferson)
1830Yes
[HD:17][FA:52]













 \Bigl\{ \,Epicureanism
Materialism

[15]

14.Freud 75Freudian atheism
(Sigmund Freud)


1895Yes
[HD:51][FA:76]


NoYes/No
(metaphor)


Yes
(ego ideal)
(Ѻ)






 \Biggl\{ \,Helmholtzianism
Epicurean atheism
Feuerbachian atheism

[5]

15.Karl Marx 75Marxian atheism
(Karl Marx)

Yes
[FA:55]
No
(Ѻ)


No
(Ѻ)


Yes/No
(non-rational)
Yes
(labor-based)





Bracket 13x96Epicurean atheism
Feuerbachian atheism
Anti-Buchnerian
Hegelianism
Anti-Kantianism

[12]

16.Ludwig Feuerbach 75Feuerbachian atheism
(Ludwig Feuerbach)
1841Yes
[FA:58]
Near
(fantasy figure)
(Ѻ)





Meager
(Ѻ)






 \Biggl\{ \,Anthropology
Hegelianism
Theology

[15]

17.John Mill 75Utilitarianism
(John Mill)

Yes
[HD:24][FA:68]






Yes
(Utilitarian)












18.John Stewart 75Stewertian atheism
(John Stewart)
1789Yes
[FA:42]
?Yes


Yes
(BK/AK)
(Knowledge calendar)
[2015=5265AK]
Yes
(Moral movement)


YesNo-ish
(Ѻ)

Yes
(integer)

Newtonianism



19. Richard Dawkins 75Dawkinsian atheism
[Dawkinsianism]
(Richard Dawkins)
2006Yes
[FA:121]
No
(Ѻ)

No


Yes/No
Haldane’s rule (Ѻ)
(Hamiltonianism)
Yes
(DNA-drive)
Yes
(Blind forces)




 \Bigl\{ \,Darwinism
Genetic atheism




20.Ayn Rand 75Randianism
(aka Objectivism)
(Ayn Rand)

Yes
[FA:87]
No
(Ѻ)


No
(Ѻ)


Yes
(Individualism)









(Ѻ)

21.Sam Harris 75Harrisian atheism
[Harrisianism]
(Sam Harris)
2004Yes
[FA:117]

No
(Ѻ)

No
No
Neo-Buddhism
(Utilitarianism)



No




[4]















































1.Goethe (1809) 75Goetheanism
(Johann Goethe)


1832Near
[HD:19][FA:48]
(god ≈ sulfur)
(god = being)
?
(Ѻ)

Near
(Ѻ)
No
(Ѻ)

Nearly
(BM/ME)
(Modern era)
[2015=372ME]
Yes
"Bergmanian"
(Moral symbols)




NoNoYes
(one nature)
 \Biggl\{ \,Spinozism
Bergmanism
Shakespearean atheism
Physicochemical atheism




2. David Hume 75Humeanism
(David Hume)

Near
[HD:10][FA:28]
(skeptic)






Yes
(Moral rationalism)
(Ѻ)









[13]

3. Hegel 75Hegelianism
(Georg Hegel)

Yes/No
(increasing reality)














Anti-Kantianism
[12]

4. Kant 75Kantianism
(Immanuel Kant)

No
(Agnostic)



No
(time exempt)


Yes
(Categorical imperative)
(Ѻ)



Yes/No
(compatibilism)



Anti-Humean
[11]

5. Voltaire 75Voltairism
(Voltaire)

No
[HD:9][FA:33]
(Deism)
No
(last words)













Meslierian atheism
(Ѻ)

6.Darwin 75Darwinism
(Charles Darwin)

Near
(Agnostic)
Agnostic
(Ѻ)
Agnostic
(Ѻ)
Proto
(warm pond)
Agnostic
(Ѻ)
No
(Ѻ)

No
Yes/NoYes
(Ѻ)
No
(Ѻ)
No
(Ѻ)


Evolution



7.Einstein 75 (older)Einsteinism
(Albert Einstein)

No
[HD:52][FA:81]
(Spinoza’s god)
(No: personal god)
No
(Ѻ)
Yes/No
(Ѻ)
No





YesNo

 \Biggl\{ \,Spinozism
Goetheanism
Schopenhauerian atheism




8.Benedict Spinoza 75Spinozism
(Benedict Spinoza)

