____HT pioneer (new)
The subject of human thermodynamics is akin to mountain climbing: we know thermodynamics governs us as it does the universe, the question is not if, the question is how? Only through study of the pioneers (below) shall we reach the summit.
In hmol science, HT pioneers, or pioneers of human thermodynamics, are those (505+) scientists and writers, as listed below, who over the years have contributed theory and logic to the understanding of the thermodynamics of human existence.

“I’m sorry Lord Kelvin (1824-1907) is dead. I would travel a few thousand-million miles to discuss with him the thermodynamics of socialistic society.” (Henry Adams, Letter to English lawyer Charles Gaskell, 1909)

“The fascination of a growing science lies in the work of the pioneers at the very borderland of the unknown, but to reach this frontier one must pass over well traveled roads; of these one of the safest and surest is the broad highway of thermodynamics.” (Gilbert Lewis and Merle Randall, Thermodynamics, 1923)

Each person's photo-size is indicative of a combination of originality, contribution density, impact, and deepness of thought and theory penetration. Ranks of pioneers within a given year, are listed in descending order. Small quick-mark clickable icons, as described in the following table, are used to facilitate topics and theories associated with the work of each person. Those thinkers with equations, shown in upper right hand corner (of their description), each equation representative of that person’s work, signifies a deeper thinker who goes beyond simple verbal arguments and employs the language of differential equations, rather than simple verbal arguments, otherwise known as entropology, which are a dime-a-dozen; most-often becoming empty excursions into nonsense. Thinkers are grouped into four year-range categories: past-1799 (8+), 1800-1899 (51+), 1900-1999 (334+), and 2000-present (110+):

Theory basis icons
The following subject based icons give a quick mark indication as to what model or scientific subject each author culled, based or derived their theory from.


ReactionsReaction icon (med)The chemical reaction mechanism iconChemical reaction icon(human chemical thermodynamics) signifies that the person theorized about relationships as chemical reactions, with people and relationship changes viewed “symbolically”, as in AB + C → A + BC, in going between initial states and final states; may also have speculated on human chemical bonding theory (A≡B); or may have used societal reaction extrapolations, e.g. modeling societies or economies on aspects of Le Chatlier's principle.

StatisticsGas icon (med)The gas particle iconStatistical mechanics icon(human statistical thermodynamics) indicates the person used statistical mechanics or statistical thermodynamics in their formulations, e.g. S = k log W models, which involve the gas constant R, thus viewing people as ‘constituents of a statistical ensemble’, etc.; his view, to note, implies people obey the Boltzmann chaos assumption, which generally is a red flag type of application, albeit one that may provide some fruit or insight.

PhasesPhase diagram 78x75The phase diagram iconPhase diagram icon(phase thermodynamics) indicates that the person derived their theory from phase diagram models, e.g. using the thermodynamics of binary solutions to explain mixing and separation of individuals by group or race in populations, from Gibbs phase rule, phase transitions, or from the solid state physics of metals, etc.

ChromatograpyChromatography icon 75x65 The chromatography iconChromatography icon small(chromatographic thermodynamics) indicates that the person derived their theory from studies in chromatographic methods, e.g. affinity chromatography, gas chromatography, etc., in the thermodynamics of the separation of mixtures of molecules, wherein molecules in a mobile phase are passed through a separate substrate-type stationary molecular system, according to which the various molecules in the mobile phase separate based on their respective affinities or free energies for various regions (or molecules) of the stationary phase.

ElectrochemistryBattery iconThe battery iconBattery icon (small)(electrochemical thermodynamics) indicates that the person derived their theory based on electochemical thermodynamic models of batteries or fuel cells, etc.

DissipationBufurcation (med)The bifurcation iconBifurcation icon(pitchfork bifurcation) indicates that the person based parts of their theory generally on the 1970s to 1980s dissipative structures, bifurcation, fluctuation, far-from-equilibrium, non-equilibrium thermodynamics, Benard cells-type theories and models of Belgian chemist Ilya Prigogine or his followers.

Subject icons
The following subject icons listed next to each person give a quick indication as to what topic he or she theorized, discussed, or worked on in their application of thermodynamics to the various subject-divided facets of human existence.


HT Degreediploma icon 27x20 The diploma icon (human thermodynamics education) signifies that the person (12+) completed a graduate school degree (MS or PhD) with a "human thermodynamics dissertation" (or thesis) in one or more of the branches of human thermodynamics.

Humansmolecule man 35The human molecule icon, as used below, indicates that the person considers individual humans as individual reactive "molecules", or human particles, chemical entities, or attracting and repelling types of point atoms, etc., using a thermodynamic logic of explanation (human chemical thermodynamics or human statistical thermodynamics).

NobelNobel Prize iconThe Nobel Prize icon (13+), a noted cultural and scientific advances award, started in 1901, via Alfred Nobel's will, signified that the person won the Nobel in chemistry, physics, literature, physiology, economics, peace, or won for their extension of thermodynamics into the human sphere of application, e.g. economics or sociology, i.e. Tinbergen (1969), Samuelson (1970), and Prigogine (1977)

IntelligenceIQ icon The intelligence quotient icon (6+) signifies the person has had their IQ tested or estimated in the 225+ range (Goethe, Sidis, Hirata) or near the 200+ range.

Occupationman digging iconThe ditch digger icon (work) signifies that the person theorized on why a person chooses an occupation in a thermodynamic sense.

EthicsScales icon 26x20
The scales of justice icon (ethics) indicates that person theorized on right and wrong or morality in a thermodynamic framework.

LoveLove iconThe cupid's arrow through the heart icon (thermodynamics of love) signifies that the person theorized on how thermodynamics applies to love and relationships.

Sexsex iconThe sex icon (sexual thermodynamics) signifies the person theorized on sex thermodynamically, e.g. libido, sexual energy, sexual heat, masturbation, etc.

EconomicsEconomics iconThe money-gold icon (economics thermodynamics) signifies that the person studies the overlap of thermodynamic laws and and the functioning of economies; the pen and checkfinance-icon 26x20icon signified financial thermodynamics.

Sociologysociology icon 29x20The sociology icon (sociological thermodynamics) signifies the person studies the application of thermodynamics in sociology theory; the racial unity iconRacism icon(racial thermodynamics) signifies the person theorizes on the integration and segregation of cultures or groups (integration and segregation thermodynamics)

LifeLife iconThe bacteria icon (life thermodynamics / animate thermodynamics) signifies that the person studies how thermodynamics applies to the what is life or origin of life questions.

Evolutionevolution iconThe monkey-to-man icon (evolution thermodynamics) signifies that the person studies the overlap of evolution theory with thermodynamics.

Philosophyphilosophy 39x20The infinity symbol (philosophical thermodynamics) signifies the person studies the overlap of philosophy and thermodynamics; the smiley faceHappiness iconicon signifies the person has the theorized on happiness in relation to thermodynamics.

PsychologyPsychology iconThe dynamics of the brain icon (psychodynamics) signifies that person studies the application of thermodynamics in psychology.

Free willcaged bird iconThe caged bird icon (free will) indicates the person wrestled with the free will issue (choice); the free bird iconFreedom icon 18x20(freedom) signifies the person theorized on freedom (or freedom vs security); the no-mechanism iconNo determinism 18x20indicates the person specifically argued against determinism or fate, each in a thermodynamic sense, respectively.

HistoryHistory icon 19x20The scroll icon (history thermodynamics) signifies how the the laws of thermodynamics apply to the historian in his studies of history.

WarBazooka joe iconThe bazooka joe icon (war thermodynamics) signifies the person theorized on war, civil war, or revolutions thermodynamically.

Timearrow of time iconThe arrow icon (arrow of time) indicates that the person studies entropy or the second law in relation to time.

Universeuniverse iconThe galaxy icon (universe) signifies the person theorized on thermodynamics universe implications: heat death, big bang, etc.

LiteratureBook iconThe book icon (literature thermodynamics) signifies the person studies the usage of thermodynamics theory in literature.

Businessbusiness iconThe briefcase icon (business thermodynamics) signifies that the person uses thermodynamics in business theory or application.

Government iconThe government icon (government thermodynamics) signifies the person theorized on how thermodynamic laws relate to government laws; the donkey-elephantpolitics iconicon (political thermodynamics) to politics; the malletlegal icon 25x20icon to legal thermodynamics.

Anthropologyanthropology iconThe anthropology icon (anthropology thermodynamics) studies how thermodynamics applies in anthropology.

EcologyEcology iconThe ecology icon (ecological thermodynamics) signifies the person theorizes on thermodynamics, ecology, and humanities; the globe iconglobe iconsignifies the person has applied thermodynamics to the earth sciences and or geology (geological thermodynamics).

Architecturearchitect iconThe architect icon (architectural thermodynamics) signifies the person used thermodynamics theory in the development of general architectural theory or design.

EducationUniversity iconThe university icon (HT education) signifies that the person teaches or has taught their subject in a university (or high school) class.

BeautyBeauty icon 15x21The beauty icon (aesthetic energy), of a dancing young female, in a spring dress, holding a bouquet of flowers, signifies the person theorized on the relationship between beauty and thermodynamics.

