Genius IQ (range) 350px
The original definition of a genius range IQ according to American psychologist Lewis Terman (1916); alternatively, American psychologist Leta Hollingworth (1942), in her "Children Above 180 IQ", sets the genius mark at 160+. [1]
Note: this is an archived page (Jan 2014);
New version:
Top 1000 geniuses (Feb 2014 - present)

In genius studies, genius IQ (LR:6) is an intelligence quotient (IQ) or integer number at or above 140 (Terman) or 160 (Hollingworth), “which expresses the relative brightness or intelligence of any given individual” (Cox, 1926), the validity of the method used to discern IQ number being of prime importance.

“Talent hits a target no one else can hit; genius hits a target no one else can see.”
Arthur Schopenhauer (c.1845), Publication

In these rankings, a total of 460+ geniuses current (Jan 2014), i.e. 421 (below) + 39 (candidates page), strong weight is affixed to the conditional term “genius”, from the Latin gignere “to beget” (to produce), in the sense that one may have a strong aptitude, marked capacity, or heightened inclination in some area, but if one does not beget of esteemed respected intellectual note, one is not necessarily a genius and the IQ estimate may be a pseudo-estimate, false positive, or over-estimate. The genius IQs table itself is an expanded version of the popular 2008-2010 constructed IQ: 200+ table, albeit extended down to the 140 range, with cited IQs shifted (↑,↓) up or down ± 5-10 (upgrade/downgrade) or more points (per modern day hard science perspective), giving a blended representative, realistic, and comparative listing of elite geniuses, media-promoted genius, new comer geniuses, child prodigies, and others, and their said-to-be IQ estimates (third column), listed in realistic descending order of intelligence. The updown arrow (↕) is shown next to still reactive (existing) individuals, and or a newly-added yet-unprocessed individual, listed on the table; being that true genius IQs, which can change per decade (shift up or down), can only be estimated in retrospect—thus allowing for clear unbiased prolonged digestion of the weight of the person’s work.

See main: IQ ranking methodology
The following (under construction) listing is ranked in descending order of realist (real), or "true IQ", using genius studies pioneer Catherine Cox's 1926 term, in the sense of who is the smartest, ranked by a number of factors, firstly meta-analysis of known IQ estimates (Cox, Buzan, Guinness, psychologists, etc.), universal genius [UG] or "last universal genius" [LUG] status (IQ=207+), last person to know everything [LPKE], two cultures genius [TCG], greatest physicist ever [GPE], greatest mathematician ever [GME], greatest chemist ever [GCE], greatest engineer ever [GEE], greatest philosopher ever [GPhiE], greatest thermodynamicist ever [GTE], greatest literary author ever [GLAE], polymath (IQAVG = 189), uberman (IQ=186+), double Nobel Prize [DNP] winners, among other factors, and last but not least Hmolpedia citation ranking [HCR]. The twenty-three agreed upon classic, elite, or anchor point "Cox-Buzan geniuses" (Catherine Cox (1926) + Tony Buzan (1994)), shown bolded in RED, is the reference point IQ-estimation benchmark ruler (common geniuses to both IQ studies), each of which are adjusted, upon which the other known genius IQ estimates are fitted. A KEY below the table explains the icons and IQ subscripts. Those geniuses with enlarged (75px) photos are shoulder geniuses, e.g. Newton claiming that he saw farther by standing on the shoulders of Descartes (shoulder genius) and Boyle, Tesla speaking about how he read through 100 volumes of Voltaire (shoulder genius), Einstein speaking of Euclid (shoulder genius) as the "holy geometry book", and of course Aristotle, whose name resonates beyond a certain discernible and controllable circumference, in short: names recurrently cited by other large geniuses, that the seem to have established a certain genius within genius ranking.

IQ estimates


image needed 75x99 headFuture Genius

The future genius will: (a) find the secret principle of the universe; (b) embody Henry Adams' (IQ=190) famous 1910 “call for the aid of another Newton" (IQ=215), someone who comes forth to give the “complete solution”, as Adams, who worked on the problem through Gibbs (IQ=200), Clausius (IQ=205), Darwin (IQ=175), etc., put it, to the elective affinities problem: explaining morality, sociology, economics, and history according to chemistry, physics, and mechanics, via pure mathematics, symbols, figures, and one "common formula"—in a sense, the "new Goethe" (IQ=230); (c) be the final version of Nietzsche’s 1883 prophesized “final Uberman”; and (d) solve, among other things, the: gravity/electromagnetic force problem, double slit problem, accelerating universe problem, and the spin-coupling problem (see: modern queries)—all integrated with new findings in particle physics, the final version of quantum mechanics, among other new experimental findings that may arise, all subsumed under the auspices of first law (fundamental law) and second law (supreme law) of thermodynamics—the only science, of universal content, "least likely", in the words of (Einstein (IQ=220), to ever be overthrow.

Goethe 75 newJohann Goethe
Occupations: 35+
Polyglot: 7+ languages
Collected works: 142+
Library: 5,000+ books
Vocabulary: 100,000+ words
 IQ_{CB} \,=213
 IQ_O \,=180, 225
 IQ_C \,=210
 IQ_B \,=215
 IQ_W \,=200
#2 in genius meta-analysis rankings; #1 social Newton (historical); epicenter genius (IQavg=210); a dual scientific revolutions genius; blue sky problem theorist; [LUG] [LPKE] [TCG] [polymath] [uberman]; a GLAE candidate; a Cattell 1000 (top 10); founder of human chemistry (theory: human elective affinities (1796); forerunner to the future 22nd century hard science of human chemical thermodynamics); known for: literature (second ranked WorldCatExternal link icon (c)behind Shakespeare (IQ=185)), evolution theory (forerunner to Darwin (IQ=175)), poetry (top 10 greatestExternal link icon (c)), anatomy (discovered the intermaxillary bone, proving an connection between humans and lower animals); physics (color theory of light in opposition to Newton's (IQ=215) corpuscular theory); philosophical and intellectual mentor to: Einstein (IQ=220), Tesla (IQ=195), Helmholtz (IQ=195), Freud (IQ=180), Elliot (IQ=190), Jung (IQ=160), among others; a founder of religious mythology (1770); world's largest active vocabulary (50,000-90,000 words); very high in emotional intelligence; highest-ranked "longevity genius" (⅘th-century-long prolificness).

Newton 75Isaac Newton
Occupations: 7+
Library: 1,752+ books (369 scientific)
 IQ_{CB} \,=193
 IQ_O \,=200
 IQ_C \,=190
 IQ_B \,=195
 IQ_W \,=170
#1 in genius meta-analysis rankings; triple scientific revolutions genius; blue sky problem theorist; [GPE] [GME]; a Cattell 1000 (top 20); known for: mechanics, laws of motion, gravitational theory, Query 31: affinity chemistry launcher; differential equations, optics.

Einstein 75 (older)Albert Einstein
Occupations: 2
Polyglot: 2+ languages
Library: 650+ (52+ by Goethe)
 IQ_O \,=160, 200, 225
 IQ_B \,=205
#6 in genius meta-analysis rankings;Nobel Prize iconepicenter genius (IQavg=210); a triple scientific revolutions genius; blue sky problem theorist; [GPE]; known for: the light quanta hypothesis (quantum mechanics); relativity, radiation thermodynamics; kept a bust of Goethe in his study.

Maxwell 75James Maxwell
 IQ_? \,=195-215A dual scientific revolutions genius; blue sky problem theorist; [GPE]; known for: electromagnetic theory (electromagnetic force), kinetic theory, thermodynamics (graphical thermodynamics); intellectual giant to Einstein; highest-ranked "magnitude genius" (prolific output in short time).

Gibbs (75px)Willard Gibbs
 IQ_? \,=195-210[GTE] [GCE] [GPE] [GEE]; first American PhD engineer whose his intellectual stature is summarized best by Albert Nock (1931):

“In the last generation, this country produced one of the most eminent men of science in the whole world. His name was quite unknown among us while he lived, and it is still unknown. Yet I may say without too great exaggeration that when I heard it mentioned in a professional assembly in the Netherlands two years ago, everybody got down under the table and touched their foreheads to the floor. His name was Josiah Willard Gibbs” .

central founder of chemical thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, vector analysis; quote: “[untold number of] Nobel Prizing-winning careers [have been] launched from a passing remark or footnote in Gibbs’ monumental masterpiece [Equilibrium, 1876]” (Frank Weinhold, 2009); his 700-equation Equilibrium is the most-complex, dense, and treasure-filled scientific treatise ever published—the key to the elective affinities problem (see: affinity-free energy equation)—the greatest of all genius puzzles—that was described by John Strutt (IQ=190), official solver of the two-century long blue sky problem, the problem worked on by every IQ=205+ range genius (above), as being “too difficult and too condensed for most, I might say all, readers”—James Maxwell (IQ=210), in fact, was the only one, of the 300 scientists Gibbs mailed it to, that immediately understood it (see: thermodynamic surface).

Clausius 75Rudolf Clausius
 IQ_? \,=195-210Epicenter genius (IQavg=210); a dual scientific revolutions genius; blue sky problem theorist; [GTE]; known for: thermodynamics (founder and greatest), entropy, kinetic theory; intellectual mentor to Gibbs (IQ=210), Maxwell (IQ=210), and Einstein (IQ=220); see: Euler genealogy to discern the significance and density of his influence.


GalileoGalileo Galilei
 IQ_{CB} \,=183
 IQ_C \,=185
 IQ_B \,=180
 IQ_? \,=185-200
#6 in genius meta-analysis rankings; dual scientific revolutions genius; [GPE]; a Cattell 1000 (top 50); known for: dynamics, vacuum theory, temperature, astronomy, heliocentric theory; intellectual giant to Einstein.

Leonardo da VinciLeonardo da Vinci
 IQ_{CB} \,=200
 IQ_C \,=180
 IQ_B \,=220
 IQ_O \,=210
 IQ_W \,=167
[GEE] [LPKE] [uberman] ; blue sky problem theorist; a Cattell 1000 (top 100); known for: animal heat theory, art, engineering, warfare technology, flight; said to have utlilizied a "sleep formula", sleeping no more than four hours at a time, so to optimize his intellectual output; wrote in code, backwards and upside down, so that only those clever enough to look at the document in a mirror would be able to read it.

Thomas Young 75Thomas Young
Library: 1,000+ books
 IQ_? \,=185-200[LPKE] [polymath]; noted physical sciences encyclopedist pioneer; known for coining the the modern term "energy" (with formulation), double slits (experiment inventor), Rosetta Stone (translator); quote: “scientific investigations are a sort of warfare, carried on in the closet or on the couch against all one’s contemporaries and predecessors; I have often gained a single victory when I have been half asleep, but more frequently found, on being thoroughly awake, that the enemy had still the advantage of me when I thought I had him fast in a corner—and all this, you see, keeps one alive” (commentary on the mathematics of Joseph Lagrange (IQ=190)).


Helmholtz 75Hermann Helmholtz
 IQ_? \,=190-210[LUG] so-called "last of the last universal geniuses" (following Goethe); quote: “I believe it is a common saying that Helmholtz was the last universal genius, and we are fast arriving at the point where even a single subject becomes too vast for one man. At any rate, whether or not any of my learned colleagues could write an entire chemical engineering handbook, I could not—hence the present [multiple contributor] form” (Donald Liddell, Handbook of Chemical Engineering, 1922); solver of the thermodynamic theory of affinity (see: affinity-free energy equation).

Aristotle 75Aristotle
 IQ_? \,=195
 IQ_B \,=190
 IQ_O \,=190-210
#4 in genius meta-analysis rankings; epicenter genius (IQavg=210); first dominate blue sky problem theorist; [LPKE]; a Cattell 1000 (top 10); student of Plato (IQ=180)—teacher of Alexander the Great (IQ=180), the synergy and transmission of which, in Alexandria, resulted to bring about the unification of Aristotelian cosmos theory with Egyptian cosmos theory into what we now know as Christianity; first to document the Mpemba effect; in his circa 350 Metaphysics, was the first to dominantly introduced the term energy; central advocate of the nature abhors a vacuum dictum—that complete vacuums are impossible. [10]

Gilbert Lewis 75Gilbert Lewis
 IQ_? \,=190-200[Nobel Prize icon:35] Eponym of the Lewis school of thermodynamics, first to translated and distill Willard Gibbs' (IQ=200) On the Equilibrium of Heterogeneous Substances—the densest scientific treatise of all time—into a practical and workable language chemists could readily understand; invented the dot structure pair model of chemical bonding; did some of the first work on relativity; coined the term photon; Linus Pauling's (IQ=190) On the Nature of the Chemical Bond (1939) was dedicated to him; quote: “Lewis was the direct mentor of more Nobel Prize winners in chemistry than any Nobel Prize winner in any category” (Adriaan de Lange, 1998); his 1925 Anatomy of Science, speculated on hmolscience, i.e. on whether or not him writing this book was nothing but a large "chemical reaction" (extrapolate up) or conversely whether crystals "think" (extrapolate down); his protégé Frederick Rossini, author of the 1950 Chemical Thermodynamics, followed up on the former approach with his 1971 Priestley Medal address ‘Chemical Thermodynamics in the Real World’, which sparked the later 21st century Rossini debate.