Nearly
[HD:6][FA:25]
(god = nature)
No
(Ѻ)







NoYesNoNoYes
Anti-Cartesianism
[3]

9.Newton 75Newtonianism
(Isaac Newton)

No
(denied trinity)
No



Sort of
(BC/AC)
(Christ ≠ Lord)




No
(self-motion)



Cartesianism
Physics
Occult/Alchemy/Chemistry

(Ѻ)

10.Descartes 75Cartesianism
(Rene Descartes)

No Agnostic
(Ѻ)


No






Yes






11. Aristotle 75Aristotelianism
(Aristotle)

No
(prime movers)
N/A

No
(Ѻ)



Yes
(final cause)








(Ѻ)

12.Parmenides 75Parmenideanism
(Parmenides)


N/A










Yes
(one being)



[6]


Revelation
Charles Darwin, of note, denied belief in revelation; was agnostic about belief in afterlife; and seems to have believed in the existence of Jesus, at least as a real person:

Science has nothing to do with Christ, except insofar as the habit of scientific research makes a man cautious in admitting evidence. For myself, I do not believe that there ever has been any revelation. As for a future life, every man must judge for himself between conflicting vague probabilities.”
— Charles Darwin (1879), “Letter to German student” [18]

(add summary)

Atheism | God does not exist
The term “atheism”, whether implicit atheism or explicit atheism, is a very-loaded word; which is a result of the fact that the term “god” itself is concept-heavy term, hence, when one denies god, what exactly the person is "denying" can have different meanings, depending on the denier. Two different people, e.g., may self-identify as "atheist", and assume they are on the same page, but may later come to find that whereas one denies "god, soul, spirit, and afterlife", the other denies "god and afterlife" but not spirit or soul, which often becomes syncretize into some blurry new age personal concept; hence the former may not see the latter as true atheist (say of the Jean Meslier variety).

Achristism
The term “achristism”, meaning to deny the existence of Jesus Christ; or in some cases to assume he existed, as a real person, that walked the earth from 0-33AD, but to deny his divinity (e.g. Einstein) or trinity (e.g. Newton)—seems to have been coined by English nonconformist clergyman Philip Henry (1631-1696) in his last years:

“What you write of the paralyzing atheism of the town, I am afraid is too true; but what do you think of such a thing as achristism? I am sure Ephesians 2:12 (Ѻ) mentions both. How many are there that own a god, and worship him, that have no regard to Jesus Christ in doing so; as if we could come to him, and have to do with him, and receive from him, without a mediator! How is he then 'the way?' Hath he not said, 'No man cometh unto the father but by me?' Is he the way to those that do not walk in him, or an advocate to those that do not employ him?”
— Philip Henry (1694), “Letter to reverend Francis Tallents”, Aug 13 [19]

In 2013, some were distinguishing between hard “a-Jesus-ism” (akin to hard a-theism) and soft “a-Jesus-ism” (akin to soft a-theism). (Ѻ)

The following is a straightforward example of an “achristist” denial that he existed:

“I have dictated thirty pages on the world’s three religions; and I have read the Bible. My own mind is made up. I do not think Jesus Christ ever existed.”
Napoleon Bonaparte (1817)

Other examples, Napoleon aside, of achristists include: Count Volney (1791) (Ѻ)(Ѻ), Thomas Jefferson (1823), Libb Thims (2003), among others. One can become an achristist via study of religio-mythology, especially religio-mythology transcription and syncretism, and or possibly by logic deduction, e.g. that miracles are impossible, etc.

An achristist, to note, is not to be confused with “antichrist” (Ѻ); conceptualized, in the Bible, as a false messiah, a figure of concentrated evil, who will face Jesus Christ in his prophesized second coming; one example being Friedrich Nietzsche’s 1888 interpretation of the “antichrist” (Ѻ) term, which has its own unique meaning.