ReligionReligion icon 20x27The cross icon (religious thermodynamics) signifies that the person's theory is religiously motivated or biased, to a significant degree, steeped on belief in the Abrahamic God; the om symbol Hinduism iconsignifies a Brahmaic or Hindu-centric religion focus; the yin yangyin yang iconsymbol a Eastern or yellow river religion focus.

DeathRIP iconThe RIP tombstone icon (cessation thermodynamics) signifies that the subject matter of that person is on how the conservation of energy or the second law explains death or afterlife theories.

Artart iconThe paint brush icon (art thermodynamics) signifies the person discusses applications using thermodynamics in art work.

Informationinformation iconThe high/low voltage-current icon (information thermodynamics) signifies that the person attempts to theorize on how information theory, in one way or another, applies to aspects of human thermodynamics; the governor symbolCybernetics iconindicates the person theorizes on cybernetics.

New agenew ageThe new age icon (spirituality) signifies that the person uses thermodynamics in fringe subjects (fringe thermodynamics), such as spirituality, ghost-spirit hunting, telekinesis, ectoplasy, bioenergy, paranormal, energy medicine, the sixth sense, or other new age types of sideline theories.

Those with red tabs are "detractors" or vocal objectors to thermodynamic theory (see: not applicable view) applied to explain human existence.

Earlier HT pioneers | 1799 or before
The following is a chronological listing of individuals with precursory human thermodynamics theories, ideas, and opinions professed up until the year 1799.


Heraclitus 75Heraclitus (c.535-450BC)
Greek philosopher
c.500BCKnown as the "flux and fire philosopher", he held that view that everything is in a continuous state of flux; that all things are an exchange for fire; that transformations of fire lead to, firstly the sea, then earth, then whirlwind; and that the soul of a person is a spark of the substance of the stars.

Hippocrates 75Hippocrates (c.460-370BC)
Greek physician
c.420BCPostulated that heat, originating from the left ventricle, functions to animate people.

Aristotle 75 Aristotle (384-322BC)
Greek philosopher
(IQ icon=190)
c.350BC His De Generatione Animalium argued that the mode of animal reproduction is determined by a “vital heat” of the animal: the warmer an animal is, the more perfect will be the state in which its young are generated: live young are produced by the hotter animals; colder ones produce eggs; the coldest of all, such as insects, produce a larva which in turn produces an egg.

Leonardo da VinciLeonardo da Vinci (1452-1519)
Italian polymath
(IQ icon=220)
c.1490 Said to have been the first to discard the innate heat (animal heat) model of the heart as had been espoused previously for centuries by Galen back to pre-Hippocratic times (the view of heat as a kind of spiritual energy originating in the left ventricle), and to replace it with the view that heat is due to the friction of the blood swirling through the organ’s valves and chambers; to evidence his view, he pointed out that the heart beats faster when a patient has a fever.

ShakespeareWilliam Shakespeare (1564-1616)
English writer (IQ icon=210)
1603Stated, in riddled form, in Othello, the Moor of Venice, “I know not where is that Promethean heat, that can thy life relum.”

Montesquieu 75Charles Montesquieu (1689-1755)
French politician (IQ icon=165)
1748Government icon|legal icon 25x20Argued that governmental laws need to be a function of temperature of the land.

Lavoisier 75 Antoine Lavoisier (1743-1794)
French chemist
IQ icon=170)
1785 Introduced the combustion theory of animal heat, the model that heat in animals (animal heat) was result of a type of respiratory chemical reaction in the lungs in which vital air (oxygen + caloric) extracted some carbonaceous substance, releasing heat (caloric) in the body.

Goethe 75 newJohann Goethe (1749-1832)
German polymath
IQ icon=225+)
1799 A = - \Delta G \,molecule man 35|sex icon|Chemical reaction icon|evolution icon|RIP icon|Love icon|philosophy 39x20|Beauty icon 15x21|Scales icon 26x20|man digging icon|caged bird icon|Freedom icon 18x20 In 1768, at the age of nineteen was conducting chemical experiments to find the principles that permeate the entire universe; in 1799, arrived at the view that the force of affinity operates in human relationships, via attracting, repelling, and neutralizing individuals; in 1809, arrived at his "moral symbols" theory of humanity, as explained via 36 chapters in his famed novella Elective Affinities, as is depicted in 1882 Helmholtz equation terms (adjacent equation).

19th century HT pioneers | 1800 to 1899
The following is a chronological listing of individuals with human thermodynamics theories, ideas, and opinions professed in the years 1800 to 1899:


Christoph Wieland 75Christoph Wieland (1733-1813)
German poet and writer
1810 Religion icon 20x27Objected to the use of affinity chemistry theory in Goethe’s Elective Affinities (1809), calling it “nonsense and childish fooling around” and a “truly horrible work”, comments that he said should be burned after reading; objecting solely to the radicalness of its Christianity.

John Herschel 75John Herschel (1797-1871)
English mathematician-astronomer
1833Held that heat is the motive force powering not only people but the planet.

Johannes Muller 75 newJohannes Muller (1801-1858)
German physiologist
c.1835 Life iconFormulated a vitalism view that life had a special "organizing energy", distinct or special in some way from the common physical chemical energies, that controlled evolution; in opposition to this doctrine, three of Muller’s students, German physicians Ernst Brücke, Herman Helmholtz, and Emil Du Bois-Reymond, made a pact that they would work to disprove their mentor’s theory, and validate the basic truth that “in an organism no other forces have effect than the common physio-chemical ones”; precipitates of this reaction include the Helmholtz school of thermodynamics (which include the psychodynamics of Sigmund Freud), and resultant 1840s discussions between Charles Darwin and Richard Owen on Muller’s vitalism view, which may have spurred on Darwin's evolution theory.

Ludwig Colding 75Ludwig Colding (1815-1888)
Danish civil engineer
1843RIP iconDerived a conservation of energy theory on the logic of the immortality of the soul.

James Joule 75James Joule (1818-1889)
English physicist
1843 Religion icon 20x27In the early 1840s, performed extensively elaborate experiments to determine the mechanical equivalent of heat, the underlying motive of which seems to have been religiously fueled, in that the results, in some way or another, would scientifically prove the indestructible of God’s power, or something to this effect. In May of 1847, gave a lecture (“On Matter, Living Force, and Heat”) at St. Ann’s Church, he explained that the measure of the mechanical equivalent of heat, such as would have been transformed in the friction of the wind and agitation of the water, since the time of creation, over the "last 4000 to 6000 years" since the creation, as he says, gives experimental proof for the Biblical story of genesis. That same year, in a noted thermodynamics anecdote, while on his honeymoon at Niagara Falls, Joule brandished a thermometer and took temperature readings of the top and bottom of the falls, supposedly to find more experimental proof for the genesis myth.

Helmholtz 75Hermann Helmholtz (1821-1894)
German physicist and physician
1847RIP iconThermodynamically analyzed Goethe's Faust and vicariously helped to found "psychodynamics" via his influence on Sigmund Freud.

Richard Owen 75Richard Owen (1804-1892)
English anatomist
1849Religion icon 20x27|evolution iconAdopted the Johannes Muller vitalism view that life has a special "organizing energy", but added in that it must be devinely designed or created, so as to control or guide evolution and the development of life; Owen discussed this theory with Charles Darwin in the 1840s.

William Thomson (75px)William Thomson (1824-1907)
Irish-born Scottish physicist and mathematician
1852caged bird icon|Life icon|universe iconArgued that law of dissipation applies to life and the will of animate creatures, and alluded to the argument that the universe must have been created; stated, in 1885, anecdote, that afternoon excursions with his wife, which take him away from his scientific work, were forms of dissipation of energy or of the second law in action.

Person icon (29x43)Hermann Gossen (1810-1858)
German economist
1853Economics iconIn his Development of the Laws of Human Exchange and the Consequent Rules of Human Action, attempted a formulation of a calculus of human pleasures, theorizing on how Kräfte (or forces) operated in the course of human economic exchanges, on the premise that the aim of each individual is to maximize his or her total life pleasure.

Gustave Hirn 75Gustave Hirn (1815-1890)
French physicist
1856 philosophy 39x20His 1856 experimental measurements of the mechanical equivalent of heat of humans in movement and his 1868 Philosophical Implications of Thermodynamics, are the said, according to the 1893 views of English engineer Bryan Donkin, to have launched the science of “human thermodynamics”.

Rudolf Clausius 75 young Rudolf Clausius (1822-1888)
German physicist
1857 Aside from founding thermodynamics with is The Mechanical Theory of Heat (1850-1875), in his “On the Nature of Heat Compared with Light and Sound” he compared heat, light, and sound to give a Boltzmann-Ebeling like description of the earth ecosystem based on metabolic needs, insulation, and chemical affinities; his circa 1880 talk on “On the Energy Supplies of Nature and the Utilization of them for the Benefit of Mankind” (published in book form in 1885), was said to have inspired Austrian science teacher Eduard Sacher to write his 1881 book Outline of a Mechanics of Society.

