In thermodynamics, an energy carrier is a structure, such as a chemical bond, that carriers stored energy, e.g. bond energy. The term is rather ill-defined and used in similar but different contexts.

Overview
In 1941, German-born American chemist Fritz Lipmann described phosphate bonds as a type of motile energy carrier, used inside of biological bodies in various locations to drive endergonic reactions or processes: [1]

“The recent recognition that in nature there occurs a widespread utilization of phosphate bonds as energy carriers, necessitates a still further revision of the earlier view concerning the biological significance of phosphate turn-over.”

In 2006, Hungarian-born American economist Peter Pogany described condensed matter, such as coal, as energy carriers. [2]

In 2007, Russian bioelectrochemist Octavian Ksenzhek argued that money can be considered as a virtual form of energy, as in "energy currency", and that energy coupling in social systems is mediated by materialized forms of energy, such as money. Ksenzhek argues that the role of money in social systems may be compared with that of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) in biochemical systems, both of which act as energy carriers. [3]

See also
Force carrier
Field particle
Primary field particle
Secondary field particle

References
1. Lipmann, Fritz. (1941). “Metabolic Generation and Utilization of Phosphate Bond Energy”. New York. In: Advances in Enzymology and Related Subjects – Vol. 1 (1941), (pg. 99-162). Interscience Publishers.
2. Pogany, Peter. (2006). Rethinking the World (ch. 5: Cultural and Cultural Evolution in the Context of Thermodynamics, pg. 103-38). iUniverse (and Shenandoah Valley Research Press).
3. Ksenzhek, Octavian S. (2007). Money: Virtual Energy - Economy through the Prism of Thermodynamics. Universal Publishers.

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