In thermodynamics, Gibbs energy of attraction, symbol Ga, is the measurement of the energy (or free energy?) associated with an attractive force that exists or operates between two molecular objects, surfaces, or structures. In formulaic terms, Gibbs energy of attraction is defined as follows: [1]

 G_a = \int_{l_i}^{l_f} F_a dl \bigg|_{T,P} \,

where li is an initial length or distance of separation, lf is a final length or distance of separation, Fa is the attractive force, dl is differential of length, and the where the conditional subscripts T and P signify an isothermal-isobaric process.

1. (a) Thims, Libb. (2007). Human Chemistry (Volume One). Morrisville, NC: LuLu.
(b) Attraction and Repulsion (Wayback)– IUPAC Reports, 2001.

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