Henry Carey 75Henry Carey (1793-1879)
American sociologist and economist
1858sociology icon 29x20|molecule man 35Outlined on how social movement will only accrue when the affinities are activated between people; explained how chemical affinity must govern human social movement and outlined a theory of social heat, based on the Berthelot-Thomsen principle, associated with the rubbing together of human molecules in daily activity; outlined a theory of social gravitation to explain how people attract into the aggregation of large cities, each mutual city acting as an attractive 'sun' with a certain brightness.

John Tyndall 75John Tyndall (1820-1893)
Irish physicist
1858sociology icon 29x20Seeded the Spencerian dilemma (1858), on the relation between thermodynamic equilibrium and social equilibrium, and for having launched the 1874 four-year Tyndall-Stewart-Tait debate on the tenuous issue of teaching science in a public religious college, with his statement that: “all religious theories, schemes and systems must submit to the control of science, and relinquish all thought of controlling it”; resulting in discussions on death, morality, the soul, and immortality all discussed in the context of chemistry, thermodynamics, and cosmology.

Herbert Spencer 75Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)
English scientist-philosopher
c.1858 sociology icon 29x20|philosophy 39x20Origin of the Spencerian dilemma: that in circa 1858, he was "staggered" when he was told by Irish physicist John Tyndall that the end state of equilibration is a state of heat death in which life ceases, where previous he was of the view that “equilibrium as the ultimate and highest state of society”; this conflicting issue took him the next forty years to reconcile; a precipitate being his 1862 First Principles: of a New System of Philosophy, in which he gave prominence to four types or orders of equilibrium or “equilibration”.

Maxwell 75James Maxwell (1831-1879)
Scottish physicist
1867RIP iconIntroduced the now-famous "Maxwell's demon" objection to the second law, about a hypothetical demon or “intelligent being endowed with free will, and fine enough tactile and perceptive organization to give him the faculty of observing and influencing individual molecules of matter”, according to the 1874 interpretation of William Thomson; in 1878-79, the year of his death, Maxwell penned a review article "Paradoxical Philosophy" and followed this up with his last poem "A Paradoxical Ode", both outlining his views on the philosopher's paradox and the implications of thermodynamics and conservation of energy in regards immortality, the soul, the life/death demarcation, evolution, morality, consciousness, down to the atomic level.

Karl Marx 75Karl Marx (1818-1883)
German political economist
1867 Economics icon|sociology icon 29x20Was discussing Benjamin Thompson in his Capital; became acquainted with Clausius’ heat death model in 1869; thereafter, began debating, with Friedrich Engels, the application of thermodynamics into economic theory, giving commentary on those as Sergei Podolinsky (1882).

Norman Lockyer 75Norman Lockyer (1836-1920)
English astronomer
1868universe icon|Life icon|sociology icon 29x20|Religion icon 20x27Co-authored two articles with Balfour Stewart, the first "The Sun as a Type of the Material Universe", in which they argued in favor of theology, arguing against materialism and social disorder, the second "The Place of Life", they attempt to explain analogy in using the term energy (as well a degradation of energy) in both the physical world and social world.

Balfour Stewart 75Balfour Stewart (1828-1887)
Scottish physicist
1868universe icon|Life icon|sociology icon 29x20|Religion icon 20x27|RIP icon|philosophy 39x20Penned two articles on social life, the sun, and energy, with Norman Lockyer (1868); in his book The Conservation of Energy, devoted a chapter the applications of the laws of energy to life, viewing the universe as a machine; uses chemical affinity logic throughout the book; his 1875 book The Unseen Universe, written with Peter Tait, speculates on immortality; this was followed up by the 1878 Paradoxical Philosophy.

Friedrich Engels 75Friedrich Engels (1820-1895)
German social scientist
1869 Economics icon|sociology icon 29x20|Life icon|universe icon|Seems to have, indirectly, blended aspects of thermodynamics into the development of Marxism; commented to his associate Karl Marx that Clausiusheat death postulate for future life was a “very absurd theory”, and that he is “waiting for the moment when the clerics seize upon this theory”; commented in 1882 that “one day we shall certainly ‘reduce’ thought experimentally to molecular and chemical motions in the brain”; by 1888, was of the view that the 19th century was the century of Darwin and Clausius, of evolution and transformation of energy.

Adolf Fick 75Adolf Fick (1829-1901)
German physicist-physiologist
1869Religion icon 20x27|universe iconIn his lecture “The Forces of Nature in their Relationship”, he extrapolated Clausiusheat death theory of universal end to give the first contour of the ‘entropy proof of God’s existence’.

Person icon 75Francois Massieu (1832-1896)
French engineer and chemical thermodynamicist
c.1869Scales icon 26x20|Religion icon 20x27|philosophy 39x20|Life icon|caged bird iconHis work was the forerunner to Gibbs' Equilibrium treatise; compared humans to molecules in their chemical composition, and then in this mindset addressed the puzzles as to how a molecule, such as water H_2 0 \, (or by extension a human) can have a body and soul (in the scheme of water being split up into oxygen O_2 \,and hydrogen H_2 \,); or be alive vs dead; have morality, exist, and other philosophical issues.

Henry Adams 75Henry Adams (1838-1918)
American historian
1873molecule man 35|History icon 19x20|sociology icon 29x20|Chemical reaction icon|Statistical mechanics icon|Phase diagram icon|University iconIn 1873, learned of Hippolyte Taine's definition of the historian as one who follows and studies the transformations of individual human molecules or groups of human molecules; by 1885, had come to define "social chemistry" as the study of the attraction [and repulsion] of "equivalent human molecules", a subject that had become, in his own words, his daily study and greatest satisfaction, prophesying it as a “science yet to be created”, as would soon be done (Fairburn, 1914; Dreier, 1948; Thims, 2007); in 1894, gave his presidential address to the American Historical Association, entitled “The Tendency of History”, outlining his view of the future development of the scientific approach to history; in 1904 penned "A Dynamic Theory of History", describing humans as attracting and repelling forces; in 1909, applied the phase rule work of Willard Gibbs to society; commented to Charles Gaskell in 1909: “I’m sorry Lord Kelvin is dead. I would travel a few thousand-million miles to discuss with him the thermodynamics of socialistic society”; in 1910, published A Letter to American Teachers of History, imploring historians to begin integrating thermodynamics into their classrooms, namely a second law version of history studies of systems of contracting and expanding human molecules; was, supposedly, defending his scientific models of history from criticism up until his last day in 1918.

Person icon 75August Kronig (1822-1879)
German physicist
1874 Religion icon 20x27|universe icon|evolution icon|Happiness iconHis The Existence of God and the Happiness of People, discusses things such as gravity, kraft, Charles Darwin, entropy and particularly how the heat death theory of universal end mandates (or not) an initial universal Creator, a topic centered around the existence of god.

Ernst Brucke 75Ernst Brucke (1819-1892)
German physician and physiologist
1874 Psychology iconOne of the three rebellious students, along with Hermann Helmholtz and Emil Du Bois-Reymond, of vitalism promoter Johannes Muller, during the years 1838 to 1842, to formulated a desire to prove that “in an organism no other forces have effect than the common physio-chemical ones”; his 1874 Lecture on Physiology, which outlined the view that all living organisms are energy-systems governed by the first law of thermodynamics, was very influential to Sigmund Freud, who would go on to initiate the field of psychodynamics.

Leon Walras 75Leon Walras (1834-1910)
French sociologist and economist
c.1874 Economics icon|molecule man 35Spoke of people as ‘economic molecules’; supposedly, gave concepts like scarcity scientific definitions analogous to heat in physics; central founder of the Lausanne school of economics.

Enrique Serrano 75 Enrique Fatigati (1845-1918)
Spanish physicist, chemist, and thermodynamicist
1875 University iconIn 1872, his first submission of his doctoral thesis in physics on calculating the specific heats of solids and liquids was rejected by the University of Madrid because his version of physics (organic energetics) was at odds with Catholicism and main stream physics based on the mechanical hypothesis, i.e. that heat was a form of motion; after a revision, his second thesis in 1874 was accepted; in 1875, he and British chemist Edmund Mills, who both were of the view that there should be no divide between living matter and inert matter, began teaching their model at the Free Institution of Education; into the late 1870s, he outlined a unified theory of nature and society centered on the first and second laws of thermodynamics, particularly William Rankine’s version, mixed with a blend of ideas about Pierre Laplace’s nebular hypothesis and Lamarckian evolution theory, concluding that the universe as a whole is in a sort of organic evolution, while along the way replacing God and the soul with a type of transformative “natural energy” or “activity”.

Peter Tait 75Peter Tait (1831-1901)
Scottish mathematical physicist
1875 RIP icon|universe icon|Psychology iconHis book The Unseen Universe: or Physical Speculations on a Future State, written with Balfour Stewart, speculates on immortality, supposedly in an energy-thermodynamic sense, the heat death of the universe; how thoughts are molecular motions of the brain; how the universe may contain "bonds of energy" that may connect to the thinking aspects of the mind; among curious other subjects.