Abioism | Life does not exist
Abioism is a rather newer term, coined by Libb Thims (2015); examples of abioists include: Thims, Alfred Rogers, Ferris Jabr, Jeff Tuhtan, Patrick Fergus, Inderjit Singh; near-abioists include: Charles Sherrington, Francis Crick, Albert Szent-Gyorgyi, and Henri Atlan.

Asoulism | Soul does not exist
Asoulism is a relatively new term, coined by David Weisman (2010); as follows:

“I wish there were a term in the English language that honestly captures the idea that all we experience is due to brain function. ‘Materialism’ comes close, but is laden with excess metaphysical baggage. The philosopher John Searle coined ‘biological naturalism’ as a mind-body theory within philosophy, and that comes very close. ‘Asoulism’ is more modest: a simple disbelief in the existence of souls based on evidence.”
— David Weisman (2010), “The Experience of a Unified Mind and the Possibility of an Everlasting Soul are Connected and there is Scant Evidence to Support the Existence of Either” [2]

Examples of avowed asoulists include: Jean Meslier (1729), Julien la Mettrie (1745), Francois Broussais (c.1820), David Weisman (2010), possibly, Kurt Bell (2011), Patrick Fergus (2014), and Libb Thims (2015); along with "skeptical agnostic asoulists", e.g. Napoleon Bonaparte (c.1815).

Mortalism | Afterlife does not exist
Mortalism seems to have two distinct meanings associated with it. Firstly, one associated with an outright denial of the existence of an afterlife; such as summarized below:

“Not all those who denied the existence of an afterlife—the mortalists—were atheist, the history of atheism and that of mortalism are closely connected.”
— David Berman (2007), “Unbelief during the Enlightenment” [1]

Secondly, is one that is "soulism" inherent, i.e. a belief in the existence of the soul, but such that the soul ceases to exist when the body ceases to exist; or other variants along these lines. Einstein, e.g., denied afterlife, denied the soul without a body, but didn't directly deny the soul with a body (see: Einstein on the soul).
Giordano Bruno (innumberable earths quote)
Belief | Quotes
The following are relevant belief-related quotes;

“One’s theological holdings [can be divided] into two classes: those for which a man would go to the stake, and those for which a man would not go to the stake.”
— Edwards A. Park (c.1870)

“For the second law [of thermodynamics], I will burn at the stake.”
— Heinz London (c.1933), comment made to H. Montgomery during his time at Harwell [10]

“The belief state of an obscure lump of molecules wandering around a remote corner of England is of no importance whatsoever epistemologically speaking.”
Barry Barnes (1998), response to David Mermin whether he “might perhaps be into astrology” [9]

Quotes
The following are related quotes:

“There are many questions in philosophy to which no satisfactory answer has yet been given. But the question of the ‘nature of the gods’ is the darkest and most difficult of all. So various and so contradictory are the opinions of the most learned men on this matter as to persuade one of the truth of the saying that philosophy is the child of ignorance.”
Cicero (45BC), On the Nature of the Gods (Ѻ)

Spinoza’s equation ‘god = nature’ is self-contradictory, and must be seen as a subterfuge. After all, Spinoza’s motto was ‘be prudent’. Consequently, the vulgar characterization of Spinoza as a pantheist is incorrect: he was a secret atheist because he was a naturalist. The same holds for Einstein, who once declared that his religion was Spinoza’s, i.e. none.”
Mario Bunge (2010), Matter and Mind: a Philosophical Inquiry [7]

See also
Top 100 atheists

Notes
N1. Quote: “In your types of atheism under achristianism I would be a Yes. I support Christianity because their moral teachings are close to mine but I do not share any Christian beliefs. I would also be a yes under aspiritism. Under dating system I would stick to the present system for pragmatic reasons. I am a no under purpose, a yes under chance and a no under determinism.” (Alfred Rogers, 2016) [17]