Gottfried Leibniz 75 newGottfried Leibniz
 IQ_{CB} \,=194
 IQ_C \,=205
 IQ_B \,=182
 IQ_W \,=200
[LUG] [LPKE]; a Cattell 1000 (top 40); known for: differential equations, dynamics (vis viva, vis mortua); told the Queen of Prussia that in mathematics there was all previous history, from the beginning of the world, and then there was Newton; and that Newton was the better half. [23][24] Downgrade (↓) for having his 1710 optimistic approach to the problem of evil, i.e. his assertion that this is “best of all possible worlds”, lampooned by Voltaire in his 1759 Candice (see: Alexander Pope) and also ridiculed by Schopenhauer (Ѻ).

Laplace 75Pierre Laplace
 IQ_C \,=190 Known for his famous Napoleon Laplace anecdote (1802), where when queried about God in the framework of the new celestial mechanics, famous replied ‘I had no need of that hypothesis’.

Boltzmann 75Ludwig Boltzmann
 IQ_? \,=190-195A dual scientific revolutions genius; formulator of the famous H-theorem model of entropy (1872), the seed to the 1901 later S = k ln W model of entropy; initiator of the "What is Life?"—in physical science terms—debate (see: theories of existence), via his infamous riddled postulate: 1886 postulate that "life is a struggle for entropy" (1886); initiator of the quantum hypothesis (quantum mechanics): “I see no reason why energy shouldn’t also be regarded as divided atomically” (1891) (see: energy element); hung himself (1906) as a result of prolonged attack by the energetics school of his usage of atomic theory to explain thermodynamics.

Euler 75Leonhard Euler
 IQ_? \,=180-200[GME]; upgrade for his reciprocity relation (mathematical proof behind state functions, in particular entropy; see: Mathematical Introduction); see: Euler genealogy.

Voltaire 75Voltaire
 IQ_C \,=190
 IQ_O \,=200
 IQ_? \,=185-200
 IQ_W \,=185
An epicenter genius (IQavg=210); a Cattell 1000 (top 10); upgrade for his support of Jean Sales (IQ=190) and his human molecular hypothesis; known for: Newtonian mechanics, physics, literature, hmol philosophy, religious mythology; lover of Emilie Chatelet (IQ=185); very high emotional intelligence (a greatest philosopher ever candidate).

Descartes 75Rene Descartes
 IQ_{CB} \,=178
 IQ_C \,=180
 IQ_B \,=175
 IQ_W \,=175
[GME]; Cattell 1000 (top 25); known for: Cartesian coordinate system, atomic theory revival (1637), vis viva theory (c.1640), the “I think, therefore I am” philosophy, automaton theory (mechanical theory of life), ethereal heat theory; intellectual giant to Newton.

Tesla 75Nikola Tesla
 IQ_O \,=230-310
 IQ_O \,=200
 IQ_O \,=140-160
Known for: defunct life theory, electricity, magnetism, human energy, radio technology, alternating current, electromagnetic motors; adhered to a Goethean philosophy, to the exclusion of all other philosophies.

Ettore Majorana 75Ettore Majorana
 IQ_O \,=183-200Known for: human quantum mechanics, neutron discovery, exchange force, chemical bonding theory; quote: “There are several categories of scientists in the world; those of second or third rank do their best but never get very far. Then there is the first rank, those who make important discoveries, fundamental to scientific progress. But then there are the geniuses, like Galilei (IQ=200) and Newton (IQ=215). Majorana was one of these.” (Enrico Fermi (IQ=190)).

Henri Poincare 75 Henri Poincare
 IQ_? \,=180-195
[LPKE] [GME]; known for: Poincare conjecture, relativity, thermodynamics, mathematics. [5]

Robert Hooke 75Robert Hooke
 IQ_? \,=190-205A triple scientific revolutions genius; intellectual giant, along with Descartes (IQ=195), to Newton (IQ=215); self-taught: mastered Euclid’s Elements by age 15; claims (c.1679) to have been the first to arrive at the inverse square law of gravity (before Newton); inventor of the pneumatical engine; possibly mathematician behind Boyle’s law; nature abhors a vacuum theorist; heat as motion advocate; in 1685, defined the a universal law of volume expansion (for all bodies) some forty-years before it was codified as law (Boerhaave's law, 1724), evolution theorist, cellular anatomist; light theory (wave theory of light), etc., etc.

Henry Adams 75Henry Adams
Collected works: 12+
 IQ_? \,=185-195#2 social Newton (historical); penned nine-volume American history set solely to prove cause and effect; his The Education of Henry Adams (1907), which is ranked as the greatest American nonfiction book of the twentieth century (American Library), grapples with: Goethe (IQ=230), Gibbs (IQ=200), Clausius (IQ=205), Thomson (IQ=185), Pearson (IQ=185?), Darwin (IQ=175), among others, in search of a unified theory of the humanities and physical sciences; prophet of the "another Newton"; biggest hmolscience thinker since Goethe; spent five decades on the social-history aspects of the elective affinities problem; quote: “social chemistry—the mutual attraction of equivalent human molecules—is a science yet to be created, for the fact is my daily study and only satisfaction in life”(1885); quote: "I would travel a few thousand-million miles to discuss with [Thomson] the thermodynamics of socialistic society” (1909); probably the first true hmolscientist (human chemist + human thermodynamicist + human physicist); known to many as an enigmatic genius of political thought.

24Vilfredo Pareto 75 newVilfredo Pareto
Occupations: 5+
Collected works: 12+
 IQ_? \,=185-195± #3 social Newton (historical); his four-volume Treatise on General Sociology as been characterized as the Principia of the social sciences, destined to bring about a revolution (see: Goethean revolution) in social methodology (Andrew Bongiorno, 1930); a “scholar of encyclopedia ambitions and Machiavellian dispositions” (Steve Fuller, 2000); his system has been characterized as the alternative to that of Karl Marx; eponym of the influential Harvard Pareto circle; Quote: “Pareto was one of the last Renaissance scholars. Trained in physics and mathematics, he became a polymath whose genius radiated into nearly all other major fields of knowledge.” (Joseph Lopreato and Sandra Rusher, 1999) (Ѻ); he might go up or down ↑↓ depending, after his corpus of work is completely translated into English and fully digested; and likewise compared and contrasted with his peer Leon Winiarski, none of whose work is yet translated into English, and who may resultantly outrank him in intellect, though the matter is still undecided.
25Gauss 75Carl Gauss
 IQ_? \,=180-195 [LPKE] [GME]; known for: mathematics, astronomy, electromagnetics; at age 24 famously solved the Ceres tacking problem; considered by Laplace to have been the greatest mathematician in the world; described as a “powerful intellect” by Maxwell; downgrade (↓) for his late age 60 religious-fallout grappling issues, commenting, e.g., how religious matters, such as ethics, destiny, human future, etc., are outside the province of science.
 \updownarrow \,

Oliver Heaviside 75Oliver Heaviside
 IQ_? \,=190-195 Almost entirely a self-taught genius: although he went to school until age 16 and finished fifth among more than 500 candidates for a College of Preceptors Examination given in 1865, he had no formal education after this point; in 1918 he wrote of his obsessive need to absorb Maxwell’s (IQ=210) writings: “I saw that it was great, greater and greatest, with prodigious possibilities in its power. I was determined to master the book and set to work … It took me several years before I could understand as much as I possibly could. Then I set Maxwell aside and followed my own course. And I progressed much more quickly”; the result of which, he was able to condense Maxwell’s equations with 20 variables down to just two equations in two variables; he played a significant role in the Gibbs-Heaviside vector algebra method supplantment of the older less-congruous Hamilton-Tait quaternion method.

Emanuel SwedenborgEmanuel Swedenborg
 IQ_C \,=165
 IQ_G \,=210
 IQ_O \,=205
[LPKE]; a Cattell 1000 (top 90); known for: nebular hypothesis, atomic theory; the 1974 Guinness Book, based on Stanford University genius studies (aka Catherine Cox’s group), listed him (Ѻ) at IQ of 210.

Lagrange 75 Joseph Lagrange
 IQ_C \,=185 Noted for his 1788 Lagrangian formulation of the total energy or force function quantification of a system; see also: Euler genealogy; quote: “the invention of dynamics as a mathematical science [was founded by] Galileo (IQ=200), and [through] the wonderful extension which was given to that science by Newton (IQ=215)—among the successor to those illustrious men: Lagrange has perhaps done more than any other analyst to give extent and harmony to such deductive researches, by showing that the most varied consequences respecting the motions of systems of bodies may be derived from one radical formula; the beauty of the method so suiting the dignity of the results, as to make of his great work a kind of scientific poem” (William Hamilton (IQ=180), 1834).

Jean Sales 75Jean Sales
 IQ_? \,=190Initiator, through the publication of his multi-volume 1775 The Philosophy of Nature: Treatise on Human Moral Nature, of the human molecular hypothesis (1789):

“We conclude that there exists a principle of the human body which comes from the great process in which so many millions of atoms of the earth become many millions of human molecules.”

a theory and work that was condemned, for presenting morality views contrary to religion; he was imprisoned and eventually banished from France for this; while imprisoned, in 1777, he was visited by Voltaire (IQ=195), who gave 500 pounds to towards his release.

Sadi Carnot 75 Sadi Carnot
 IQ_? \,=180-195Initiator of the science of thermodynamics; quotes: “Sadi Carnot was, perhaps, the greatest genius, in the department of physical science at least, that this century has produced” (Robert Thurston, 1890); “The most original work ever written in the physical sciences, with a core of abstraction comparable to the best of Galileo” (Tom Shachtman, 1999); son of Ecole Polytechnic founder Lazare Carnot (IQ=175).

Christiaan Huygens 75Christiaan Huygens
 IQ_C \,=175Mathematical mentor to Gottfried Leibniz (IQ=182-205) (see: Euler genealogy); liaison between the vacuum work of Otto Guericke and the invention of the steam engine, via his gunpowder engine research with his associate Denis Papin (Papin engine, 1690); determined that the quantity mv² (later called vis viva by Leibniz) remains constant during perfectly elastic collisions; noted for his wave theory of light (1678), in opposition to Isaac Newton’s (IQ=190-200) later corpuscular theory of light.

Schrodinger 75Erwin Schrödinger
 IQ_? \,=185-195Nobel Prize iconKnown as a polymath (IQAVG=196) (Schrodinger: Centenary Celebration of a Polymath, 1989); his rather unique formulation of 1926 “Schrodinger equation” is the capstone to quantum mechanics, in the derivation of which he combined De Broglie’s 1924 electron wave postulate together with the Lagrangian classical version (K + U = E) of the conservation of energy of a system, to synthesize a “wave equation” that that represents mathematically the distribution of a charge of an electron distributed through space, being spherically symmetric or prominent in certain directions, i.e. directed valence bonds, which gave the correct values for spectral lines of the hydrogen atom; his 1943 “What is Life?” lecture-turned-book (a) seeded the later discovery of DNA (in 1953 by James Watson (IQ=?) and Francis Crick (IQ=173)) and (b) launched the what is life: thermodynamic-view debate (see: theories of existence), wherein he famous gave a derivation that "life" is something that feeds on negative entropy; a view that, however, soon came under rigorous attack (e.g. Linus Pauling (IQ=190)), after which he had to append an infamous “Note to Chapter 6”, explaining that had he been catering to a rigorous hard science audience that he would have “turned the discussion to free energy”; a very-riddled proposition, more-correct than the latter position, but one that eventually led to the “defunct theory of life” (Thims, 2009)—the discernment that “life” is something that does not exist (atoms and molecules, of which humans are the latter variety (i.e. human molecules) of, are “not alive”, and cannot be made to come alive (or die) or given life—as the olden-days creation by breath (divine creation), creation by spark, creation by heat, Urey-Miller creation, or auto-catalytic creation into perpetual motion, etc.., theories would have things.

John von NeumannJohn Neumann

 IQ_O \,=163-180
 IQ_? \,=185-200
A universal genius, possibly a "last universal genius", after Helmholtz, though no citation for this term can be found; upgrade for 1934 economics thermodynamics "variables table" work; upgrade for Neumann automaton theory (1940s); down grade for Shannon bandwagon initiation (1939); upgrade for being known as the "father of the computer"; upgrade for quantum thermodynamics work; upgrade for famously solved the “fly puzzle” in a matter of seconds at a cocktail party; could multiply eight digit numbers in his head as a child, etc., etc.