Carl Neumann 75 Carl Neumann (1832-1925)
German mathematical physicist
1875Economics iconIs said to have been the first to theorize, thermodynamically, in economic extrapolation, about the ‘internal energy capital’ of the body, and to have participated in the training of energy performances (efficiencies) in economic analogies.

Josef Popper 75Josef Popper (1838-1921)
Austrian physicist, engineer, and social theorist
1876Economics iconObjected, in his writings on the history of thermodynamics, to William Thomson's metaphysical and religious extrapolations of the second law; tried, unsuccessfully, to promote a biophysical view of the economy as a subsystem embedded in a larger system subject to the laws of thermodynamics.

Person icon (29x43)Eugene Roberty (1843-1915)
Russian-born French sociologist
1876sociology icon 29x20Incorporated three forms of energy as composing the world into a sociology theory of the brain; one of the first to introduce mechanistic theories in sociology.

icon 75 (test)Eduard Sacher (1834-1903)
Austrian science teacher
1881 His Outline of a Mechanics of Society, which was inspired by Rudolf Clausius’ c.1880 talk “On the Energy Supplies of Nature and the Utilization of them for the Benefit of Mankind”, utilized the second law to outline a “basis for a rational economy”; he seemed to be of the view that individual work, of the more abstract varieties, can be quantified, as exemplified by his statement: "the work of an inventor can almost pricelessly [measured in joules] have value."

Sergei Podolinsky 75Sergei Podolinsky (1850-1891)
Ukrainian physician and socialist
1881Economics iconAttempted to reconcile Marxism with thermodynamics, using the work-based theory of value with energy accounting by integrating economic cycles with natural cycles, amid the skepticism of Friedrich Engels who deemed it “totally impossible to try to express economic relationships in physical terms.”

Boltzmann 75 newLudwig Boltzmann (1844-1906)
Austrian physicist
1886Life iconPositioned the now-famous enigmatic semi-riddled postulate that "life is a struggle for entropy".

Helm 75Georg Helm (1851-1923)
German physicist
1887 philosophy 39x20|Religion icon 20x27|Economics iconHis The Doctrine of Energy contains a chapter three on philosophical and religious implications of thermodynamics, e.g. existence of god, and a final chapter which argues that energy and entropy can be used to explain transformations and transitions of economies.

James Martineau 75James Martineau (1805-1900)
English theologian and philosopher
1888RIP iconView: “in its physical aspect, according to the conservation of energy, death presents simply a case of transformation of energy”; theorized on the first law, death, and the physics of the brain.

Person icon 75Bryan Donkin (1836-1902)
English engineer
1893His article-book “The Scientific Work of Gustav Adolph Hirn”, on the life, work, and thermodynamics philosophy of French physicist Gustave Hirn, coined the term "human thermodynamics" and gave the first summary of the subject overview of the subject.

Emile Durkheim 75Emile Durkheim (1893)
French sociologist
1893sociology icon 29x20Was said to have "solved" said the Spencerian dilemma, supposedly.

Camille Flammarion 75Camille Flammarion (1842-1925)
French astronomer
1893 Book icon|universe iconThe final chapter “philosophical final essay” of his science fiction novel The End of the World, contained popular artistic depictions of the German "heat death" or "cold death",as the average temperature would then be very low, of the end of the human existence.

image icon (Winiarski)Léon Winiarski (1865-1915)
Polish economist and sociologist
1894University icon|sociology icon 29x20|Economics icon|Love icon|molecule man 35|Beauty icon 15x21 \oint \frac{dQ}{T} = 0 \,|Scales icon 26x20Taught a class called "social mechanics", using Clausius and Lagrange, at the University of Geneva for at least six years (1894-1900), considering people as attracting and repelling points, theorizing on such advanced topics as morality explained in terms of reversible (equation shown) and irreversible cycles, aesthetic energy, sexual energy, family structure, etc., as described in his Essay on Social Mechanics (1898) and course outline "The Teaching of Pure Political Economics and Social Mechanics in Switzerland" (1900); can be considered as the first "true" human thermodynamicist.

Ernest Solvay (1838-1922)
Belgian industrial chemist
1894Promoted the science of social energetics; eponym of the Solvay conferences.

Robert Thurston 75Robert Thurston (1839-1903)
American mechanical engineer
1894RIP iconIn his The Animal as a Machine and Prime Motor: and the Laws of Energetics, speculated on a future possible law of persistence of existence, in relation to the energy or force aspects of the soul.

Sigmund Freud 75 youngSigmund Freud (1856-1939)
Austrian psychiatrist
(IQ icon=156)
1895 Psychology iconHis draft of a “Project for Scientific Psychology” outlined a hard science version of psychology based on thermodynamics and mechanical theory, in which he postulated that “in the future psychologists will exercise a direct influence, by means of particular chemical substances, on the amounts of energy and their distribution in the mental apparatus”; in this project it is said that he gave his first outline of his Helmholtz school views on ‘bound energy’ and ‘unbound energy’ (or free energy) in the states of consciousness; this framework formed the basis of his entire twenty-four volume volume collected works; some of his thermodynamics ideas are said to show through in his 1920 Beyond the Pleasure Principle; the gist of his psychodynamics theory are found in his 1923 The Ego and the Id, in which he outlines a heat engine model of the mind via an id, ego, super-ego force theory of subconscious drives.

William James 75William James (1842-1910)
American psychologist
c.1895 Conceived the "reserve energy" theory of the mind (c.1895) with Boris Sidis; theory was tested in the intellectual raising of William Sidis (1898-1944) to affect a said-to-be adult IQ of 250-300; his 1906 lecture on "The Energies of Men" extolled on the theory; in circa 1909, argued against determinism and physicalism, by stating that the second law was irrelevant to the study of human history; on his deathbed, reviewed his friend American historian Henry Adams’ newly published Letter to American Teachers of History (1910) to object, on what seems to be religious grounds, to the heat death model of societal end.

Brooks Adams 75Brooks Adams (1848-1927)
American historian and lawyer
1895History icon 19x20Argued, in his Law of Civilization and Decay, that history and civilization were governed by the law of degradation of energy, wherein he applied the Helmholtz-version of the first law, i.e. that energy or force is conserved, Kelvin-version of the second law, i.e. that there is a universal tendency to the dissipation of energy, along with a theory of social contractions and dispersions, to develop a energetic theory or model of history, in reference, particularly, to its civilization rises and falls.

Oswald Kulpe 75Oswald Kulpe (1862-1915)
German psychologist
1895 Psychology icon|philosophy 39x20A student of the Helmholtz school, who was noted for the view, expressed in his Introduction to Philosophy, that “it would thus make no difference whether a quantum of mental energy inserts itself into the course of the material process or not: the law of the conservation of energy as formulated hitherto would not be impaired.”

Vilfredo Pareto 75Vilfredo Pareto (1848-1923)
French-Italian mathematical engineer
1896 sociology icon 29x20|Economics icon|molecule man 35Headed the Lausanne school of economics; viewed people as human molecules; his long-term goal, in his own words, was to “construct a system of sociology on the model of celestial mechanics, physics, and chemistry”; his 1916 Treatise on General Sociology is said to be analogous in its essential features to the generalized physico-chemical thermodynamics systems logic as outlined in American mathematical physicist Willard Gibbs.

Frederic Myers 75 newFrederic Myers (1843-1901)
English psychical researcher
1896new ageUsed Maxwell's demon and conservation of energy to explain spirits and afterlife.

Vladimir Bekhterev 75Vladimir Bekhterev (1859-1927)
Russian neurologist and psychologist
1897 Psychology icon|caged bird iconIn lectures delivered in 1897, articles such as the 1901 “Psyche and Life”, and 1903 Suggestion and its Role in Social Life, outlined an energetics model of organism-environment interactions, in which ‘hidden reserve energy’ can become accumulated in the psyche of individuals via social suggestion, whereby accumulations of this reserve energy become acted out as if it were the person’s own willful action.

Person icon (29x43)Nikolai Krainskii (1860-c.1935)
Russian psychiatrist
1897 Psychology icon|Religion icon 20x27Noted for works such as his 1997 volume Law of Conservation of Energy applied to Psychical Activity; the 1909 article “Principles of Energetic Psychology”; Soul and Energy (1911), etc., in which he applies energy theory to the ego and consciousness.

Person icon (29x43)Nicolas von Grot (1852-1899)
Russian psychologist
1898 Psychology icon|Religion icon 20x27His “The Terms of the Soul and the Psychic Energy in the Psychology”, argued three points: (a) psychic energies possess quantity and mass, (b) that psychic energies can be transformed into one another, in different forms of psychic work and psychic potentiality, (c) psychic energies can be converted into physical energies, and vice versa by means of physiological processes.

Hauriou 75Maurice Hauriou (1856-1929)
French social-philosopher and law professor
1899sociology icon 29x20|legal icon 25x20His Lessons on Social Movement explains large scale social movements, i.e. gross aspects of business, social events, states of a society, etc., in terms of pure thermodynamics, using Carnot efficiency, Mayer's conservation of energy, and Clausius' entropy, etc., discussed in the guise of mechanism and reaction.

