In existographies, **Euclid** (c.340-280BC) (IQ:185|#55) (Cattell 1000:501) [RGM:50|1,500+] (Murray 4000:19|CS / 3|M) (GME:4) (CR:65) was a Greek mathematician noted for his circa 300BC *Elements*, in which he deduced a set of principles of what is now called Euclidean geometry from a small set of axioms.

Influence

Euclid’s *Elements *was influential to noted thinkers and thermodynamicists, including: Nicolaus Copernicus, whose two main personal library books were Euclid's *Elements *and Regiomontanus' *Tables of Directions,* Robert Hooke, who mastered Euclid at age 15, James Watt studied Euclid's *Elements *and Isaac Newton's natural philosophy as a youth; James Thomson (mathematician), father to noted child prodigy William Thomson, who edited a version of Euclid's *Elements* (1834); Scottish physicist James Maxwell, who mentions Euclid in his last-dying poem “A Paradoxical Ode”, to German-born American Albert Einstein, who at age 12 was given a text on Euclidean geometry, which he called the “holy geometry book”; to __Sarah Sidis__ (tutored by Boris Sidis; mother to William Sidis) who in 1891 (age 17) "propped Euclid up above the sink, and studied while she washed the dishes"; and to Russian engineer Yevgeny Zamyatin, who intersperses his 1923 literature thermodynamics work with mentions of Euclid. [1]

Non-Euclidean geometries

Euclid’s fifth postulate, from the beginning, was regarded with suspicion by his contemporaries. German mathematical physicist Carl Gauss (1777-1855), in an unpublished manuscript shared with friends, starting from statements that contradicted the permanently “inculpated” postulate, underlined the fact that one could develop a compatible geometries. [3] One example of such later came from Bernhard Riemann (1826-1866).

Hobbes

In 1629, English philosopher, social physicist, and political theorist Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679), noted secretary to Francis Bacon, and student, of sorts, of Galileo Galilei (1636), one day, while walking through a library, as the story goes, as told by Philip Ball, happened to glance at a copy of Euclid’s *Elements* that was laying open, and became transfixed, following each proposition, which at first he saw as being impossible, but soon thereafter became demonstratively convinced of the truth; and into the 1630s, amid the “unstable society” tensions erupting between the Crown and the Commons led by Charles I, namely to dissolve the Parliament and embark on an eleven-year period of personal rule, Hobbes sought to find a theory of governance with credentials as unimpeachable as those of Euclid’s geometry. [5]

Spinoza

Dutch philosopher Benedict Spinoza (1632-1677) famously attempted write or rather derive his *Ethics: Demonstrated in Geometrical Order*, a treatise on morality written in the style of Euclid's *Elements*, as a series of geometrical proofs of numerous philosophical points, accompanied by definitions, axioms, demonstrations, and corollaries, as well as intervening stretches of friendlier prose (*scholia*); following is a representative quote from *Ethics* part three: [4]

“I shall consider human actions and desires in exactly the same manner, as though I were concerned with lines, planes, and solids.”

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Praise | Tributes

The following noted aspects of praise or tribute:

“**Euclid**’s *Elements**,* in thirteen books, is said to have exercised an influence on the human mind greater than that of any other work except the *Bible*.”

— Dana Densmore [?] (2002), [2]

Quotes

The following are noted quotes:

“There is no royal road to geometry.”

— Euclid (c.290BC), Reply given when the ruler Ptolemy I Soter asked Euclid if there was a shorter road to learning geometry than through his *Elements *(Ѻ)

See also

● Euler genealogy

References

1. (a) Miller, Arthur I. (2002). *Einstein, Picasso: Space, Time and the Beauty that Causes Havoc *(pg. 44). Basic Books.

(b) Zamyatin, Yevgeny. (1923). “On Literature, Revolution, Entropy, and Other Matters”; In: Yevgeny Zamyatin, *A Soviety Heretic: Essays by Yevgeny Zamyatin, *ed. And trans. Mirra Ginsburg, 1970. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

(c) O'Connor, J J; E F Robertson. (2002). "Hooke biography." School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, Scotland.

2. Euclid. (c.300BC). *Elements *(translator: Thomas Heath, editor: Dana Densmore). Green Lion Press, 2002.

3. Savoiu, Gheorghe. (2012). *Econophysics: Background and Applications in Economics, Finance, and Sociophysics *(pg. 18). Academic Press.

4. (a) Spinoza, Benedict. (1676). “*The Ethics* (Part 3, pg. 129). Dover, 1955.

(b) Smith, Christian. (2010). *What is a Person?: Rethinking Humanity, Social Life, and the Moral Good from the Person Up* (Amz) (N33, pg.110). University of Chicago Press.

5. Ball, Philip. (2004). *Critical Mass: How One Thing Leads to Another* (social physics, social mechanics, pg. 58; free will, pgs. 71-72, Buckle, 65-69, 205).* *New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

External links

● Euclid – Wikipedia.