Hero 75Hero of Alexandria
 IQ_? \,=180-195[GEE] Physicist, top five greatest engineers ever (, and top forty greatest mathematician ever (W.C. Eells, 1962), noted for: his circa 50AD Pneumatica, in which, he overview of the physics of Strato and Ctesibius, outlines an atomic theory in which matter consists of particles mixed with distributed vacua, and in which he describes how to make an aeolipile; may have used a type of Philo thermometer (240BC) in his experimental work; was said to have openly challenge the nature abhors a vacuum belief, but his attempts to create an artificial vacuum failed; invent and build the world’s first working heat engine, namely a steam engine that opens temple doors; built a number of famous “automata”, wind turbines, and hydrostatic fountains; said to have discovered imaginary numbers; his Pneumatica was translated by Gottfried Leibniz (IQ=200) and also read by Denis Papin (IQ=), likely being influential in the inception of the Papin engine, the first piston and cylinder steam engine; his works, along with the works of Aristarchus of Samos (IQ=?), Hypatia (IQ=185), Sappho (IQ=?), and Berossus (IQ=?) and his Babylonaica, are said to be the five most “tantalizing losses from the Library of Alexandria”. [30]

Linus Pauling 75Linus Pauling
 IQ_O \,=160
 IQ_? \,=180-195
Nobel Prize iconNobel Prize icon[GCE] [DNP]; startup chemical company (before age 15); BS in chemical engineering age 21 (1922), during which time he became aware of the work of Gilbert Lewis (IQ=190) and Irving Langmuir on the electronic structure of atoms and their bonding to form molecules, PhD in physical chemistry and mathematical physics (1925), then (1926) to Europe on a Guggenheim Fellowship, to study under Arnold Sommerfeld (IQ=180) in Munich, Niels Bohr (IQ=185) in Copenhagen, and Erwin Schrödinger (IQ=190) in Zürich, during which time he became interested in how quantum mechanics might be applied in his chosen field of interest, the electronic structure of atoms and molecules; also, in Zürich, Pauling was also exposed to one of the first quantum mechanical analyses of bonding in the hydrogen molecule, done by Walter Heitler (IQ=?) and Fritz London; after which he became one of the first scientists in the field of quantum chemistry and a pioneer in the application of quantum theory to the structure of molecules; his 1938 The Nature of the Chemical Bond has been referred to as the “bible” of modern chemistry; gets upgrade for, in 1989, ripping apart Schrodinger's thermodynamic views on life (see: Note to Chapter 6).

Richard Feynman 75 Richard Feynman
 IQ_? \,=190
 IQ_O \,=125
Nobel Prize iconMotto: "believe in the atomic hypothesis" (Feynman time capsule wisdom); known for: quantum electrodynamics; see also: Feynman problem solving algorithm. [4]

Fermi 75 Enrico Fermi
 IQ_? \,=175-195
AI IQ=164
Nobel Prize iconKnown as the “last universal physicist”, in the tradition of great men of the 19th century, and “the last person who knew all of physics of his day”. [17]

Pierre Gassendi 75Pierre Gassendi
 IQ_C \,=185Was one of the first to revive the atomic theory work of Epicurus (IQ=), writing a set of books on the philosophical implications of this subject, supposedly written to counter the philosophical views of Rene Descartes (IQ=195); was the first to coin the term “molecule”, which he described as “fitted together atoms”; gave one of the first chemical creation models: “atoms” → “molecules” → “small structures similar to molecules” description of evolution (a forerunner to the later human molecular hypothesis (1789) of Jean Sales (IQ=).

Pascal 75Blaise Pascal
 IQ_C \,=195
 IQ_W \,=192
A GME (top 20); a Cattell 1000 (top 70); at age 19 (1642), made a counting machine, with toothed wheels and gears, moving drums carrying numbers, that could add, subtract, multiply and divide; built 50 in total—they impressed Rene Descartes (IQ=195); in 1646 repeated Evangelista Torricelli's vacuum experiments; from 1652-64, spent all his time on the mathematics of gambling; after his 1654 brush with death (age 31) he "found God" and thereafter seems to have lost his ability to think objectively and productively (relating all his theories to the Bible); dereacted at 39.

Planck 75Max Planck
 IQ_? \,=180-195Nobel Prize iconA dual scientific revolutions genius; a top three greatest physicist of all time; known for: launching the quantum mechanics (quantum revolution), radiation thermodynamics, and for solving the ultraviolet catastrophe.

Copernicus 75Nicolaus Copernicus
 IQ_{CB} \,=173
 IQ_C \,=160
 IQ_B \,=185
 IQ_T \,=100-110
Known for: his heliocentric universe model, which launched the scientific revolution (Copernican revolution).
 \updownarrow \,

Christopher Hirata (small)Christopher Hirata
 IQ_R \,=225
 IQ_? \,=170-195
Youngest medalist ever (age 13) of the International Physics Olympiad; upgrade for his circa age 17 derived "relationship physics" version of human chemical thermodynamics (a very niche subject strangely common to IQ=225+ thinkers: Goethe, Sidis, Thims); astrophysics; high emotional intelligence.

George Green 75George Green
 IQ_? \,=170-190 At age 35, a self-educated miller (read books via the Nottingham Subscription Library), having had almost no formal schooling, self-published his 1828 “An Essay on the Application of Mathematical Analysis to the Theories of Electricity and Magnetism”, wherein starting from the work of Pierre Laplace (IQ=190), he introduced the concept of “potential function”, i.e. the potential as a function of Cartesian coordinates V(x,y,z), particularly the potential energy of an arbitrary static distribution of electric charges; he also derived the divergence theorem independent of Carl Gauss (IQ=195); is the eponym of the Gauss-Green-Stokes theorem (fundamental theorem of calculus).

Archimedes 75Archimedes
 IQ_B \,=190[GME]; Known for: hydrostatics, statics, and an explanation of the principle of the lever; one of fabled "last persons to know everything".

John StruttJohn Strutt
 IQ_? \,=180-190Nobel Prize iconCalled, by some, the “last of the great Victorian polymaths” (IQAVG=196); noted for his 1870 discussions with Ludwig Boltzmann (IQ=195) on the so-called truth of the second law; his 1871 "scatter theory" solved the two-millennium old blue sky problem (the only problem common to the IQ=205+ group), about which he gave the definitive explanation of in 1899; his 1892 discussions with Willard Gibbs (IQ=200) on statistical mechanics; his 1894 isolation, with William Ramsay, of the element argon (work for which he would win the 1904 Nobel Prize in physics); and his 1900 formulation of spectral energy flux density of black body radiation, which led to the ultraviolet catastrophe problem, and hence to the "energy element" solution by Max Planck (IQ=190), which launched the science of quantum mechanics.

Emilie Chatelet 75Emilie Chatelet
 IQ_? \,=170-190Eponym: "smartest woman ever"; combined Isaac Newton’s definition of energy (E=mv) with Gottfried Leibniz’ definition of energy (E=mv²) with Willem Gravesande’s brass balls clay surface impact experiments to synthesize the first version of the conservation of energy (vis viva into vis mortua); mistress of Voltaire (IQ=195); had immense library comparable to the Paris academy of science; ran the biggest research lab in France; very highly ranked "magnitude genius" (prolific output in short time).

 IQ_O \,=170-210
 IQ_O \,=180-200
 IQ_? \,=175-192
One of fabled "last persons to know everything"; only known female universal genius; noted early irreligionist; her famous stoning to death can be said to mark the start of the dark ages; is rumored that to explain the seasonal variations of the apparent size of the sun, she conceived of elliptical orbit heliocentrism, some 1300 years before Johannes Kepler (IQ=180) formulated this into a law in 1609; Bertrand Russel (IQ=180) and Voltaire (IQ=195), supposedly, rendered her the most uplifting compliments and praises. [7]

Eliot 75George Eliot
 IQ_B \,=185
 IQ_O \,=160
A GLAE candidate; gets five point upgrade, above Buzan IQ estimate, for basing her most-famous 1872 realism novel Middlemarch on Goethe’s 1809 Elective Affinities, which has been has been described as the “greatest novel in the English language” by those including Martin Amis and by Julian Barnes; Eliot cogently and correctly considered Goethe (IQ=230) to be "the last true polymath to walk the earth"; she took a three-month pilgrimage to Goethe's home town of Weimar; was said to have been able to read and absorb 40 books per month (which, using the conservative estimate that she began reading at that rate at age 10, would indicate that she had read over 24,000+ books in her existence; in her time, she acquired the epitaph of “very wise woman” and also was measured by a phrenologist as having “very large brain”; quote: “the quickest of us walk around well-wadded with stupidity.”

Athanasius Kircher 75Athanasius Kircher
 IQ_? \,=180-195One of fabled "last persons to know everything"; Johann Goethe (IQ=230) commented, during his researches of optics and other subjects, “thus, entirely unexpected, Father Kircher is here again”; was present at the 1641 Gasparo Berti test of the "nature abhors a vacuum" experiment; coined the term electromagnetism; the first Egyptologist; formulator of magnetic cosmology (1667).

ShakespeareWilliam Shakespeare
 IQ_B \,=210
 IQ_? \,=175-190
A GLAE candidate (#1); a Cattell 1000 (top 10); one of Nietzsche’s uberman (IQ=186+); known for: literature, literature chemistry, Promethean heat; very high emotional intelligence.

Schelling 75Friedrich Schelling
 IQ_C \,=190 His 1795 natural philosophy theory, according to Frode Pedersen (2011), influenced Goethe and his 1796 chemical philosophy theory; the two were conducting “optical experiments” in 1798 and the year prior Goethe had been conducting magnetic experiments, after reading his Ideas Towards a Philosophy of Nature, in attempts to find a unified theory.


William Thomson 75William Thomson
 IQ_? \,=185-190Known for: absolute temperature, thermodynamics; Glasgow University age 10; defended Joseph Fourier’s 1822 theory of heat over that of Philip Kelland’s 1837 heat theory (age 13); by age 15-16; published first scientific papers by age 17; in 1845 (age 21), after graduating second wrangler (Cambridge), simultaneous unearthed ( ) the then unknown and forgotten memoirs of Sadi Carnot’s 1824 thermodynamics memoir and George Green’s 1828 memoir on the mathematics of electricity and magnetism, now known as two of the most-original works in science; and gave the first mathematical development of Michael Faraday's (IQ=170-180) idea that electric induction takes place through an intervening medium; downgrade () for latter religious undertone based calculations, e.g. age of the sun, etc.

Hugo GrotiusHugo Grotius
 IQ_C \,=200
 IQ_W \,=197


Thomas WolseyThomas Wolsey
 IQ_C \,=200

Boyle 75Robert Boyle
 IQ_C \,=160
 IQ_? \,=170-185
A dual scientific revolutions genius; corroborator with Isaac Newton (IQ=215) in the initiation of affinity chemistry; supervised Robert Hooke (IQ=195) in the construction of the pneumatical engine, the experimental device that led to the discovery of Boyle's law, the first gas law.

Sidis 75William Sidis
 IQ_P \,=250-300
 IQ_O \,=200
 IQ_? \,=180-195
Person behind both the 10% myth (the reserve mental energy theory was used, by his father, in his accelerated upbringing) and the character of Good Will Hunting (excelling in math, physics, chemistry, law); down-grade for his magnum opus: The Animate and the Inanimate, a rather convoluted second law based "no origin" theory of life, utilizing a two-section universe model, which results to being a patched-together mess of an argument, in spite of his legendary genius prodigy fame status.

Otto Guericke 75Otto Guericke
 IQ_? \,=175-195See: Thomas Coulson’s 1943 booklet “Otto von Guericke: a Neglected Genius”; the originality, variety, polymathly, and influence of Guericke's contributions are difficult to summarize in short; to say the least: he is the person behind the invention of the vacuum engine and the so-called: “first and greatest of the electrical discoverers”.

Schopenhauer 75Arthur Schopenhauer
 IQ_? \,=170-190His two-volume 1,100+ page The World as Will and Representation (1814, 1844) built on on Goethe's human elective affinities theory (see: elective affinity problem) to explain "will" in a universal manner, similar to Goethe, e.g. in terms of the "will of the copper" atom in electrochemical reaction.

Schiller 75Friedrich Schiller
 IQ_C \,=165Gets a 20-point upgrade, above Cox IQ estimate, for (a) being the person in whom Goethe (IQ=230), in 1796, first confided in his newly-forming solution to the elective affinities problem and for (b) being Goethe's closest intellectual comrade (see adjacent: Goethe looking into Schiller's skull); a Cattell 1000 (top 80); they discussed philosophy, science, aesthetics, and satirical poetry, etc; in 1797, in Jena, he introduced the Humboldt brothers, Wilhelm (IQ=175) and Alexander (IQ=185), to Goethe, an epicenter genius circle of intellect wherein they discussed, in Goethe's own words, “all of nature from the perspectives of philosophy and science; Goethe's last words mentioned him.

Hawking 75Stephen Hawking
 IQ_? \,=160-190
 IQ_B \,=180
 IQ_O \,=160
Noted: black hole thermodynamics; public advocate of atheism; (link).