Person icon 75Andre Lalande (1867-1963)
French philosopher
1899sociology icon 29x20|Scales icon 26x20His book Dissolution Opposed to Revolution in the Physical and Moral Sciences, was “directed towards an application of mechanics and thermodynamics to social science”, as cited by those as Leon Winiarski and Henri Bergson.

20th century HT pioneers | 1900 to 1999
The following is a chronological listing of individuals with human thermodynamics theories, ideas, and opinions professed in the years 1900 to 1999:


Lester Ward 75Lester Ward (1841-1913)
American sociologist
1900His article “Social Mechanics” advocated the theory of Leon Winarski to outline the newly forming subject of social mechanics, which Ward says falls into two subdivisions: social statics, dealing with social forces and social equilibrium, and social dynamics, dealing with social progress and social transformation. Over the next decade, would go on to outline a ‘system of sociology’ divided into three parts: (a) formative principles or synergy, based on the work of Auguste Comte and Jean Lamarck; (b) creative synthesis, based on the work of Wilhelm Wundt; (c) transformative principles, based on the work of, primarily, Leon Winiarski.

Nathanial Shaler 75Nathaniel Shaler (1841-1906)
American paleontologist
1900RIP iconDiscussed conservation of energy in the context of immortality.

Georg Hirth 75Georg Hirth (1841-1916)
German writer and statistician
1900 Life icon|sex iconHis Entropy of the Germinal System and Hereditary Enfranchisement, introduces the term “ektropy” to denote the principle that opposes the entropy and the degradation in life-bearing structures, in which he discusses things such as Maxwell’s demon, sex, freedom and energy, bound energy and free energy, among other topics.

James Ward (1843-1925)
English psychologist and philosopher
c.1900Psychology iconPromoted the view that view that Maxwell’s demon gives a positive affirmation of illustrating the importance of mind.

Wilhelm Ostwald 75 Wilhelm Ostwald (1853-1932)
German physical chemist
1901Nobel Prize icon|Psychology icon|anthropology icon|RIP icon|sociology icon 29x20|Scales icon 26x20Outlined his "anthropic physics" (physik anthropik), or human physics, in his various works: his 1901 lecture series on "natural philosophy", in which he applied energy and entropy logic to human mental life; his 1902 "energy theory of culture"; his 1906 book Individuality and Immortality, on the subject of what the science of energetics has to say about death and human individual (cessation thermodynamics); his 1909 book Energetic Bases of Social Studies; and his 1912 book The Energetic Imperative, which introduced the postulate of the "energetic imperative" (or thermodynamics imperative; won 1909 Nobel Prize in chemistry.

Alfred Lotka 75Alfred Lotka (1880-1949)
Austrian-born American physical chemist and mathematician
1902 Life icon|evolution icon|sociology icon 29x20|Economics iconAs a student at Leipzig, in began to work out the application of thermodynamics to evolution and biology, along with its social and economic implications; his views first appearing in 1907 articles, and others to follow, e.g. “Natural Selection as a Physical Principle” (1922), culminating in his 1924 Elements of Physical Biology, his an extensive application of thermodynamics to evolution and biology, resulting in concepts such as trigger action, the Darwin-Lotka energy law.

John Hibben 75 newJohn Hibben (1861-1933)
American mathematician and theologian
1903 philosophy 39x20|Religion icon 20x27In his “The Theory of Energetics and its Philosophical Bearings”, gave seven objections to Wilhelm Oswald’s 1901 lectures on Natural Philosophy, e.g. one being that “the physical world is characterized by decrease of energy and increase of entropy. The reverse is true of the world of thought.”

Theodor Lipps 75Theodor Lipps (1851-1914)
German psychologist
1903Psychology iconIn his Guide to Psychology, he was the first to differentiate between psychic force and psychic energy, and the former’s possible relation with the subconscious

Bergson 75Henri Bergson (1858-1941)
French philosopher
1907Nobel Prize icon|philosophy 39x20|Religion icon 20x27|evolution iconHis book Creative Evolution, with its mention of evolution, bifurcations, and entropy, stimulated Ilya Prigogine greatly, among others; won 1927 Nobel prize in literature.

Emile Meyerson 75Émile Meyerson (1859-1933)
Polish-born French chemist and philosopher
1908His Identity and Reality, containing chapters such as mechanism, conservation of energy, Carnot’s principle, etc., in which he attempts to show how science is the progressive rationalization of reality.

Person icon 75Emanuele Sell (1879-1946)
Italian lawyer and political economist
1910 Economics iconHis The Life of Wealth, outlined a mechanical investigation of economic life, based on the work of Rudolf Clausius, in which he uses entropy to explain the relation between the process of hereditary transmission and the mechanism of production, and introduces concepts such as economic temperature and economic entropy.

Felix Auerbach 75Felix Auerbach (1856-1933)
German physicist
1910 His book Ectropy and the Physical Theory of Life, wherein, building on previous ideas of Georg Hirth (1900), he introduced the notion of "ectropy" as a type of biological anti-entropy or evolving thermodynamic force of living form.

Caspar Isenkrahe (1844-1921)
German physicist
1910Published Energy, Entropy, and the Beginning and End of the Universe.

Edwin Slosson 75Edwin Slosson (1865-1929)
American chemist
c.1910Religion icon 20x27|sociology icon 29x20Wrote on the application of physical chemistry, particularly thermodynamics, to sociology and history; albeit intertwined with a loose interpretation of Christianity, e.g. his 1925 book The Sermons of a Chemist.

Frederick Soddy 75Frederick Soddy (1877-1956)
English physical chemist and radiochemist
1911 Nobel Prize icon|Economics icon|finance-icon 26x20|Government icon|RIP icon|Life iconIn Matter and Energy, he first began to outline his views on the relation between energy and wealth and how thermodynamics governs society, e.g. the rise and fall of political systems, freedom vs. bondage, wealth vs. poverty, movements of commerce, and general welfare; his 1919 Science of Life, speculated on death and physical energy; into the 1920s, he devoted a significant portion of his career to the thermodynamic explication of the standard economic model; defined Cartesian economics (1921); his most-cited book is the 1926 Virtual Wealth and Debt, in which he attempts to explain the difference between wealth and debt, thermodynamically. Won 1921 Nobel Prize in chemistry.

Person icon 75Stéphane Leduc (1853-1939)
French synthetic biologist
1911 Life iconHis The Mechanism of Life outlined a mechanistic view of life based on chemistry, physics, energetics, and thermodynamics; argued that “a living being [is] a store of potential energy, to be set free by external stimulus.”

Antonio Portuondo 75 Antonio Portuondo (1845-1927)
Spanish civil engineer and mathematician
1912 sociology icon 29x20His Notes on Social Mechanics outlines a mechanical theory of sociology based largely on the mechanical-dynamical views of Ernst Mach; which includes a discussion of entropy stating that in any physical process a fraction of the input energy is dissipated, i.e. it is transformed in such a way that it is impossible to retrieve or store it for any future use, and he adds "… and this 'bend towards dissipation of mechanical energy in nature' is quite contrary to human interest, as Lord Kelvin has stated."

James Johnstone 75James Johnstone (1870-1932)
English oceanographer and experimental biologist
1914Life icon|universe icon|caged bird iconOutlined a mechanistic view of life based on thermodynamics; his 1921 The Mechanism of Life in Relation to Modern Physical Theory, was a significant citation framework for the later physical chemistry of life work of Alfred Lotka.

William Fairburn 75 newWilliam Fairburn (1876-1947)
English-born American naval architect, marine engineer, chemical engineering executive
1914 molecule man 35|man digging iconHis book Human Chemistry, outlined the view that people are “human chemical elements” that react chemically together (particularly in the factory) in various ways according to the laws of chemistry, and speculated on how individual people could be classified in terms of their respective energies and entropies, the same way chemicals are.

William Bayliss 75William Bayliss (1860-1924)
English physiologist
1915philosophy 39x20|Bazooka joe iconIn his Principles of General Physiology, he re-interpreted Wilhelm Ostwald’s 1912 energetic imperative (the thermodynamic imperative version of Kant's original 1785 categorical imperative), rather interestingly, as: "waste not free energy; treasure it and make the best use of it", and went on to argue that this has great philosophical value, one example of which he gives is that it can be applied to warfare (see: war thermodynamics), to remedy the "waste involved in war".

Patrick Geddes (1854-1932)
Scottish economist, biologist, and urban planner
1915 Described as a ‘heretical philosophers of social energetics’; his 1915 Cities in Evolution is said to have employed thermodynamics logic, e.g. stating that we need both “constructive and destructive energy” in the design of urban fabrics; he supposedly tried to promote a biophysical view of economy as a subsystem embedded in a larger system subject to the laws of thermodynamics.

Pierre Teilhard 75Pierre Teilhard (1881-1955)
French philosopher, chemist, physicist, paleontologist, and priest
1916Religion icon 20x27|evolution icon|molecule man 35|new ageDeveloped a "spiritual energy" theory of thermodynamic evolution; used a "human molecule" view; his 1938 Phenomenon of Man is his masterpiece, his writing style is very dense and he has near-to a cult following; the gist of his theory is captured in his omega point postulate.

