Charles PeirceIn existographies, Charles Peirce (1838-1914) (IQ:#|#) [RGM:667|1,500+] (Becker 139:51) (Stokes 100:60) (CR:15), pronounced ‘purse’ (Everett, 2019), was an American chance-based philosopher and logician, noted for []

Positivism
In 1868, Peirce, in a number of articles, supposedly, launched a systematic attack on the basic tenets of positivism. [3]

Tychism
In 1891, Peirce began to position an explicit and overt chance-based philosophy; the following year, he coined the term “tychism” to define this ideology or belief:

“In an article published in The Monist for January, 1891, I endeavored to show what ideas ought to form the warp of a system of philosophy, and particularly emphasized that of absolute chance. In the number of April, 1892, I argued further in favor of that way of thinking, which it will be convenient to christen tychism (from tyché, chance). A serious student of philosophy will be in no haste to accept or reject this doctrine; but he will see in it one of the chief attitudes which speculative thought may take, feeling that it is not for an individual, nor for an age, to pronounce upon a fundamental question of philosophy. That is a task for a whole era to work out. I have begun by showing that tychism must give birth to an evolutionary cosmology, in which all the regularities of nature and of mind are regarded as products of growth, and to a Schelling-fashioned idealism which holds matter to be mere specialized and partially deadened mind.”
— Charles Pierce (1892), “The Law of Mind” [5]

This, of course, is the polar opposite of anti-chance philosophy.

Influences
Peirce has been classified, by David Skrbina (2005), as a noted western panpsychist philosopher, along with: Friedrich Schelling, William Clifford, Gustav Fechner, Paul Carus, Empedocles, Epicurus, William Gilbert, William James, Gottfried Leibniz, Carl von Nageli, Josiah Royce (mentor to John Boodin), and the Stoics, each of whom were read and cited by Peirce. [4]

Influenced
Peirce was a noted influence to the 1910s work Swedish-born American philosopher John Boodin. American thinker Charles Hansen’s 2004 The Technology of Love, supposedly, offers a solution to some of the unfinished work of Peirce. [2] American philosopher Matthew Segall discusses (Ѻ) Peirce’s work.

Quotes | By
The following are related quotes:

“It is a common observation that a science first begins to be ‘exact’ when it is quantitatively treated. What are called the exact sciences are no others than the mathematical ones.”
— Charles Peirce (1878), On the Doctrine of Chances [1]

“The discovery of the law of conservation or persistence of energy is the greatest that science has ever made, and nothing that can be discovered hereafter (unless it be of a supernatural kind) can equal it in importance.”
— Charles Peirce (c.1885), Writings (Ѻ)(Ѻ)

“The undertaking to which this volume inaugurates is to make a philosophy like that of Aristotle, that is to say, to outline a theory so comprehensive that, for a long time to come, the entire work of human reason, in philosophy of every school and kind, in mathematics, in psychology, in physical science, in history, in sociology and in whatever other department there may be, shall appear as the filling up of its details.”
— Charles Peirce (1886), “A Guess at the Riddle” (Ѻ)

“I have read and thought more about Aristotle than any other man.”
— Charles Peirce (1894), “My Reading in Philosophy” (Ѻ)

“Three elements are active in the world, first: chance, second: law, and third: habit making.”
— Charles Peirce (c.1890), “Article” (Ѻ)

“Every plank of science’s advance is first laid by the spontaneous conjectures of instinctive reason.”
— Charles Peirce (c.1890), Publication; cited by Henry Swan (1974) in Thermoregulation and Bioenergetics (pg. ix)

References
1. (a) Peirce, Charles S. (1878). On the Doctrine of Chances, with Later Reflections (pg. 61). Publisher.
(b) Bynum, W.F. and Porter, Roy. (2005). Oxford Dictionary of Scientific Quotations (pgs. 488-89). Oxford University Press.
2. Hansen, Charles E. (2004). The Technology of Love, Volume 1 (thermodynamics, 6+ pgs; spirit quote, pg. 334). Corsense Institute Inc.
3. Brown, Richard H. (1977). A Poetic for Sociology: Toward a Logic of Discovery for the Human Sciences (pg. 27). University of Chicago Press, 1989.
4. (a) Skrbina, David. (2005). Panpsychism in the West (thermodynamics, pgs. 13, 151; panpsychist philosophers, pg. 155). MIT Press.
(b) Skrbina, David. (2017). Panpsychism in the West: Revised Edition (Carus, 4+ pgs; read by Peirce, pg. 190). MIT Press.
5. (a) Pierce, Charles. (1892). “The Law of Mind” (Ѻ), The Monist, 2(4):533-59.
(b) Tychism – Wikipedia.
6. Everett, Daniel. (2019). “The American Aristotle: Charles Sanders Peirce was a brilliant philosopher, mathematician, and scientist. His polymathic work should be better known” (Ѻ), Aeon.co, Aug 15.

External links
● Peirce, Charles S. (1923). Chance, Love, and Logic: Philosophical Essays (editor: Morris R. Cohen) (with an essay by John Dewey). University of Nebraska Press.
● Wells, Kelley J. (1997). “The Thermodynamic Metaphor, Overdetermination, and Peirce’s Commitment to Realism” (abs). Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society, 33(4): 899-939.

External links
Charles Sanders Peirce – Wikipedia.
Peirce, Charles S. (1939-1914) – WorldCat Identities.

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