Euclid 75Euclid
 IQ_B \,=182[GME]; His geometry treatise Elements was influential to many, including: James Thomson (mathematician), father to noted child prodigy William Thomson (IQ=185), who edited a version of Elements (1834); James Maxwell (IQ=210), who mentions Euclid in his last-dying poem “A Paradoxical Ode”, Albert Einstein (IQ=220), who at age 12 was given a text on Euclidean geometry, which he called the “holy geometry book”; to Sarah Sidis (tutored by Boris Sidis; mother to William Sidis (IQ=195)) who in 1891 (age 17) "propped Euclid up above the sink, and studied while she washed the dishes"; and to Yevgeny Zamyatin, who intersperses his 1923 literature thermodynamics work with mentions of Euclid.

Davy 75 Humphry Davy
 IQ_C \,=185 Noted for his 1799 “ice-rubbing experiments”, one of the first mechanical equivalent of heat experiments; for his 1806 lecture on electricity and chemical affinity; for his 1813 “point atom” theory of a human; and for the discovery of a number of elements.

John Stuart MillJohn Mill
 IQ_{CB} \,=183
 IQ_C \,=180
 IQ_B \,=185
 IQ_O \,=200
One of fabled "last persons to know everything"; known for: political philosophy, utilitarianism; was a split-brainer who could write two different languages simultaneously, one in each hand.

Jean d'Alembert 75 Jean D'Alembert
 IQ_C \,=185 Known for d’Alembert’s principle; PhD advisor to Pierre Laplace (IQ=195) (see: Euler genealogy); noted encyclopedist: his 1772 Encyclopedie, co-written with Denis Diderot (IQ=165), is said to mark “end of an area in which a single human being was able to comprehend the totality of knowledge” (see: "last persons to know everything").

CurieMarie Curie

 IQ_B \,=180
 IQ_O \,=200
Nobel Prize iconNobel Prize icon[DNP] [GPE]; Nobel Prize in physics (1903) for the discovery of radioactivity; Nobel Prize in chemistry (1911) for the isolation of pure radium.

Auguste Comte 75 Auguste Comte
 IQ_C \,=185 A Cattell 1000 (top 100); one of the early pioneers of human physics (see: HP pioneers); outlined the view that 'social physics' needs a Galileo-Newton type description.

Alexander Humboldt 75Alexander Humboldt
 IQ_C \,=185 One of fabled "last persons to know everything"; a Cattell 1000 (top 100); was one of the first to propose that South America and Africa were both joined; in 1797, in Jena, with his brother Wilhelm (IQ=175), Friedrich Schiller (IQ=175), and Johann Goethe (IQ=230), the four discussed, in Goethe's own words, “all of nature from the perspectives of philosophy and science”.

Paolo Sarpi 75Paolo Sarpi
 IQ_C \,=195
 IQ_W \,=187


Srinivasan Ramanujan 75 Srinivasa Ramanujan
 IQ_? \,=160-185
 IQ_O \,=190-210
Self-taught mathematics prodigy and autodidact who, with almost no formal training in pure mathematics, made extraordinary contributions to mathematical analysis, number theory, infinite series and continued fractions; G.H. Hardy ranked him in the same league as Gauss (IQ=195), Euler (IQ=195), Cauchy (IQ=), Newton (IQ=210), and Archimedes (IQ=190). [6][14]

Niels Bohr 75Niels Bohr
 IQ_? \,=175-185Nobel Prize iconHis 1913 “Bohr model” of the atom proposed that normally each electron in an atom is confined to a particular electron shell or what he called “orbits” (see: molecular orbital theory), which may be spherical as well as elliptical, but that—in very a very science-redefining way—an electron can move or "jump" between adjacent orbits or orbitals only when the atom (or electron?) emits or absorbs a certain quantum amount (energy element amount) of radiant energy, of the amount ‘hν’, where h is Planck’s constant and ν (nu) is the frequency of the electromagnetic energy or light emitted or absorbed.

Edison 75Thomas Edison
 IQ_B \,=195 Invented: practical light bulb, phonograph, and motion picture camera; and originated the concept and implementation of electric-power generation and distribution to homes, businesses, and factories; gave pretty decent stance on religious theories (e.g. soul, life, immortality, spirit) query during 1909 New York Times interview.

Berkeley 75George Berkeley
 IQ_C \,=190In 1713, in his "Moral Attraction", outlined a social gravitation like theory; later derogated by Pitirim Sorokin (1928), but defended by Bernard Cohen (1994).

Germaine Stael 75Germaine Stael
 IQ_C \,=180 Banned from France in 1803 by Napoleon (IQ=175), for publishing her controversial novel Delphine, after which she migrated to Germany and entered into the Goethe circle; upgrade for commenting favorably on Goethe’s Elective Affinities.

Arnauld 75Antoine Arnauld
 IQ_C \,=190

Haller 75 Albrecht Haller
 IQ_C \,=190

Melanchthon 75 Philipp Melanchthon
 IQ_C \,=190
 IQ_W \,=180
Downgrade for describing Copernicus’ 1514 heliocentric theory as an “old joke” (see: crackpot), implying that it was a superfluous revival of a frivolous circa 250BC suggestion by Aristarchus of Samos. [32]
Pitt (the Younger) 75 William Pitt (the Younger)
 IQ_C \,=190A Cattell 1000 (top 20).

Brunelleschi 75Filippo Brunelleschi
 IQ_B \,=190

Barthold Niebuhr 75Barthold Niebuhr
 IQ_C \,=185Part of Goethe's 1803 Weimar circle.

Imhotep 75 Imhotep
 IQ_O \,=170-200
 IQ_? \,=185
Egyptian polymath, first architect, engineer, and physician in early history, who served under third dynasty king Djoser (Zoser) as chancellor to the pharaoh and high priest of the sun god Ra at Heliopolis, architect of the world’s first pyramid, the Step Pyramid at Saqqara, who may be the possible main theorist behind the current world dominating Anunian theologies, namely: Ab-ra-ham-ic theologies (Christianity, Islam, etc.) + B-ra-hma-ic theologies (Hinduism, Buddhism, etc.) and in turn the clay creation myth model of a human.


Hamilton 75William Hamilton
 IQ_? \,=175-190
 IQ_C \,=170
Known for the Hamiltonian formulation of the force function (energy) of a dynamic system; multilingual by 5; knew thirteen languages by 13; was correcting errors in the work of Pierre Laplace (IQ=190) at 15; became an astronomy professor while still a university student. [8] His energy formulation was cited by Rudolf Clausius as a precursor, role model, or near synonym to his formulation of internal energy.

Werner Heisenberg 75Werner Heisenberg
 IQ_B \,=173Nobel Prize iconKnown for: uncertainty principle, exchange force.

Kant 75 Immanuel Kant
 IQ_C \,=175One of fabled "last persons to know everything"; an oft-cited "smartest person ever" missing candidate; a Cattell 1000 (top 40)

Francis Bacon 75 Francis Bacon
 IQ_C \,=180 One of fabled "last persons to know everything"; a Cattell 1000 (top 10); known for introducing the scientific method.

Arnold Sommerfeld 75Arnold Sommerfeld (1868-1951) IQ_? \,=175-185[Nobel Prize icon:81] Nominated a record eighty-one times for the Nobel Prize, and served as PhD supervisor for more Nobel Prize winners in physics than any other supervisor before or since; introduced the 2nd quantum number (azimuthal quantum number), 4th quantum number (spin quantum number), the fine-structure constant, and pioneered X-ray wave theory; in an odd twist of fate, in April of 1951, in the midst of writing a series of physics books: mechanics (1943), electrodynamics (1948), optics (1950), he had begun the writing of the hardest subject of all—thermodynamics—and after famously commenting, in rather frank and truthful terms, that: “thermodynamics is a funny subject. The first time you go through it, you don't understand it at all. The second time you go through it, you think you understand it, except for one or two small points. The third time you go through it, you know you don't understand it, but by that time you are so used to it, it doesn't bother you anymore”, he was injured in traffic accident, while walking his grandchildren—during which time his end came.

Kepler 75 Johannes Kepler
 IQ_C \,=175 One of fabled "last persons to know everything"; known for his “laws of planetary motion”, which provided one of the foundations for Isaac Newton's (IQ=215) theory of universal gravitation.

Freud 75 newSigmund Freud
 IQ_? \,=175-185
 IQ_O \,=156
Used the chemical thermodynamic bound energy, free energy, and conservation of energy principles of Hermann Helmholtz (IQ=190) to script out a 24-volume collected works set, that now call "psychology" (see: A Project for Scientific Psychology, 1895); very high emotional intelligence. [11]

Plato 75Plato
 IQ_B \,=180A Cattell 1000 (top 10).

Alexander the Great 75Alexander the Great
 IQ_B \,=180A Cattell 1000 (top 20); was tutored by the famed philosopher Aristotle (IQ=190); by age of thirty, he had created one of the largest empires in ancient history; established the Library of Alexandria, unified Greek science with Egyptian theology to form Christianity; Would carry the works of Homer and Aristotle into battle (Ѻ).

Nietzsche 75Friedrich Nietzsche
 IQ_O \,=180 First to proclaim “God is dead” (1882) and to postulate an “uberman” (1883), a person with an IQ of 180+ (according to Bertrand Russell (IQ=180)), who would eventually become the replacement model for the “idea of God” (theory of God); role models of whom, according to Nietzsche, are: Socrates (IQ=160), Caesar (IQ=170), Da Vinci (IQ=205), Michelangelo (IQ=180), Shakespeare (IQ=185), Goethe (IQ=230), and Napoleon (IQ=175), or a person who would become a synthesis of these seven intellectual giants (IQave=186).

Jefferson 75Thomas Jefferson
 IQ_B \,=195
 IQ_W \,=160
IQ_S \,=160
One of fabled "last persons to know everything"; a Cattell 1000 (top 90); library=6,487 books; known for: American government founding and atheism advocation; was a polymath who spoke five languages and was deeply interested in science and political philosophy; he once stated "I cannot live without books”.
 \updownarrow \,

Willem Gravesande 75Willem Gravesande
 IQ_? \,=160-180His circa 1718 brass ball clay surface experiments, wherein he allowed brass balls to be dropped (or rolled down a ramp) with varying velocity onto a soft clay surface and found that a ball with twice the velocity of another would leave an indentation four times as deep, that three times the velocity yielded nine times the depth, and so on; shared these results with Emilie Chatelet (IQ=190) and with Voltaire (IQ=195) who in turn, predominantly the former, subsequently corrected Newton's (IQ=215) formula E = mv to E = mv², and thus synthesized the first version of the conservation of energy (vis viva into vis mortua); he also is the inventor of the ball and ring experiment, a significant experimental precursor to the eventual formulation of thermodynamics.

SpinozaBenedict Spinoza
 IQ_? \,=180-190
 IQ_{CB} \,=175
 IQ_C \,=175
 IQ_B \,=175
Philosophy: “I shall consider human actions and desires in exactly the same manner, as though I were concerned with lines, planes, and solids”; bright from an early age and especially impressed by Rene Descartes (IQ=195) and his axiom: “Nothing ought to be received as truth until it has been proved by good and solid reasons”, schooled himself in the classic and ancient systems of philosophy, mathematics, algebra, physics, chemistry, optics; met and advised both Christiaan Huygens (IQ=190) and Gottfried Leibniz (IQ=200); the result of which was his posthumously-published Ethicswhich had a great effect on Goethe (IQ=230), opening out for him a “boundless view of both the sensible and the moral world” and his later physical chemistry based "moral symbols" morality system—used the methods of Euclid (IQ=185) to describe a single entity (god/nature), of which mind and matter are two manifestations, whereby events and actions are caused, free will is illusory, all explained in such a way, as Goethe says: “what especially riveted me to him, was the utter disinterestedness, which glowed in his every sentence”; Albert Einstein (IQ=220), in 1921, famously commented, in response to a Rabbi who asked him if he believed in god: “I believe in Spinoza’s god, who reveals himself in the orderly harmony of what exists.”

Bertrand Russell 75Bertrand Russell
 IQ_O \,=180Nobel Prize icon20th century's greatest atheism advocate; considered his IQ to be 180, which he defined as the uberman cutoff IQ.

Jeremy Bentham 75Jeremy Bentham


Ludwig Wittgenstein 75Ludwig Wittgenstein
(1889-1951) ↓
 IQ_O \,=190 Supposedly, commented or critiqued Arthur Schopenhauer’s Goethean-based theory of an “elective affinity will” or “will to power” (attacking one’s fears). His two biggest works are Philosophical Investigations and Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, which according to some “show more raw intellect than anything Shakespeare has written”; some have ranked him above Bertrand Russell. He is also noted for his atomic fact model of language units and molecular hypothesis version of paragraphs. Downgrade for having so many “God-this” and “God-that” quotes attributed to him. [27]

Mary Somerville 75Mary Somerville
 IQ_? \,=175-185She schooled Ada Lovelace (IQ=160) in mathematics and science, introducing her to Charles Babbage (IQ=?) and Michael Faraday (IQ=180); Joseph Laplace (IQ=190) commented on her: "there have been only three women who have understood me. These are yourself, Caroline Herschel, and a Mrs Grieg of whom I know nothing."