Sidis 75William Sidis (1898-1944)
American mathematician-physicist
(IQ icon=250-300)
1916universe icon|Life iconWrote his treatise The Animate and the Inanimate on an attempt to reconcile animate matter with inanimate matter in the context of the second law and the evolution of the universe.

Henry Osborn 75Henry Osborn (1857-1935)
American physical zoologist
1916 His The Origin of Life: On the Theory of Action, Reaction and Interaction of Energy, attempts to use the physics notion of "interaction" outline an “energy conception of evolution and heredity” based on thermodynamics.

William Thayer (1859-1923)
American historian
1918 His address “Vagaries of Historians”, delivered before the American Historical Association, in which he discusses ideas on war thermodynamics; after which concluding that: “the time may come when human affairs may be described no longer by words and sentences, but by a system of symbols or notation similar to those used in algebra or chemistry … then it may be possible, as Adams suggests, to invent a common formula for thermodynamics and history.”

James Hyslop 75James Hyslop (1854-1920)
American abnormal psychologist
1918RIP iconNoted for discussions on the conservation of energy and life after death.

Ostwald Spengler (1880-1936)
German historian-philosopher
1918Noted for his view: “What the myth of Gotterdammerung signified of old, the myth of entropy signifies today—the world’s end as completion of an inwardly necessary evolution.”

icon 75 (test) Julius Davidson (c.1875-c.1935)
American economist
1919 molecule man 35|Chemical reaction icon|Statistical mechanics icon|Economics iconHis “One of the Physical Foundations of Economics” cites Willard Gibbs’ 1901 Elementary Principles of Statistical Mechanics as a basis to argue that the law of diminishing returns is based on chemistry and physics (the second law in particular); along the way comparing human chemical reactions to basic equilibrium adjusting chemical reactions (specifically the male-female reaction to the reaction of ethanol (ethyl alcohol) and acetic acid to produce ethyl acetate and water), explaining how the final equilibrium concentration will differ base on changes to the initial reactant concentrations, in each case, human and chemical, respectively.

Yevgeny Zamyatin 75Yevgeny Zamyatin (1884-1937)
Russian engineer
1919 molecule man 35|Bazooka joe iconHis novel We was written from the human particle point of view focused on the connection between entropic mechanism, evolutionary vitalism, and revolution; his 1923 essay “On Literature, Revolution, Entropy, and Other Matters”, attempted to describe the Russian revolutions of 1905 and 1917 in the language of thermodynamics; also due to synesthesia, described the “color of entropy”.

Erwin Bauer 75 Erwin Bauer (1890-1938)
Hungarian-born Russian pathologist and physical biologist
1920  F' - F = \sum_{i=0}^n X_i \frac{\Delta x_i}{\Delta t} \Delta t - \sum_{i=0}^n X'_i \frac{\Delta x'_i}{\Delta t} \Delta t \, His The Fundamental Principles of Biological Science introduces what has come to be known as the Bauer principle, which states that: “The living and only the living systems are never in equilibrium, and, on the debit of their free energy, they continuously invest work against the realization of the equilibrium which should occur within the given outer conditions on the basis of the physical and chemical laws”; he discusses this in terms of the time derivative of work factors—differences in pressure, concentration, electrical potential, etc., such as in the equation shown.

Josef Schnippenkotter (1886-c.1955)
German science philosopher
1920diploma icon 27x20 His PhD dissertation “The Entropological Proof of God: the Physical Development of the Entropy Principle and its Philosophical Meaning” was on the entropological proof of God's existence.

Paul Ehrenfest 75Paul Ehrenfest (1880-1933)
Austrian physicist
c.1920Statistical mechanics icon|Economics iconStudent of Boltzmann, noted for his noted for his 1911 Ehrenfest model (dog flea model) of the multiplicity function; later became interested in developing mathematical theories in economics, stimulated by his notion that there should be an analogy between thermodynamics and economic processes. While this did not result in publications, he did encourage his graduate student Jan Tinbergen (1929) to follow up on this, work which won him the 1969 Nobel Prize in economics.

Person icon (29x43)Albert Mathews (1871-1957)
American biophysical chemist
c.1920RIP icon|Life icon|Religion icon 20x27Noted for his discussions of the life, death, and ‘souls’ of atoms in terms of energy and light.

Paul Foote (1888-1971)
American physicist
c.1920Wrote “The Temperature of Heaven and Hell”, penned as a humor piece.

Howard Scott 75Howard Scott (1890-1970)
American engineer
1920 Economics iconCentral architect behind the decade-long funded technocracy movement (still active to this day), a grouped aimed at reformulating the US economy based on thermodynamic energy monetary units, most of the theory said to have been culled from the chemical thermodynamics of Willard Gibbs.

Person icon 75Petre Trisca (c.1890-c.1956)
French sociologist
1922 sociology icon 29x20His Preliminaries on Social Mechanics gives an objectionable critique of the social mechanics theories of Lester Ward, Spiru Haret (his legal thermodynamics in particular), Leon Winiarski, and Antonio Portuendo, among others; considers “social mechanics” to be a utopia or metaphysics.

Charles Guye (1866-1942)
Swiss physicist
1922His Physical Chemical Evolution asks: how is it possible to understand life, when the whole world is ruled by the second law of thermodynamics, which points towards death and annihilation?

Jacques Rueff 75Jacques Rueff (1896-1978)
French mathematician and economist
1922 Economics icon|caged bird iconHis From the Physical to the Moral, argued that exactly the same scientific method can be applied to "moral" or "social" sciences like economics, as to the physical sciences; in opposition to the objection that methods applied, say, to the theory of thermodynamics cannot be applied to the study of human beings endowed with free will, Rueff replied that just as there is no thermodynamics for a single molecule, there is no economics for an individual.

Thomas Carver 75Thomas Carver (1865-1961)
American economist
1924 Economics icon|sociology icon 29x20His The Economy of Human Energy, argued that life processes of social groups consist in transforming the largest possible sum of solar energy into human energy, whereby civilization is a device for storing energy, and social welfare depends upon its utilization in such ways as to increase the sum total of utilization of the sun’s energy

Vernadsky 75Vladimir Vernadsky (1863-1945)
Russian mineralogist and biogeologist
1926globe icon|Life icon|Ecology iconHis The Biosphere, using Willard Gibbs as a basis, outlined six-layer "thermodynamic envelope" theory of "living matter", in the biosphere, employing a free energy description of life as a type of "green fire" or geological force and the diffusion of life as “a sign of internal energy – of the chemical work life performs – analogous to the diffusion of a gas, caused not by gravity, but by the separate energetic movements of its component particles.”

Robert Lindsay 75Robert Lindsay (1900-1985) American physicist1927Spent nearly six-decades attempting to explaining social phenomena in terms of physical science, as exemplified by his 1927 article “Physical Laws and Social Phenomena”, his 1942 introduction of the term "negentropy" as version of human ethics, his 1963 introduction of the "thermodynamic imperative" (a update of Wilhelm Ostwald's energetic imperative), as well as his 1983 chapter “Social Exemplifications of Physical Principles”; much of this inquiry focused on a study of energy and thermodynamics.

Bertrand Russell 75Bertrand Russell (1872-1970)
British mathematician
1927 Nobel Prize icon|Religion icon 20x27His lecture “Why I Am Not a Christian”, and follow-up book by the same name, is listed is one of the most influential 150 books of the 20th century, in which explains how religion and the theory of god are incompatible with thermodynamics, in particular with the second law and heat death; his 1927 Analysis of Matter, discusses reversibility in terms of photon-electron movement; he won the 1950 Nobel Prize in literature.

Arthur Eddington 75Arthur Eddington (1882-1944)
English mathematician, astronomer, and physicist
1927 universe icon|arrow of time icon|Beauty icon 15x21|Psychology iconIn his Gifford Lectures, and followup book, on the Nature of the Physical World, he reasoned that there might be an entropy-clock in the mind that mediates consciousness, speculated on the association between entropy and beauty, popularized the time’s arrow of physics, and outlined heat death model or the “running-down of the universe” theory.

Ernest Barnes (1874-1953)
English mathematician and theologian
1927Discussed connections between religion and the first and second law.

Vladimir Stanchinsky (c.1887-c.1947)
Russian scientist
1927 His Variability of Organisms and its Importance for Evolution introduced the food chain thermodynamic model by postulated that the quantity of living matter in the biosphere depends on the amount of solar energy that is transformed by natural communities at different trophic (i.e. food chain) levels, and on this basis studied “dynamic equilibrium” of natural communities by invoking the second law to explain decreasing biomass of the higher groups on the “trophic ladder”.

