History

The term "black hole" was coined in 1967 by American theoretical physicist

“The sum of black-hole entropy and ordinary entropy outside a black hole never decreases.”

To find and measure this “black hole entropy”, Bekenstein reasoned that, because of the effect that the massive gravity of black holes pulls light, energy, and matter into its body, according to German-born American Albert Einstein’s mass-energy relation E=mc², a black hole's entropy increase must be proportional or related to its surface area. Two years later, in 1974, this postulate was confirmed when British astrophysicist Stephen Hawking discovered that black holes radiate energy, now called Hawking radiation, and hence they must have a correlative temperature and thus an entropy (black hole entropy). [2]

Limitations

In 1992, American particle physicist Steven Weinberg stated the following about black holes and thermodynamics: [4]

“Thermodynamics applies to black holes, not because they contain a large number of atoms, but because they contain a large number of fundamental mass units of the quantum theory of gravitation, equal to about one hundred thousand of a gram and known as the Planck mass. It would not be possible to apply thermodynamics to a black hole that weighted less than a hundred thousandth of a gram.”

(add discussion)

References

1. Wald, Robert M. (1994).

2. Baeyer, Hans Christian von. (2004).

3. Fabbri, Alessandro and Navarro-Salas, Jose. (2005).

4. Weinberg, Steven. (1992).

Further reading

● Jacobson, Ted. (1996). "Introductory Lectures on Black Hole Thermodynamics" (PDF), (70 pgs).

● Wald, Robert M. (2001). "The Thermodynamics of Black Holes" (PDF), (40 pgs). July 09,

Further reading

● Machamer, Peter K. (2002).

● Chakraborty, Subenoy and Bandyopadhyay, Tanwi. (2008). “The Geometry of Black Hole Thermodynamics in Gauss-Bonnet Theory” (Abs),

External links

● Black hole thermodynamics - Wikipedia.

● Black hole thermodynamics - Knowing the universe and its secrets.