John Bardeen 75John Bardeen
 IQ_? \,=175-185Nobel Prize iconNobel Prize icon[DNP] Nobel Prize physics (1956) for the invention of the transistor; Nobel Prize physics (1972) for the theory of superconductivity; see True Genius: the Life and Science of John Bardeen: the Only Winner of Two Nobel Prizes in Physics (2002).

Frederick Sanger 75Frederick Sanger
 IQ_? \,=175-185Nobel Prize iconNobel Prize icon[DNP]; Nobel Prize in chemistry (1958) for the structure of the insulin molecule; Nobel Prize in chemistry for virus nucleotide sequencing; quote: “I and my colleagues have been engaged in the pursuit of knowledge.”
Borges 75Jorge Borges
 IQ_B \,=182

Arthur Doyle
 IQ_B \,=182Noted: Sherlock Holmes writer.

Marion Tinsley
 IQ_B \,=182Noted: checker player.

Lord Byron 75Lord Byron
 IQ_C \,=180A Cattell 1000 (top 30); quote: “adversity is the path to truth”; father of Ada Lovelace (IQ=160); Tom Stoppard’s 1993 juxtaposition of times play Arcadia compares Byron, in a way, to Goethe (IQ=230), intermixed with heat, sex, the second law, and the “attraction that Newton left out” (chemical affinity/human chemical affinity).

Leon Alberti
 IQ_B \,=180

Alexander Bell 75Alexander Bell
 IQ_B \,=180Inventor of the telephone.

Nicolas Malebrache 75 Nicolas Malebranche
 IQ_C \,=180 In 1664, chanced to read René Descartes' (IQ=195) Traité del l'Homme, which moved him so deeply that (it is said) he was repeatedly compelled by palpitations of the heart to lay aside his reading; and was from that hour consecrated to Cartesian philosophy; was inspirational in the development of physiocracy.

Pitt (the Elder)  IQ_B \,=180

Duchamp  IQ_B \,=180
180Sinan  IQ_B \,=180

Carnegie  IQ_B \,=180

Dal IQ_B \,=180

Phidias IQ_B \,=180

Pavlov IQ_B \,=180

Khan IQ_B \,=180

Stravnsky IQ_B \,=180
180MichelangeloMichelangelo Buonarroti
 IQ_{CB} \,=178
 IQ_C \,=180
 IQ_B \,=175
A Cattell 1000 (top 30); one of Nietzsche’s uberman (IQ=186+).
180Desiderius Erasmus 75Desiderius Erasmus
 IQ_{CB} \,=178
 IQ_C \,=180
 IQ_B \,=175
A Cattell 1000 (top 60); one of fabled "last persons to know everything".
180John Milton 75John Milton
 IQ_{CB} \,=177
 IQ_C \,=180
 IQ_B \,=173
 IQ_W \,=167
A GLAE candidate; one of fabled "last persons to know everything"; a Cattell 1000 (top 20); known for: Paradise Lost.
180Campanella  IQ_C \,=185

Giacomo Leopardi
 IQ_C \,=185
 IQ_W \,=185

180Mirabeau  IQ_C \,=185

Marquis Condorcet 75Marquis Condorcet
 IQ_C \,=180

Jeremy Bentham
 IQ_C \,=180

Hans Orsted 75Hans Orsted
 IQ_C \,=180 Discovered that that electric currents create magnetic fields; mentor to Ludwig Colding; supposedly shaped post-Kantian philosophy.

David Hume 75David Hume
 IQ_C \,=180 Noted for his 1740 A Treatise of Human Nature and for his 1783 essay “On the Immortality of the Soul”, which argued that “it appears difficult by the mere light of reason to prove the immortality of the soul”; Immanuel Kant ’s (IQ=180) 1788 Critique of Practical Reason and his categorical imperative, according to Miguel Unamuno, are both criticism launching points off the two latter works of Hume.
180William Whewell 75William Whewell
 IQ_? \,=180 Noted for his involvement in the 1833 Whewell-Coleridge debate, with English romantic philosopher Samuel Coleridge (IQ=175), revolving around the question of what exactly someone who works ‘in the real sciences’, as Coleridge had phrased it, should be called, and what exactly are the real sciences, in the context of the tree of knowledge; a result of which Whewell coined the term "scientist".

Arago IQ_C \,=180

Bailly IQ_C \,=180

Jacques Bossuet
 IQ_C \,=180
 IQ_W \,=177

Brougham  IQ_C \,=180

Chattterton IQ_C \,=180

Fenelon IQ_C \,=180

Gibbon IQ_C \,=180

Victor Hugo
 IQ_C \,=180

Musset IQ_C \,=180

Peel  IQ_C \,=180

Pope IQ_C \,=180

Tasso  IQ_C \,=180

Joseph Scaliger
 IQ_C \,=180

175Lavoisier 75 Antoine Lavoisier
 IQ_C \,=170
175FaradayMichael Faraday
 IQ_{CB} \,=175
 IQ_C \,=170
 IQ_B \,=180
Known for: electromagnetic induction, chemistry; largely self-taught through reading of books at a bindery he worked at as a child; intellectual giant to Einstein.
175Boerhaave 75Herman Boerhaave (1668-1738)
 IQ_C \,=165 Noted for: Boerhaave’s law, the volume expansion law precursor to caloric theory; for comparing the force of affinity with “love, if love be the desire for marriage” (1732); mentor to Andrew Plummer, whose ideas on attractive and repulsive forces involved in chemical affinity had influence on his successors William Cullen and Joseph Black; and for his 1736 ball and ring experiments with Willem Gravesande (as reported by Voltaire (IQ=190), a study of his during this time).
175Lazare Carnot 75 Lazare Carnot
 IQ_C \,=170Founder of the Ecole Polytechnique; father to Sadi Carnot, initiator of thermodynamics.
175Joseph Gay-Lussac 75 Joseph Gay-Lussac
 IQ_C \,=175 Noted for his formulation of Charles law (volume-temperature gas law) (1802), Gay-Lussac’s law (pressure-temperature gas law), both precursors to the ideal gas law, and the law of combining volumes (1808).
175Franklin 75Benjamin Franklin
 IQ_{CB} \,=173
 IQ_C \,=160
 IQ_B \,=185
 IQ_W \,=160
A Cattell 1000 (top 50); a so-called "last universal genius" candidate.
 \updownarrow \,William Shockley 75William Shockley
 IQ_? \,=150-175
 IQ_O \,=125-129
Co-inventor, along with John Bardeen (IQ=) and Walter Brattain (IQ=), of the transistor; all three received the 1956 Nobel Prize in physics; at age 8 he scored IQ = 125 on the Stanford-Binet and 129 at age 9; these early IQ scores frustrated him, and he would later frequently joke about how he could win a Nobel Prize in physics, but not qualify for Terman’s gifted study; see: Broken Genius: the Rise and Fall of William Shockley, Creator of the Electronic Age (2008).
175Darwin 75Charles Darwin
 IQ_{CB} \,=169
 IQ_C \,=165
 IQ_B \,=173
 IQ_W \,=160
Known for: the theory of evolution (by natural selection); for his warm pond model of the origin of life.
175Justus Liebig 75 newJustus Liebig
 IQ_C \,=180Top five chemists of history (according to James Partington); first to publish Robert Mayer’s 1842 controversial mechanical equivalent of heat paper (previously rejected elsewhere); his use of vitalism (Animal Chemistry, 1842), which was quickly attacked by the Helmholtz school, gives him a down grade.
175Napoleon Bonaparte 75Napoleon Bonaparte
 IQ_{CB} \,=163
 IQ_C \,=145
 IQ_B \,=180
 IQ_W \,=142
A Cattell 1000 (top 10); One of Nietzsche’s uberman (IQ=186+); was the first to systematically query all leading French scientists about theory atheism beliefs (see: Pierre Laplace (IQ=190)); high military IQ; Goethe and Napoleon were mutual devotees of each other; read Goethe’s (IQ=230) Sorrows of Young Werther over six times during his various campaigns; was on a philosophical bent ascertain (or disprove) the theory or location of the soul in the context of modern physical science.
 \updownarrow \,Howard Hughes 75Howard Hughes
 IQ_? \,=160-180See: why is this site here and geniuses (milk section).
175Johann Herder 75Johann Herder
 IQ_C \,=165 Noted for his evolution theory of language; he was the person to whom Goethe (IQ=230) wrote in 1784 that he had found morphological evidence of human evolution (discovered the human intermaxillary bone), of humans and lower animals being related; a date which marks the start of evolution theory, according to Darwin (IQ=175).
 \updownarrow \,
Grigori Perelman 75 Grigori Perelman

Fields Medal (gray) 21x21Upgrade for having turned down the Fields Medal; outside of the mainstream mathematics community, who in 2006 solved the Poincare conjecture, originally proposed in 1904 Henri Poincaré (IQ=195), the most famous open problem in topology (videoExternal link icon (c)).

 \updownarrow \,
Terence TaoTerence Tao
 IQ_R \,=220-230
 IQ_O \,=211
 IQ_? \,=170-190
Fields Medal (gray) 21x21Known for: mathematics, green–tao theorem; child prodigy; Fields Medal age 31.
175Elizabeth I 75Elizabeth I
 IQ_B \,=180

 \updownarrow \,
Gates 75Bill Gates
 IQ_B \,=173
 IQ_O \,160-180
Like Linus Pauling (IQ=180), started first company when he was a teenager; quote (age 17): "I will be millionaire by age 30"; dropped out of Harvard December 1774 (age 19) to, in his own words “write really interesting software that lots of people would buy” and left decisively at that moment because “we were afraid if we waited, someone else would beat us” ( [28]; founded Microsoft (age 20); net worth of $101 billion (age 44); high pure and applied entrepreneurial IQ in computer technology. [18]
 \updownarrow \,
Warren Buffett 75Warren Buffett
 IQ_? \,=170-185At age 16, had read at least one hundred books on business (see: Buffett number); shortly thereafter, he entered the Wharton School of Finance, wherein upon arrival he reported that ‘he knew more than the professors’; on a return trip home, he was warned not to neglect his studies, to which he replied insouciantly: ‘all I need to do is open the book the night before and drink a big bottle of Pepsi-Cola and I’ll make 100’; born in the great depression, has gone on to become the world's leading financial mogul, wherein, from 1965 to 2005 has produced an annual average return of 21.5%, a feat unsurpassed, becoming, along with Gates, one of the world's top five wealthiest persons; quote: “you don’t need to be a rocket scientist. Investing is not a game where the guy with the 160 IQ beats the guy with the 130 IQ.” [29]
175Wilhelm Humboldt 75Wilhelm Humboldt
 IQ_C \,=175 In 1797, in Jena, with his brother Alexander (IQ=185), Friedrich Schiller (IQ=175), and Johann Goethe (IQ=230), the four discussed, in Goethe's own words, “all of nature from the perspectives of philosophy and science”.
175Dante IQ_B \,=175

Homer IQ_B \,=175

Picasso IQ_B \,=175

1st Ch'in Emperor IQ_B \,=175

Suli IQ_B \,=175
175Robert Bunsen 75Robert Bunsen
 IQ_C \,=175 Noted for his investigations, with Gustav Kirchhoff, of the emission spectra of heated elements; the eponym of the Bunsen burner.

Edmund Spenser
 IQ_C \,=175

J. Q. Adams IQ_C \,=175

Agassiz IQ_C \,=175

Bichat  IQ_C \,=175

Buggon  IQ_C \,=175

Cardan IQ_C \,=175
175 Samuel Coleridge 75Samuel Coleridge
 IQ_C \,=175 Noted for his involvement in the 1833 Whewell-Coleridge debate, with English science historian William Whewell (IQ=180), revolving around the question of what exactly someone who works ‘in the real sciences’, as Coleridge had phrased it, should be called, and what exactly are the real sciences, in the context of the tree of knowledge; a result of which the term "scientist" was coined.

Georges Cuvier 75 Georges Cuvier
 IQ_C \,=175A French zoologist, known as a brilliant champion of the machine metaphor, who following Rene Descartes’ view, believed that all species were like animated gears in a great machine—that were fixed and forever unchanging; he, supposedly, is said to have been able to recall in detail the contents all twenty-thousand volumes in his library.

Ben Jonson
 IQ_C \,=175

Lamennais IQ_C \,=175

Thomas Macaulay
 IQ_C \,=175
 IQ_W \,=180

Robert Southey  IQ_C \,=175

Thou  IQ_C \,=175

Lope de Vega  IQ_C \,=175

Friedrich Wolf  IQ_C \,=175
175Francis Crick 75Francis Crick
 IQ_B \,=173 Nobel Prize iconCo-discoverer with James Watson (IQ=), in 1953, of the structure of the DNA molecule.