Nicolas Rashevsky 75 Nicolas Rashevsky (1899-1972)
Russian-born American thermodynamicist, theoretical biologist, and sociologist
c.1928 In the late 1920s, in a casual conversation with a biologist from the University of Pittsburgh, at a social occasion (during a period when time when he was working on the thermodynamics of the division of liquid droplets), he asked the biologist whether the thermodynamic mechanisms on which he was working on was the way biological cells divide, in response to which he was told that: (1) nobody knew no how biological cells divided and (2) nobody could know how biological cells divided, because this was biology (the typical unbridgeable gap view); this chance conversation prompted him to switch careers, first to theoretical biology (where he developed "relational biology") and in 1948 to mathematical sociology; his 1935 article turned chapter "Mathematical Theory of Human Relations" builds on the work of Alfred Lotka to attempt to derive mathematical equations for things such as ‘desire’ and ‘will’, in terms of concepts such as intensities and physical forces; his students include: Robert Rosen and Anatol Rapoport.

Carl Jung 75Carl Jung (1875-1961)
Swiss psychiatrist
1928Psychology iconHis “On Psychic Energy”, added to the first law based psychology of Sigmund Freud, especially on the topics of "psychic energy" and of entropy in relation to the psyche, as in “psychic entropy”; Jung referred to his subject as "psychic energism and dynamism", now referred to as Jungian psychodynamics, in contrast to Freudian psychodynamics, or Kleinian psychodynamics, the latter referring to the Freudian-based child psychology theories of British psychologist Melanie Klein.

Pitirim Sorokin 75Pitirim Sorokin (1889-1968)
Russian-born American sociologist
1928sociology icon 29x20He devotes the first sixty-pages of his Contemporary Sociological Theories, to first summarize what he calls the "mechanistic school of social thermodynamics", namely those who have used a "human molecule" or social atom views, steeped in social mechanism and thermodynamics-based views, including: Leon Winiarski, Vilfredo Pareto, Eugene Roberty, Henry Carey, and Wilhelm Ostwald, to conclude and argue, in the end, that the theories developed by this school are all "pseudo-sciences" and mere "superficial analogies"; In his 1941 Social and Cultural Dynamics attempts to explain the so-called problem of linear sociocultural processes in terms of entropy and heat death.

Leo SzilardLeó Szilárd (1889-1964)
Hungarian-born American physicist
1929 Completed PhD dissertation on “The Manifestation of Thermodynamic Fluctuations”; his 1929 article “On the Decrease in Entropy in a Thermodynamic System by the Intervention of Intelligent Beings”, attempted to espouse a relationship between Maxwell’s demon and information; in 1930, taught a theoretical physics seminar with Erwin Schrodinger and John Neumann.

Jan Tinbergen 75 Jan Tinbergen (1903-1994)
Dutch economist
1929 Nobel Prize icon|Economics iconGuided by his advisor Paul Ehrenfest’s idea that there should be analogies between thermodynamics and economics, did his PhD this topic, thesis “Minimization Problems in Economics and Physics”, wherein he developed and applied dynamic models to the analysis of economic processes; won the 1969 Nobel Prize in economics for this work.

Ronald Fisher (1890-1962)
English statistical evolutionary biologist
1930 His The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection attempts to grapple with entropy and disorder, and with fitness, evolution, and organization.

Siegfried Bernfeld (1892-1953)
Ukrainian-born Austrian psychologist
c.1930 Psychology iconNoted for various articles, co-written with physicist Sergei Feitelberg, applying energy, entropy, and Le Chatelier’s principle, etc., models to psychology to attempt measurement.

Sergei Feitelberg (1905-1967)
Austrian? physicist
c.1930Psychology iconNoted for articles, co-written with psychologist Siegfried Bernfeld, applying energy, entropy, and Le Chatelier’s principle, etc., models to psychology to attempt measurement and instinct theory.

Wilhelm Reich (1897-1957)
Austrian-born American psychologist
c.1930 sex iconProposed his “orgone energy” theory, a type of universal vitalism-style radiating “biological energy” that was proposed to be something that could be quantified and measured; penned the 1942 book The Function of the Orgasm: Sex-Economic Problems of Biological Energy; in circa 1950s, he was selling “orgone accumulators” a hypothetical type of organismic energy accumulating device.

James Jeans (1877-1946)
English mathematical physicist
1931 His book The Mysterious Universe argues that inanimate matter obeys the second law of thermodynamics implicitly, but life succeeds in evading the second law in varying degrees.

Julian Huxley 75Julian Huxley (1887-1975)
English evolutionary biologist
1931 evolution icon|universe icon|Religion icon 20x27In lectures at the Science and Religion symposium, and two books to follow (1953, 1964), seemed to arguing for a type of deity running the universe, i.e. that “there may be agencies operating in the universe supplying energy which would enable the whole cosmos to behave in an anti-entropic manner”, in attempts to reconcile the seemingly at odds view that the physical universe is running down, when the universe of biological evolution is running up.

William Inge 75William Inge (1860-1954)
English writer and priest
1931 Religion icon 20x27|universe iconHis course of Warburton lectures on religion, physics, and astronomy (1931-1933), argued for the field of animate thermodynamics, resulting in the 1934 God and the Astronomers; used thermodynamics and heat death theory to argue for the existence of the Christian god, as compared to other pantheistic gods, who he argued would be subjected to heat death.

Person icon 75Georges guillaume (c.1904-c.1974)
French-Swiss physicist and economist
1932Economics iconHis 1932 PhD dissertation (turned book) On the Fundamentals of the Economy with Rational Forecasting Techniques, co-written with the "mathematical assistance" of Edouard Guillaume, applied the formalism of thermodynamics to the theory of value; the book was then sent to Hungarian-born American chemical engineer John Neumann for critical review.

Guggenheim 75Edward Guggenheim (1901-1970)
English chemical thermodynamicist
1933  \Delta G < 0 \,Stated the Lewis inequality for a natural process (dG < 0) and the Lewis inequality for an unnatural process (dG > 0).

John von NeumannJohn Neumann (1903-1957) Hungarian-born American mathematician and chemical engineer (IQ icon=163-180)1934Economics icon|Life icon|information iconHis review of Georges Guillaume's 1932 economic thermodynamics dissertation, concluded that: "if this [economic-thermodynamic] analogy can be worked out at all, the analogon of ‘entropy’ must be sought in the direction of ‘liquidity’. To be more specific: if the analogon of ‘energy’ is ‘value’ of the estate of an economical subject, then analogon of its thermodynamic ‘free energy’ should be its ‘cash value’." His followup 1938 article “A Model of General Economic Equilibrium”, derives a function φ (X, Y) related to the production of goods, based on the model of thermodynamic potentials, and is considered a classic; his late 1940s symposium lectures (1948) on electrical automatons illustrated the role which free energy plays in creating statistically unlikely configurations of matter; his ill-fated late 1940s suggestion to American electrical engineer Claude Shannon (1949) to call telegraph wire "information" high and low voltage pulses by the name “entropy”, as a joke, has resulted to instill a misinformed modern view that binary logic is based on steam engine theory.

Lewis Mumford 75Lewis Mumford (1895-1990)
American historian
1934 Economics icon|Religion icon 20x27Explained capital gains from the standpoint of social energetics; in 1951 argued that mankind invented the devil or destroyer of classical religions, as being the mythical equivalent of the second law.

Oliver Reiser 75Oliver Reiser (1895-1974)
American philosopher
1935 Statistical mechanics icon|sociology icon 29x20|molecule man 35|Life iconIn his Philosophy and Conceptions of Modern Science, furthered the work of Edwin Slosson, in applying the second law to the study of human history, “a step forward”; devoted a section to the social energetics, i.e. those who brought physical chemistry methods to bear on social problems, such as Wilhelm Ostwald, Henry Adams, and Thomas Carver; on the origin of life, he defined life as a "form of chemical behavior"; in commentary on Vilfredo Pareto’s conception of human society as a system of molecules or ‘constituents of a statistical ensemble’ notes that the ‘super-observer’ perspective would be needed to measure the ‘total state’ of the system; in his 1940 The Promise of Scientific Humanism, discusses how the behavior of living matter, as defined by the thermodynamics, compares to molecular behavior.

Lawrence Henderson 75Lawrence Henderson (1878-1942)
American physiologist
1935 Attempted to explain Vilfredo Pareto's 1916 sociology theories via Gibbsian thermodynamics "analogies".

Alexis Carrel 75Alexis Carrel (1873-1944)
French surgeon and biologist
1935 Argued that the second law is “useless at the psychological level”; that “as much importance should be given to feelings as to thermodynamics”; and the 1936 edition of his controversially best-selling book Man: the Unknown commented that “the German government has taken ‘energetic measures’ against the propagation of the defective.”

Roger Caillois 75Roger Caillois (1913-1978)
French sociologist, anthropologist, and philosopher
c.1935 Psychology icon|sex icon|Life iconTheorized, thermodynamically, that every production process presupposes an initial hierarch, a primary distinction, an original inequality, a difference between high and low or between a cold source and hot source, as quantified by the statement that the entropy of a given system cannot decline; thus, psychasthenia, the lowering of psychological or mental energy, means that in sexual interactions, and in mimetic-behavior resulting sociological interactions, the initial gap diminishes, the power source heats up, production diminishes. The vital distinctions wither. Both the praying mantis, by assimilating her mate, for instance, and mimetic insects, by ceasing to distinguish themselves from their surroundings, illustrate this moment in which beings no longer have the energy to establish difference; notably quipped the famous 1973 quote “Clausius and Darwin cannot both be right.”