References
1. Berman, David. (2007). “Unbelief during the Enlightenment”, in: The New Encyclopedia of Unbelief (editor: Tom Flynn; foreword: Richard Dawkins) (§:276-80, esp. pg. 277). Prometheus Books.
2. Weisman, David. (2010). “The Experience of a Unified Mind and the Possibility of an Everlasting Soul are Connected and there is Scant Evidence to Support the Existence of Either” (Ѻ) (Ѻ), Seed, Jul 3.
3. (a) Spinozism – Wikipedia.
(b) Jensen, William B. (2010). “Was Einstein a Humanits?”, VI, FIG meeting notes.
4. (a) Harris, Sam. (2014). Waking Up: a Guide to Spirituality Without Religion. Simon & Schuster.
(b) Quote: (2010): “I am certainly not claiming that moral truth exists independent of the experience of conscious beings or that certain actions are intrinsically wrong” (Moral Landscapes, pg. 30),
(c) Harrisianism (2012) – Reddit.com.
5. (a) Bettelheim, Bruno. (1982). “Freud and the Soul” (Ѻ), The New Yorker, Mar 1.
(b) Bettelheim, Bruno. (1983). Freud and Man’s Soul: an Important Re-Interpretation of Freudian Theory (Freud used soul as metaphor for inner being, xi). Vintage.
6. See: Parmenidean problem (Ѻ); Parmenidean being (Ѻ)(Ѻ); Parmenidean monism (Ѻ)(Ѻ); Heraclitus vs Parmenides
7. Bunge, Mario. (2010). Matter and Mind: a Philosophical Inquiry (pg. 97). Springer.
8. Schopenhauer, Arthur. (1840). The Basis of Morality (§5:P3) (Ѻ). Publisher.
9. (a) Barnes, Barry. (1998). “Oversimplification and the Desire for Truth: Response to Mermin” (abs) (pg. 637), Social Studies of Science, 28:636-40.
(b) Barnes, Barry, Bloor, David and Henry, John. (1996). Scientific Knowledge: A Sociological Analysis. University of Chicago Press.
10. (a) London, Heinz. (c.1933). “Comment to H. Montgomery” (Ѻ), during his time at Harwell.
(b) Shoenberg, D. (1971). “Obituary of Heinz London”, Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society, 17, 442.
(c) Thermodynamics quotations – TodayInSci.com.
(d) Heinz London – Wikipedia.
11. (a) Critique of Practical Reason and Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals – SparkNotes.com.
(b) Immanuel Kant – InformationPhilosopher.com.
12. (a) Gasper, Phil. (2009). “Marxism, Morality, and Human Nature” (Ѻ), International Socialist Review, 66, Jul.
(b) Ball, Terence. (1994). Reappraising Political Theory: Revisionist Studies in the History of Political Thought (pgs. #). Oxford University Press.
(c) Katsafanas, Paul. (2015). “Ethics”, in: The Oxford Handbook of German Philosophy in the Nineteenth Century (§24, §§24.5:German Materialism and the Turn to Natural Science, pgs. 480-; pgs. 481-82). Oxford University Press.
13. Wallace, Robert. (2011). “Hegel’s God” (Ѻ), PhilosophyNow.org.
14. Leiter, Brian. (2014). Nietzsche on Morality (pg. #). Routledge.
15. Katsafanas, Paul. (2015). “Ethics”, in: The Oxford Handbook of German Philosophy in the Nineteenth Century (§24, §§24.5:German Materialism and the Turn to Natural Science, pgs. 480-; pgs. 481-82). Oxford University Press.
16. Malieth, Monydit (aka Tonnerre). (2013). The Future Affects the Past: What Destination is Time Rushing To? (pgs. 62-63). Red Lead Books.
17. Rogers, Alfred. (2016). “Email to Libb Thims”, Mar 15.
18. (a) Darwin, Charles. (1879). “Letter to German student”, in: The Life and Letters of Charles Darwin, Including an Autobiographical Chapter (editor: Francis Darwin) (pg. 307) (Ѻ). John Murray, 1887.
(b) Religious views of Charles Darwin – Wikipedia.
19. (a) Henry, Philip. (1694). “Letter to Thomas Hunt, Esq., of Boreatton, but then in London”, Jul 5.
(b) Williams, J.B. (1853). Memoir of Rev. Philip Henry (achristism, pgs. 187-88). American Tract Society.
20. Russell, Bertrand. (1986). Bertrand Russell on God and Religion (editor: Al Seckel) (Amz) (greatest happiness morality, pgs 50-51; "soul grows with the body, pg. 53; not likely to believe in soul, pg. 77; Christ, pg. 58). Prometheus Books.

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