Stephenson IQ_B \,=173

Aeschylus IQ_B \,=173

Euripides IQ_B \,=173

Lao-Tzu 75Lao-Tzu
 IQ_B \,=173 Supposed author of Tao Te Ching, the book that founded of Taoism ("Daoism"); possibly not a real person, but rather a synthesis of mythologies and legends, similar to the way Jesus is a re-write of Osiris mythology (Ra theology).


170Max Weber 75 Max Weber
 IQ_C \,=165One of the first to incorporate Johann Goethe's (IQ=230) elective affinities theory in sociology.
170Thomas Hobbes 75 Thomas Hobbes
 IQ_C \,=165 A Cattell 1000 (top 70); his 1651 Leviathan, which draws analogies between laws of mechanics and features of society, indirectly advocated atheism and initiated the field of human physics (see: HT pioneers).
170Watt 75James Watt
 IQ_C \,=165 Central steam engine developer; the main person behind the industrial revolution; and a central figure in thermodynamics.
170Machiavelli 75Niccolo Machiavelli
 IQ_B \,=165 A greatest philosopher ever; a Cattell 1000 (top 90); upgrade for his "end justifies the means philosophy" (Machiavellian philosophy), as detailed in his The Prince; his fox/lions typology of human instincts is said to have influenced Vilfredo Pareto’s circulation of elites theory; supposedly, first to advance the idea of cyclic development of societies.
170Adam Smith 75 Adam Smith
 IQ_C \,=170 An early HP pioneer, whose 1759 invisible hand theory and 1776 Wealth of Nations were said to have been inspired by Newtonian mechanics.
170Raphael 75Raphael
 IQ_{CB} \,=170
 IQ_C \,=170
 IQ_B \,=170
A Cattell 1000 (top 30).
170Caesar 75Julius Caesar
 IQ_B \,=170A Cattell 1000 (top 10); one of Nietzsche’s uberman (IQ=186+).
 \updownarrow \,Stephen A. Baccus 75Stephen Baccus
 IQ_O \,=190 His IQ was estimated by psychologist Aaron Stern (father of child prodigy Edith Stern [IQ=203]), following an age 10 interview; BS computer science, University of Miami; entered University of Miami’s law school at 14, graduating at 16, making a name for himself by successfully suing the State of New York for its age restrictions on the bar exam after receiving a special waiver in Florida; began practicing law at 17; MS computer science from NYU age 18; made partner in a firm by 19; PhD in neuroscience age 29 at University of Miami; currently neurobiology professor at Stanford Medical School.
170Confucious 75Confucius
 IQ_B \,=170A Cattell 1000 (top 30).
 \updownarrow \, Norman Schwarzkopf
 IQ_O \,=170 Noted gulf war general. [18]

Martin Luther 75Martin Luther
 IQ_C \,=170
 IQ_W \,=157
Downgrade for describing Copernicus as “a fool wants to turn the whole art of astronomy upside down.” [32]

John Calvin
 IQ_C \,=175
 IQ_W \,=165

81. Atterbury (IQ=170)
82. Bentley (IQ=170)
83. Calderon
84. Canope (IQ=170)
85. Chalmers (IQ=170)
86. Chalmers (IQ=170)
87. Constant (IQ=170)
88. Fichte (IQ=170)
89. Handel (IQ=170)
90. Irving W. (IQ=170)
91. Kotzebue (IQ=170)
92. Longfellow (IQ=170)
94. Marat (IQ=170)
95. Metastasio (IQ=170)
96. Napier (IQ=170)
97. Penn (IQ=170)
98. Racine (IQ=170)
100. Renan (IQ=170)
101. Reuchlin (IQ=170)
102. Robespierre (IQ=170)
104. Strauss (IQ=170)
105. Alfred Tennyson (IQ=170)
106. Turgot (IQ=170)
107. Velasquez (IQ=170)
108. Vergniaud (IQ=170)
109. Wagner (IQ=170)


Montaigne 75Michel Montaigne
 IQ_C \,=165

Carl Linnaeus 75 Carl Linnaeus
 IQ_C \,=165 Noted for his 1753 binomial nomenclature classification of species scheme; for his 1758 centigrade thermometer work; upgrade for being a mentor to Torbern Bergman, who used the scheme in his 1775 physical chemistry textbook; and upgrade for being a great influence to Johann Goethe in his early 1780s botanical studies in search of his moving order metamorphosis of form theory.
165Steve Jobs 75 Steve Jobs
 IQ_R \,=160
 IQ_? \,=155-170
Co-founder of Apple (1976); initiator of the smart phone revolution, via the development of the iPhone (2007); quote: “In fourth grade, he had an IQ of 160” “The IQ of Steve JobsExternal link icon (c)(2011); high entrepreneurial IQ; see also: Steve JobsExternal link icon (c): American Genius (2012).
165Berzelius 75 Jons Berzelius
 IQ_C \,=160 Upgrade for his split affinities theory (influential to Goethe's human elective affinity theory)
165Denis Diderot 75 Denis Diderot
 IQ_C \,=165 Noted encyclopedist (Encyclopedie (1751-1772), co-written with Jean d’Almbert (IQ=185)).
165Sofia KovalevskayaSofia Kovalevskaya
 IQ_R  \,=170
 IQ_D  \,=156

165Charles Dickens 75Charles Dickens
 IQ_{CB} \,=165
 IQ_C \,=180
 IQ_B \,=150

165Priestley 75 Joseph Priestley
 IQ_C \,=165
165Beethoven 75Ludwig Beethoven
 IQ_{CB} \,=165
 IQ_C \,=165
 IQ_B \,=165
Known for: classical music; met with Goethe.
165Ralph Emerson 75 Ralph Emerson
 IQ_C \,=155 Noted Goethean philosopher; quote: “In every work of genius, we recognize our own rejected thoughts; they come back to us with a certain alienated majesty.”
165Galton (75px)Francis Galton
 IQ_T \,=200His IQ estimate was super over-estimate, based on an age four letter he wrote to his sister, that he could read any English book, multiply, and knew the pence table; quote: “God alone knows how [Terman] estimated Galton’s IQ as 200” (Peter Medawar)
165Hegel 75 Georg Hegel
 IQ_C \,=165 Noted philosopher; his 1807 Phenomenology of Mind employed the concept of kraft (force).

John Locke 75John Locke
 IQ_C \,=165[Cattell=36] [GPhiE]; part of Newton’s circle; oft-classified as dominant materialist alongside Thomas Hobbes; influential to the Lausanne school of physical economics.
165Marconi  IQ_B \,=165Competitor with Nikola Tesla (IQ=195) for the patent for radio technology.
165Wright IQ_B \,=165
165Thomas Aquinas  IQ_B \,=165
165William Herschel 75 William Herschel
 IQ_C \,=165 Noted astronomer.
165Bach 75Johann Bach
 IQ_{CB} \,=165
 IQ_C \,=165
 IQ_B \,=165

165Joseph Lister IQ_B \,=165

 \updownarrow \,
Benjamin Carson 75Benjamin Carson
 IQ_? \,=140-170Raised by a illiterate single mother he would go on to become one of the most celebrated neurosurgeons of the world; director of pediatric neurosurgery of Johns Hopkins by 33; and in 1987, made medical history by being the first surgeon in the world to successfully separate siamese twins (the Binder twins) conjoined at the back of the head (link).

Wren IQ_B \,=165

Brunel IQ_B \,=165

Sun Tzu IQ_B \,=165

Sappho IQ_B \,=165

Walter Raleigh
 IQ_C \,=165

117. Addison (IQ=165)
118. Bayle (IQ=165)
119. Beaumarchais (IQ=165)
120. Beza (IQ=165)
121. Bronte, C. (IQ=165)
122. Burnet (IQ=165)
123. Canning (IQ=165)
124. DeFoe (IQ=165)
125. Disraeli (IQ=165)
126. Fielding (IQ=165)
127. Fouche (IQ=165)
128. Guicciardini (IQ=165)
129. Guizot (IQ=165)
130. Guizot (IQ=165)
131. Hastings (IQ=165)
137. Holberg, L. von (IQ=165)
138. Jenner (IQ=165)
139. Johnson (IQ=165)
140. Law (IQ=165)

143. Mazzini (IQ=165)
144. Mendelssohn (IQ=165)
147. Newman, J.H. (IQ=165)
150. Robertson (IQ=165)
151. Sainte-Beuve (IQ=165)
153. Scott (IQ=165)
154. Shaftesbury (IQ=165)
155. Sheridan, R.B. (IQ=165)
156. St. Simon (IQ=165)
160. Webster (IQ=165)
161. Winckelmann (IQ=165)
162. Wordsworth (IQ=165)
163. Zwingli (IQ=165)

 \updownarrow \,Robert Pirsig 75 Robert Pirsig
 IQ_O \,=170 (age 9)
Downgrade () for ratio IQ; upgrade () for hmolscience quote about motives and morals.
160Abraham LincolnAbraham Lincoln
 IQ_{CB} \,=160
 IQ_C \,=150
 IQ_B \,=170
 IQ_W \,=147
IQ_S \,=148
A Cattell 1000 (top 40); high in wisdom, interpersonal intelligence, leadership intelligence, and strong oratorical skills.
160Socrates 75Socrates
 IQ_B \,=160 Quote: “the beginning of wisdom is the definition of terms”; one of Nietzsche’s uberman prototypes (IQ=186+); objected to atomic theory; leader of the Plato-Aristotle school of philosophy.
 \updownarrow \,Thomas Wallace 75Thomas Wallace
 IQ_? \,=140-175In his 2009 Wealth, Energy, and Human Values, he seems to have been the first to apply or model the rise and fall of civilizations using reaction mechanism formulations, the Gibbs equation, and reaction coordinate diagramsall using a purely physical chemistry terminology and depiction, e.g. using the double dagger "‡" to indicate a molecular reactant species in an unstable transition state, the double arrow "↔" to represent a reversible reaction, and a one-way arrow "→" to represent an irreversible reaction, a drop down arrow "" to represent ossification of a society, etc.
160Jung 75Carl Jung
 IQ_B \,=160Known for: psychodynamics.
 \updownarrow \,Kim Ung-YongKim Ung-Yong
 IQ_? \,=150-175
 IQ_O \,=200
 IQ_G \,=210

160Ada Lovelace 75Ada Lovelace
 IQ_? \,=145-165 Daughter of Lord Byron (IQ=180); from an early age, owing to her mother’s idea that education would root out any insanity associated with her father’s side, she was taught mathematics and science from some of the world’s leading scholars, including Mary Somerville (IQ=170); wrote the world’s first computer program (1842), an algorithm for calculating a sequence of Bernoulli (IQ=) numbers with Charles Baggage’s (IQ=) analytical engine.
160Christoph Wieland 75Christoph Wieland
 IQ_C \,=170 Commented in a letter to German philologist and archeologist Karl Böttiger, which he suggested should be "burned" after it is read, that: “to all rational readers, the use of the chemical theory [in Goethe’s Elective Affinities] is nonsense and childish fooling around”; supposedly, objected owing to the "radicalness of its Christianity" (Jul 16); in another letter, whose addressee, a woman, is unknown, he stated: "I confess to you, my friend, that I have read this truly terrifying work not without feeling or concern."
 \updownarrow \,Eric Weisstein 75 Eric Weisstein
 IQ_? \,=135-165 Noted encyclopedist; since 1995 has written over 17,000+ articles on science and mathematics in his MathWorld (13,000+) and ScienceWorld (4,000+) sites.
 \updownarrow \,Salman Khan 75 Salman Khan
 IQ_? \,=135-165
 IQ_O \,=160
Noted video encyclopedist; BS mathematics, BS electrical engineering, MS electrical engineering (MIT), MBA (Harvard Business School); in 2004, starting from a tutoring request from his cousin, Nadia, working from a small office in his home, via video upload (using using Yahoo!'s Doodle notepad), founded Khan Academy, from which he has personally produced over 2,600 videos elucidating a wide spectrum of academic subjects, tending to focus on mathematics and the sciences; Bill Gates (IQ=175), who funds his project, stated on him: "I'd say we've moved about 160 IQ points from the hedge fund category to the teaching-many-people-in-a-leveraged-way category. It was a good day his wife let him quit his job." (a hedge fund manager position he quit in 2009 to devoted more time to his project.
160 Wolfgang Mozart 75Wolfgang Mozart
 IQ_{CB} \,=163
 IQ_C \,=165
 IQ_B \,=160

160Ayn Rand 75Ayn Rand
 IQ_? \,=140-170 Upgrade (↑) for her objectivism philosophy, a philosophy favored by many in Mensa (IQ=132-148), as extolled in her The Fountainhead (1943) and Atlas Shrugged (1957), supposedly favors the forward acquisition of knowledge and is said to only “available for a people with an IQ of 150 (or above)” (link); downgrade (↓) for her so-called proof of the existence of free will and possible downgrade for her fierce criticisms of David Hume (IQ=180), Immanuel Kant (IQ=180), and Friedrich Nietzsche (IQ=180) (link); see also: her 1972 “Letter to Boris Spassky” (link) on Bobby Fischer (IQ=?).
160Suleyman IQ_B \,=160
160Gandhi IQ_B \,=160

