In dualism, Cartesian dualism is the belief that people are made of matter, specifically atoms and molecules, like other things in the universe, but that humans are particular to the universe, in that inside of the pineal gland, at the center of the brain, as posited by Rene Descartes (c.1620), there is a soul, which gives humans the unique property of free will and choice, the resulting actions (see: soul weight) of which are judged by god; hence, in short, normal matter is governed by the laws of motion (note: these weren't derived until the time of Newton, which post-date Descartes), whereas the type of matter we call humans, according to Descartes, is governed by two "dual" sets of laws: motion laws and god's laws, or something to this effect.

See also
Do atoms have souls?

External links
Cartesian dualism –

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