| German physical chemist Uwe Meierhenrich on Russian-born Israeli molecular bio-physicist (chnops-physicist) Edward Trifonov’s 2011 meta-analysis list of 123-definitions of life list (Popa list + Barbieri list), non-redundant, and the overtypical recursive definition formula found in attempts to define life: as objects having biological processes; biology defined as the study of life.  |
See main: Life terminology upgradesThe term "biology" has been superseded and replaced by a work-in-progress variety of upgrade terms: "chnopsology", the study of animate systems, the study of "medium powered CHNOPS+ regions, systems, or matrices" (Henry Swan, 1974), among other yet to be invented scientifically agreeable replacements.
“Biology: the doctrine of the living system in all its states.”
“The objects of our investigation will be the various forms and manifestations of life, the conditions and laws under which held the state of life and the causes, whereby the same is effected. The science that deals with these things, we will designate by the name of biology or the science of life.” “Die Gegenstände unserer Nachforschungen werden die verschiedenen Formen und Erscheinungen des Lebens sein, die Bedingungen und Gesetze unter welchen der Lebenszustand stattfindet und die Ursachen, wodurch derselbe bewirkt wird. Die Wissenschaft, die sich mit diesen Gegenständen beschäftigt, werden wir mit dem Namen Biologie oder Lebenslehre bezeichnen.”
“Biology: this is one of the three divisions of terrestrial physics; it includes all which pertains to living bodies and particularly to their organization, where developmental processes, the structural complexity resulting from prolonged action of vital movements, the tendency to create special organs and to isolate them by focusing activity in a center, and so on.”
(a) Belgian-born English thermodynamicist Alfred Ubbelohde 1954 definition that “animate matter [is] termed ‘life’ for short.”
(b) Swedish physical chemist Sture Nordholm 1997 use of "animate thermodynamics" as the study of the thermodynamics of human activity and behavior.
(c) Uwe Meierhenrich – Wikipedia.