Theodore Kaczynski 75Theodore Kaczynski
 IQ_O \,=167
(fifth grade)
Known as: the unibomber (downgrade). [8]

164. Alfieri (IQ=160)
165. Andrewes (IQ=160)
168. Bunyan (IQ=160)
169. Canova (IQ=160)
170. Channing (IQ=160)
171. Chateaubriand (IQ=160)
172. Chesterfield (IQ=160)
173. Claredon (IQ=160)
174. Clarke, S. (IQ=160)
176. Corneille (IQ=160)
177. Cowper (IQ=160)
178. Dryden (IQ=160)
179. Dupin (IQ=160)
181. Etienne (IQ=160)
182. Franklin, B. (IQ=160)
183. Gaskell, E.C.S. (IQ=160)
184. Grimm, J.L. (IQ=160)
185. Grote (IQ=160)
186. Haydn (IQ=160)
187. Helvetius (IQ=160)
188. Hunter (IQ=160)
189. Jansen (IQ=160)
190. Jefferson (IQ=160)
191. Lamartine (IQ=160)
192. Lessing (IQ=160)
193. L'Hopital (IQ=160)
194. Madison (IQ=160)
195. Martineau, H. (IQ=160)
196. Mazarin (IQ=160)
197. Moliere (IQ=160)
198. Richelieu (IQ=160)
199. Rubens (IQ=160)
200. Sand (IQ=160)
201. Schleiermacher (IQ=160)
202. Sevigne (IQ=160)
203. Sumner, C. (IQ=160)
204. Thiers (IQ=160)
205. Wesley (IQ=160)

155Heinrich Heine 75Heinrich Heine
 IQ_C \,=165 Downgrade for going against Goethe and his elective affinities theory; is said to have claimed that Goethe was a corrupter of religion; that his Elective Affinties overturns "everything holy" and is an attack against religion, morality, and the social forms.
155Ludwig Tieck 75Ludwig Tieck
 IQ_C \,=165 Downgrade for going against Goethe, calling his theory-containing novella "torture affinities"; a fact that German writer and novelist Bettina Brentano (1785-1859) let Goethe know.
155Maria Montessori 75Maria Montessori
 IQ_B \,=157 Early child education reformer; eponym of Montessori education method, the let the child follow their own following interests educational approach.
155Vyasa IQ_B \,=156
155Hannibal  IQ_B \,=155
155Honore Balzac 75Honore Balzac
 IQ_C \,=155 A GLAE candidate; noted, in literature chemistry, for his usage of chemistry or chemical theory in literature, in some way or another, such as, supposedly, in his 1834 Search for Absolute Truth.
155Miguel de Cervantes 75Miguel de Cervantes
 IQ_C \,=155 A GLAE candidate; his 1615 Don Quixote was ranked by the Norwegian Book Club’s 2002 100 Best Books of All Time listing as the “best literary work ever written”, based on 100 top ten lists, submitted by a 100 writers, from 54 countries; a book notably read by Albert Einstein (IQ=220) and his Olympia Academy group (see: Filon-Pearson demon).

Jean de La FontaineJean de La Fontaine
 IQ_C \,=155 His 29th fable quote: "Hippocrates in time arrived at the conclusion that he had not sought whether the heart or the head was the seat of either reason or sense in man and beast" is inscribed at the base of the 1869 Democritus mediating on the seat of the soul statue (Paris).

Simon Bolivar
 IQ_C \,=155
 IQ_W \,=145

155 Adams, J. (IQ=155)
Ait Weil Zade (IQ=155)
Baxter (IQ=155)
Beranger (IQ=155)

Bulwer (IQ=155)
Pitt (the Younter) (IQ=155)
Cobden (IQ=155)
Danton (IQ=155)
Durer (IQ=155)
Fox, G. J. (IQ=155)
Fox, George (IQ=155)
Fulton, R. (IQ=155)
Gambetta, L.M. (IQ=155)
Hamilton, A. (IQ=155)
Hawthorne, N. (IQ=155)
Maintenon (IQ=155)
Miller, Hugh (IQ=155)
More (IQ=155)
Necker (IQ=155)
O’Connell (IQ=155)
Palestrina (IQ=155)
Pitt (the Elder) (IQ=155)
Prescott (IQ=155)
Savonarola (IQ=155)
Seward (IQ=155)
Swift (IQ=155)
Temple, W. (IQ=155)
Van Dyck (IQ=155)
Walpole (IQ=155)
Warburton (IQ=155)
Wilberforce (IQ=155)
Blake, H. (IQ=155)


150 Rousseau 75Jean-Jacques Rousseau
 IQ_C \,=150
 IQ_W \,=150
Quote (Ernst Curtis): “The middle of the eighteenth century witnessed the first powerful revolt against cultural tradition, which is marked by Rousseau. This tradition was restarted by universal genius Goethe. But it was restarted for the last time. Goethe had not been succeeded by another universal genius.” [22]
150Rembrandt 75 Rembrandt
 IQ_{CB} \,=150
 IQ_C \,=155
 IQ_B \,=145

150Joseph Leidy 75Joseph Leidy
 IQ_? \,=130-155One of fabled "last persons to know everything" (although this epitaph seems to more of an overzealous labeling of his biographer American anatomist and biologist Leonard Warren, who was curious to know about this rather unknown University of Pennsylvania biology-paleontology pioneer folk hero, pictured above his office).
150Thorstein Veblen 75Thorstein Veblen
 IQ_? \,=130-155One of fabled "last persons to know everything".
150Alexander, F.M. IQ_B \,=150
150Verdi IQ_B \,=150


Cezanne IQ_B \,=149

Graham IQ_B \,=148

Muhammad Ali IQ_B \,=147

Bright (IQ=150)
Burns (IQ=150)
Cobbett (IQ=150)
Franklin, J. (IQ=150)
Marmont (IQ=150)
Moore (IQ=150)
Murillo (IQ=150)
Nelson (IQ=150)
Soult (IQ=150)
Thackeray (IQ=150)
Wilkes (IQ=150)

145Megellan IQ_B \,=145

145Wellesley IQ_B \,=145
145Nelson IQ_B \,=145

145Titan IQ_B \,=145
145Zizka IQ_B \,=145
 \updownarrow \,Jay Gould 75Jay Gould

Ninth richest American in history; see: Dark Genius of Wall Street : the Misunderstood Life of Jay Gould, King of the Robber Barons (2006).

Alberoni (IQ=145)
Anderson, H. C. (IQ=145)
Blucher (IQ=145)
Garrison, W.L. (IQ=145)
Gluck (IQ=145)
Hogarth (IQ=145)
Jackson, A. (IQ=145)
Marlborough (IQ=145)
Meheme Ali (IQ=145)
Moreau (IQ=145)
Poussin (IQ=145)
Reynolds (IQ=145)
Rossini (IQ=145)
Sherman (IQ=145)

140Gutenberg IQ_B \,=140

Sylvia Plath 75Sylvia Plath
 IQ_O \,=140+Quote: “In her last three years of high school, the overachieving Sylvia continued to outclass everyone (IQ test scores ranked her as a genius).” [18]

140George Washington 75George Washington
 IQ_{CB} \,=140
 IQ_C \,=140
 IQ_B \,=140
 IQ_W \,=135
A Cattell 1000 (top 20).
140Christopher Columbus IQ_B \,=140A Cattell 1000 (top 30).
140Charlie Chaplin 75Charlie Chaplin
 IQ_B \,=140

Bernadotte (IQ=140)
Clive (IQ=140)
Cortez (IQ=140)
Garibaldi (IQ=140)
Lee, R.E. (IQ=140)
Monk (IQ=140)
Vauban (IQ=140)

Die Wahlverwandtschaften (Gibbs Goethe)
A playboy art style depiction of the "elective affinities problem", namely how to explain passions of existence in terms of Bergman's 1775 chemical affinities theories (Goethe's day) or in terms of Gibbs' 1876 free energies (modern day).

The following is a representative quote giving justification why Goethe—although already well-justified with a #1 Cox-Buzan IQ ranking—is ranked first herein, namely he did something more difficult that what Newton accomplished:

“Compared to physics, it seems fair to say that the quantitative success of the economic sciences is disappointing. Rockets fly to the moon, energy is extracted from minute changes of atomic mass without major havoc, global positioning satellites help millions of people to find their way home. What is the flagship achievement of economics, apart from its recurrent inability to predict and avert crises, including the current worldwide credit crunch? Why is this so? Of course, modelling the madness of people is more difficult than the motion of planets, as Newton once said [c.1690]. But the goal here [see: social ideal gas law] is to describe the behaviour of large populations, for which statistical regularities should emerge, just as the law of ideal gases emerge from the incredibly chaotic motion of individual molecules.”
Jean-Philippe Bouchard (2008), “Economics Needs a Scientific Revolution”

Goethe, likewise, is ranked above Einstein, not only by virtue of the fact that Goethe was most-dominate author in Einstein’s personal library, and that he kept a bust of Goethe in his study, but that whereas Einstein famous proclaimed in exasperation (c.1928): “How on earth are you ever going to explain in terms of chemistry and physics so important a biological phenomenon as first love?”, Goethe made it the focus of his research program.

Genius IQ candidates
See: the genius IQ candidates page, candidates for possible inclusion in the future top 1000 geniuses listing, for newly-added tentative genius candidates to possibly be added into the above Genius IQs rankings table.

Genius puzzles
Of significance, to quickly note a few salient points discerned from the above genius IQs table, firstly: every single genius in the IQ=205+ range, namely Da Vinci (c.1508), Newton (1704), Goethe (1826), Maxwell (1871), and Einstein (1908), by no coincidence, worked on the "blue sky problem", in some way or another, prior to and even after (in the case of Einstein) its partial solution by Rudolf Clausius (IQ=205), in 1847, and final solution by John Strutt (IQ=190), in 1899.

The hardest intellectual genius puzzle of them all, however, is the "elective affinity problem": namely to explain human passions and experience via the chemical affinities or free energies, such as depicted adjacent. The elective affinities problem is the only puzzle common to the rare ceiling geniuses cited in the IQ=225+ range, namely:

Goethe (1796) (IQCit=225; IQ=230), who called his solution to this problem his "greatest work" or "best book" (1809), of all his 142+ collected works publications, in which he embedded a secret principle which he said was “true” and which was “only production of greater extent” in which he was “conscious of having labored to set forth a pervading idea”;
Einstein (1920s-1933) (IQCit=225; IQ=220), who commented on the problem (see: Einstein on love), in a somewhat irritated perplexment scribble note: “gravitation cannot be responsible for people falling in love” (1933) and previously in query to geneticist Thomas Morgan: “how on earth are you ever going to explain in terms of chemistry and physics so important a biological phenomenon as first love?” (1920s);
Thims (1995) (IQCit=225+; IQ=190±), who was led into the problem, similar to Goethe, via a mixture of the "love thought experiment" and the "reverse engineering puzzle";
Hirata (2000) (IQCit=225; IQ=190±), who called his solution a "fun compilation of worthless applications of physics and mathematics to relationships";

Even the great child prodigy William Sidis (IQCit=250-300; IQ=195) attempted solution, in a round-about-way, via his 1920 theories on animate matter and entropy.

Einstein's circle
The following is a depiction of epicenter genius German-born physicist Albert Einstein (seated center front) and his circle in 1927:

Einstein's circle
The iconic group photograph of the 1927 Solvay conference, in Brussels, Belgium, giving a well-imaged viewing of Einstein's erudite intellectual circle: back row: Auguste Piccard, Emile Henriot, Paul Ehrenfest, Edouard Herzen, Theophile de Donder, Erwin Schrödinger (IQ=190), Jules Verschaffelt, Wolfgang Pauli, Werner Heisenberg (IQ=180), Ralph Fowler, Leon Brillouin; middle row: Peter Debye, Martin Knudsen, William Bragg, Hendrik Kramers, Paul Dirac, Arthur Compton, Louis de Broglie, Max Born, Niels Bohr (IQ=185); front row: Irving Langmuir, Max Planck (IQ=190), Marie Curie (IQ=185), Hendrik Lorentz—and at center front, Albert Einstein (IQ=220), intellectual protégé of Goethe—seated next to Paul Langevin, Charles Guye, Charles Wilson, and Owen Richardson.

Goethe's circle
The following is a depiction of epicenter genius German polymath Johann Goethe (red jacket, standing center) and his circle (see: Goethe's circle) in 1803:

Weimar 1803 new 1000px (no title)
A vivid depiction of Weimar, Germany, in 1803, drawn by German painter Otto Knille (1884), giving a well-imaged viewing of Goethe's erudite intellectual circle: Johann Schlosser, Georg Hegel (IQ=165), Johann Fichte (IQ=170), Jean Paul, Ludwig Tieck (IQ=165), Wilhelm Humboldt (IQ=175), Alexander Humboldt (IQ=185), Friedrich Schleiermacher (IQ=160), Carl Gauss (IQ=195), who knew all of Goethe's poetry works, August Schlegel, Friedrich Klinger (KUnger), Peter Cornelius, Heinrich Kleist, Johann Pestalozzi seated left red jacket hunched over, who affixed Goethe with the title "prince of the mind", Barthold Niebuhr (IQ=185), Johann Herder (IQ=165), in whom in 1784 Goethe first confided his discovery of evidence for human evolution from lower animals, Johann Gleim, Lorenz Oken, Johann Voss, Johann Blumenbach, Friedrich Klopstock— and Goethe (1749-1832) (IQ=230)—the big dog, standing at the center of attention—followed by Christoph Wieland (IQ=170), seated right front, who in 1810 called Goethe's self-defined greatest theory "childish nonsense and fooling around", August Iffland—and last but not least Friedrich Schiller (IQ=175)—Goethe’s closest intellectual friend—in whom, in 1796, he first confided his newly-forming human elective affinities theory—and a bench mark for the launching of the science of human chemistry and in effect the seeds to the newly-forming overly-complex 21st century science of human chemical thermodynamics (see: human free energy theorists).

Aristotle's circle
The following is a depiction of epicenter genius Greek physicist-philosopher Aristotle (#15) and his circle in circa 350BC:

Raffaello_Scuola_di_Atene_numbered 1000px
A vivid depiction of the School in Athens, Greece, circa 350BC, drawn by Italian painter Raphael (1510) (IQ=170), giving a well-imaged viewing of Aristotle's erudite intellectual circle: 1: Zeno of Citium 2: Epicurus 3: unknown 4: Boethius or Anaximander or Empedocles? 5: Averroes 6: Pythagoras 7: Alcibiades or Alexander the Great (IQ=180)? 8: Antisthenes or Xenophon or Timon? 9: unknown or the Fornarina as a personification of Love or (Francesco Maria della Rovere?) 10: Aeschines or Xenophon? 11: Parmenides? 12: Socrates (IQ=160) 13: Heraclitus (Michelangelo (IQ=180)) 14: Plato (IQ=180) (Leonardo da Vinci (IQ=205)) 15: Aristotle (IQ=190) 16: Diogenes 17: Plotinus (Donatello?) 18: Euclid (IQ=185) or Archimedes (IQ=190) with students (Bramante?) 19: Zoroaster 20: Ptolemy? R: Apelles (Raphael) 21: Protogenes (Il Sodoma, Perugino, or Timoteo Viti).

IQ quotes
The following are related or relevant quotes about intelligence ratios:

“Children of 140 IQ waste half their time. Those above 170 IQ waste practically all their time in school.”
Leta Hollingworth, author of Children Above 180 IQ (1942)

“People who talk about their IQ are losers.”
Stephen Hawking (IQ=180), when asked what his IQ was (New York Times interview)

"I will advise parents in Hong Kong there's no need to know the IQ of your children. Just try to do your best to nurture them and give them space to develop.”
— Tony Boedihardjo, father of March Boedihardjo (1998-), BS and MS mathematics, Hong Kong University (age 13)

See main: IQ key
The following is a key to the icons and IQ subscripts used above:

IQSymbolThe following are the links to various  IQ_T \,(Terman IQ),  IQ_C \,(Cox IQ),  IQ_B \,(Buzan IQ),  IQ_{CB} \,(Cox-Buzan IQ),  IQ_R \,(Ratio IQ), deviation IQ symbol(Deviation IQ),  IQ_M \,(Mega Test IQ),  IQ_G \,(Guinness Book IQ),  IQ_P \,(Psychologist IQ),  IQ_O \,(Other IQ: cited at IQ references, or per numbered reference),  IQ_? \,(Guesstimate IQ), e.g. estimated fit per extrapolation of established previously made Cox-Buzan IQ estimates, IQSB(Stanford-Binet), AI IQ(or AI IQ) (development to age 17), AII IQ(or AII IQ) (development from 17 to 26), IQ YouTube icon(YouTube community "IQ: 200+ | Smartest person ever"External link icon (c), video thumbs up rankings/votes), IQ Esquire (Esquire “Gεπ1us Tεst” IQ), CI icon(Baez crackpot index score),IQ CP(comparison-to-person with existing IQ estimate),  IQ_W \, (Walberg et al IQ), IQ_S \,(Simonton IQ estimates). [31]
Nobel Prize iconWon a Nobel Prize; two medals signifies two wins.
[Nobel Prize icon:#]Nominated for a Nobel Prize but did not win; number signifies number of times nominated.
Fields Medal (gray) 21x21Won a Fields Medal, the highest award in mathematics, for thinkers under the age of 40.
IQ 200+ listing (circa 2008)
American electrochemical engineer Libb Thims' original circa 2007 personal folder listing collection of fifteen IQ=200+ range geniuses, the precursor to the 430+ geniuses listed above (asterisk being Cox IQs).

List curator
The following the shows IQ measurements, citations, and estimates of American electrochemical engineer, thermodynamicist, hmolscientist, encyclopedist, Goethean philosopher, and paradigm change initiator Libb Thims, the originator, curator, and current meta-analysis re-ranker of the above genius IQs listing—a list aiming to hit the top 1000 geniuses of all time—a listing that owes it origin to field of human chemical thermodynamics (Thims’ home turf), by virtue of the curious finding that IQ=225+ range thinkers are common or rather attracted to the subject: the first two discovered, in 2007, being William Sidis and Johann Goethe, and later Christopher Hirata (in 2010), Thims himself, by community vote (in 2012), then of course Einstein (in 2006) and his paradoxical views on the physics and chemistry of love.

Historically, the above table originated in Thims' circa 2007 15-person personal folder collection of newly discovered 200+ range geniuses (with citations), scan of list shown adjacent. This was made into a first-draft 2008 online listing: IQ: 200+ table (version 18). This list, being purely ranked at this point via highest IQ cited (no questions about method of calculation), began to grow. At the point (version 300) when Adragon de Mello, with his age four IQ=400 citation (calculated by father), was added to the list, it thereafter became completely nonsensical to rank purely via IQ citation number, after which point meta-analysis reality-based up or down adjustments began to be implemented (version 568).

In 2009, the online list was made into a quickly-made 10-minute YouTube video entitled “IQ 200 | Smartest person ever”, containing about 18-individuals, getting about 30,000 views. In 2010, the video was remade and reranked into the format of better-quality 52-minute four-part video series, containing 37-individuals, was uploaded to YouTube, having since attracted over 600,000+ views (Jun 2012). Commentary, feedback, suggestion, and debate from this growing collection of videos and online listings resulted in this Genius IQs webpage (launched on 24 Oct 2011), which is aiming to get to the top 500 geniuses mark.

IQPersonIQ estimates

 \updownarrow \,Libb Thims 75Libb Thims
IQ YouTube icon=225+
 IQ_O \,=210
IQ Esquire=140-150
CI icon=135
Thims YouTube 25 May 2012 34v f[Nobel Prize icon:1] Library=1,250+ books; main initiator of modern human chemical thermodynamics—the subject defined, in 1910, by Henry Adams, after continuously working on the subject for 37-years, as one requiring the “aid of another Newton (IQ=215)”—the only science common to the queries of adulthood IQ=225+ geniuses—a very rarified group, inclusive of: Johann Goethe (IQ=230), William Sidis (IQ=195, 300), and Christopher Hirata (IQ=190, 225); adheres to a Goethean philosophy, to the exclusion of all other philosophies (similar to Tesla (IQ=195)); noted for discerning the “defunct theory of life” solution to existence (2009); a theory also independently arrived at, in 1925, by Tesla (IQ=195); a scientific revolutionsGoethean revolution—genius (IQAVG = 189); a considered-to-be polymath (IQAVG = 189)urged to apply for membership to Giga Society (IQ=196+) by Mensa Society (IQ=132+) friend (c.2003); quote: “Thims’ edits are far and wide. Unless Physchem is an incredible polymath, I doubt he would be able to pick up on all the BS a Thims-type editor introduces. That’s not knocking Physchem, I don’t think there is anyone who could deal with the range” (Keith HensonExternal link icon (c), 2007); quote: “I stumbled onto your website by accident but I have to confess this might be one of the most stunning undiscovered intellectual achievements of the 21st century. I have browsed through your wiki and I cannot express how tragic it must be to a man in your position—to be a pioneering thinker yet to be rejected by an uptight academic community with neither the depth nor will to understand your unique work, defending their own turf like dogs. I can only compare you to the many other pioneering heroes of science, Newton (IQ=215), Einstein (IQ=220), Tesla (IQ=195), men (IQAVG = 210) who like you blazed their own paths but were too victims of their own genius, only to be validated years after their death. Perhaps one day historians will look back and have a chuckle—that the pioneer of enthropology published by a vanity press in a book resembling a third rate romance” (Steven Pierce, 2009); quote: “Thims: the great oracle and developer of human thermodynamics—the philosophical revolution of the 21st century. A genius of outstanding stature and originator of many concepts in human chemistry” (Mark Janes, 2011); quote: "I think the guy narrating this video has the highest IQ [ever]" (shown above), 34 thumbs up votes in three weeks (YouTube: "IQ: 200+ | Smartest person ever"External link icon (c), 2012; vote rate: one thumbs up every 175 views (1.6 days)).

1. (a) Terman, Lewis. (1916). The Measurement of Intelligence: an Explanation of and a Complete Guide for he Use of the Stanford Guide for the Use of the Stanford Revision and Extension of the Binet-Simon Intelligence Scale (classification of intelligence, pg. 79; I.Q., pg. 53, etc.). Houghton Mifflin Co.
(b) Hollingworth, Leta S. (1942). Children Above 180 IQ: Stanford-Binet Origin and Development. Arno Press.
4. (a) In high school, Feynman’s IQ was determined to be 125.
(b) Gleick, James. (1992). Genius: The Life and Science of Richard Feynman (IQ=125). Pantheon Books.
5. (a) Poincare did so poorly on the Binet IQ that he was judged an imbecile (IQ=35).
(b) Rose, Colin and Nicholl, Malcolm J. (1998). Accelerated Learning for the 21s Century (pg. 250). Dell.
6. Pakhi. (2008). “Whiz Hearts: Srinivasa Ramanujan.” Delta-to-Sigma,, Dec. 25.
8. Giang, Vivian. (2011). “16 of the Smartest Children in History”,, Jun. 15.
11. The IQ of Famous People (page II) –
14. A Mathematician’s Apology (1940) – Wikipedia.
16. Norlinger, Ulf. (1998). “Estimate IQs of the some of the Greatest Geniuses”,, Jul 12.
17. Kim, Jin-young, Ko, Young-gun. (2007). “If Gifted/Learning Disabled Students have Wisdom, they have all Things!” (link), Reoper Review, Summer.
18. Madigan, Carol O. and Elwood, Ann. (1998). When They Were Kids: Over 400 Sketches of Famous Childhoods (IQ, pgs. 134 (Gates: IQ=160-180), 139, 140) . Random House.
21. Robert Pirsig –
22. Curtis, Ernst. (1949). “The Medieval Bases of Western Thought”, Journal.
24. Westfall, Richard. (1980). Never at Rest: a Biography of Isaac Newton (pg. 721). Cambridge University Press.
27. Ludwig Wittgenstein (IQ=190) – Genius Quotes, Google Sites.
28. Yoon. (2010). “Why did Bill Gates drop out of Harvard?” (, The Nation Weblog, Jan 24.
29. Tier, Mark, Buffett, Warren, Saros, George. (2006). The Winning Investment Habits of Warren Buffett and George Saros (pg. 234). MacMillan.
30. Five Most Tantalizing Losses from the Library of Alexandria (2012) –
31. (a) Ferry, Jim, Lygeros, Nik; McGaug, Bill; Preston, Heather; Rottler, Andreas; Scoville, John; Smith, Tommy; and Wahl, Patrick. (1999). “Gεπ1us Tεst”, Esquire, Nov.
(b) See also: IQ subscript table on the IQ: 200+ page.
(c) Walberg, Herbert J. Tsai, Shiow-Ling, Weinstein, Thomas, Gabriel, Cynthia L., Rasher, Sue, P. Roesecrans, Teresa, Rovai, Evangelina, Ide, Judith, Trujillo, Miguel, and Vukosavich, Peter. (1981). “Childhood Traits and Environmental Conditions of Highly Eminent Adults”, Gifted Child Quarterly, 25(3):103-07.
(d) Simonton, Dean K. (2006). “Presidential IQ, Openness, Intellectual Brilliance, and Leadership: Estimates and Correlations for 42 U.S. Chief Executives” (pdf), Political Psychology, 27(4):511-26.
(e) IQ estimates [of US Presidents] by academics (section) – Wikipedia.
32. Crowther, James G. (1995). Six Great Scientists: Copernicus, Galileo, Newton, Darwin, Marie Curie, Einstein (pg. 36). Barnes & Noble.

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