Joseph Needham 75Joseph Needham (1900-1995)
British biochemist and Chinese chemistry historian
1936 His Silliman memorial lecture (religious-based science lecture) turned book Order and Life discusses the heat death, running down, disorganization view of the second law; in the context of the contradictory common man’s view of life as undergoing progressive development; his 1942 “Evolution and Thermodynamics: a Paradox with Social Significance” expands on this; he was an affinity chemist historian mentor to Jeremy Adler.

Prigogine 75Ilya Prigogine (1917-2003)
Russian-born Belgian chemist and thermodynamicist
1937 Nobel Prize icon|Bifurcation icon|arrow of time icon|evolution icon|Life icon|sociology icon 29x20|philosophy 39x20|No determinism 18x20Prigogine viewAfter reading Henri Bergson’s Creative Evolution (1907), at the age of twenty, he began to devote himself to solving the riddle of the relationship between time, human existence, thermodynamics, and evolution, starting with three articles: “Essay on Physical Philosophy”, “The Problem of Determinism”, and “The Evolution”, on the topics of determinism, quantum mechanics, biological evolution, and time; completed his PhD on The Thermodynamics of Irreversible Phenomena (1941), under Theophile de Donder; obtained cult status and "disciples" with his 1977 Self-Organization in Non-Equilibrium Systems: from Dissipative Structures to Order through Fluctuations (the year he also won the Nobel Prize for his theories); and obtained layperson icon status with his 1984 Order Out of Chaos; went on to published numerous articles, books, and lectures on his theories up until the year of his death (Is the Future Given?, 2003). Winner of the 1977 Nobel prize in chemistry for his work.

Talcott Parsons 75 Talcott Parsons (1902-1979)
American sociologist
1937 Learned the concept of equilibrium (in what seems to be Gibbsian), as taught to him by Lawrence Henderson, thus believing that without equilibrium, a society would display no order; had extensive discussions with Henderson during the writing of the manuscript for his 1937 The Structure of Social Action; throughout his 1953 Working Papers in the Theory of Action, advanced the claim that social interchange is isomorphic with the laws of thermodynamics, and not purely in a metaphorical sense, but in an actual sense.

Aldous Huxley (1894-1963)
English writer
1937 Outlined, in fictional format, ideas on human entropy; wrote the second law themed novel Island (1962).

Pierre du Nouy 75Pierre du Nouy (1883-1947)
French-born American mathematician, biophysicist, and religious philosopher
1939 Advocates of intelligent design, tend to cite his 1939 book The Road to Reason, which is packed with discussions on entropy, molecules, Maxwell’s demon, kinetic theory, thermodynamics, Arthur Eddington, etc., as a standard reference for the argument on the improbability of living things to have formed out of the random chance of the material of the universe, from a statistical-mechanical point of view; his 1942 book Human Destiny, uses a Boltzmann-themed statistical view to argue that the second law of thermodynamics does not apply to humanity and that God is synonymous with anti-chance.

Donald Murray (1865-1945)
New Zealand engineer and philosopher
1939Wrote on philosophy in the context of god, thermodynamics, and the steam engine.

Hyman Levy (1889-1975)
Scottish mathematician and philosopher
1939 His Modern Science expresses the (fourth law) view that “side by side with the second law, in so far as it may be valid for large scale systems—if it is so valid—there must exist a law for the evolution of novel forms of aggregated energy and the emergence of new qualities.”

Paul Samuelson 75Paul Samuelson (1915-2009)
American economist
1940 Nobel Prize icon|Economics iconHis PhD dissertation, written hastily in the mid-1940s, modeled each person as an economic agent, and assumed that each individual acted so as to maximize a quantity called ‘expected utility’, a model with which he assumed should be able to predict their behavior in much the same way that physicists predict the behavior of physical objects; a variational differentiation theory that he had learned, supposedly, from studying under Edwin Wilson, the sole protégé of Willard Gibbs, who taught Samuelson in lecture that in the chemical model of the Le Chatelier’s principle, in a system (chemical or economic) the changes in the equilibrium is a constrained maximization problem, such as when one of the constraints is marginally tightened or relaxed. Variation of the demand for a factor with a change in its price, e.g., was analytically similar, according to Samuelson, to thermodynamic variation in the pressure, volume, and temperature of an ideal gas. The thesis won international acclaim, and was published in 1947 as Foundations of Economic Analysis, and would go on to become one of the highest selling economics textbooks of all time as well as win him the 1970 Nobel Prize in economics. Into the 1970s, nearly turning his back on the foundations that had made him famous, he became a vocal objector to economists and ‘retired’ engineers, as he put it, attempting to force analogies of entropy, energy, and other concepts from physics into the social sciences, thinkers he referred to as ‘half-baked speculator’, particularly when it came to social entropy formulations, publications he would receive monthly, and called such formulations "mathematical isomorphisms".

Charles Sherrington 75Charles Sherrington (1857-1952)
English physiologist
1940 Nobel Prize icon|philosophy 39x20|Life icon|evolution iconWinner of the 1932 Nobel Prize in physiology; in his 1940 philosophical-style Man on His Nature, he touches on entropy, evolution, and life, with keen-insight states correctly that “chemistry does not know the word life”, a precursor to the 2009 defunct theory of life and animate thermodynamics.

Wilbur Urban 75Wilbur Urban (1873-1952)
American language philosopher
c.1940 philosophy 39x20Argued, in what seems to be in opposition to William James' view, that the second law cannot be wholly irrelevant to philosophy, as James said it was in regards to history.

Harold Davis 75Harold Davis (1892-1974)
American mathematician
1941 Economics iconIn his ‘econometrics’ theory, according to Nicholas Georgescu, established a formal similarity between certain thermodynamics equations and economic equations; defined the utility of money as a representation of “economic entropy”.

Luigi Fantappie (1901-1956)
Italian mathematical physicist
1941His term 'syntropy' (or syntropia in Italian), is said to describe phenomena governed by a force, opposed to entropy, which attracts living systems towards higher levels of organization and order.

Mehdi Bazargan 75Mehdi Bazargan (1907-1995)
Iranian mechanical engineer and thermodynamicist
 W = U - TS \,
RIP icon|Religion icon 20x27|man digging icon|Love icon|caged bird icon Completed his PhD in thermodynamics (1930s); wrote on “The Thermodynamics of Love” (c.1942); in his Labor in Islam (1946), wrote a chapter on physiological thermodynamics of human labor in the context of will power; during a five-month prison spell (for political opposition), wrote the Human Thermodynamics (1956), the first book entitled “human thermodynamics”, wherein he used a thermodynamics based framework, in particular Helmholtz free energy equation (adjacent) to explain Islam, work, death, desire, love, and reincarnation scientifically.

Schrodinger 75Erwin Schrödinger (1887-1961)
Austrian physicist and statistical thermodynamicist
1943  - (\text{entropy}) = k \log \frac{1}{D} \,Nobel Prize icon|Life iconWon 1933 Nobel Prize in physics; his 1943 course of lectures on the physics of life, delivered at Trinity College, Dublin, documented in his What is Life? (1944), he instilled the paradoxical idea into the minds of the lay public that the negative value of entropy is a measure of order of the body in question; and that life is something that feeds on negative entropy; after which, however, he was attacked by his physicist colleagues, replying that he would have turned the discussion towards free energy, but judged the concept too difficult for the lay public

Leslie White 75Leslie White (1900-1975)
American anthropologist
1943anthropology iconScripted crude formulas on the nature of energy, entropy, and free energy in culture; described as "anthropology's most significant prophet of the second law."

Buckminster Fuller 75Buckminster Fuller (1895-1893)
American architect and philosopher
1944Economics icon|evolution iconIntroduced the energy slave concept; in 1975 posited a metaphorical theory of synergetics, where he loosely equated synergy to negentropy; in his 1976 And it Came to Pass—Not to Stay, wrote about evolution as an eddy in the second law.

Léon Brillouin 75Léon Brillouin (1889-1969)
French-born American physicist
1946 Life icon|information icon|Cybernetics iconIn a 1946 debate at Harvard on how to understand life in the context of a universe governed by the second law, three point of view emerged: (a) physics and chemistry will soon be able to explain life, without any special “life principle”; (b) something more is needed before we understand life; (c) life cannot be understood without reference to a special “life principle”; that thermodynamics only applies to dead and inert matter; that life is an exception to the second law; his 1949 article “Life, Thermodynamics, and Cybernetics” argues for the latter opinion; contains a section on Entropy and Intelligence, wherein he states that a standard issue of The New York Times, Norbert Weiner’s Cybernetics, and an equal weight of scrap paper all have the same entropy; this was followed by “Thermodynamics and Information Theory” (1950), “Negentropy Principle of Information” (1953), and Science and Information Theory (1956) all of which use a hodgepodge of mathematical derivation to make connections between thermodynamics, information, and cybernetics so to attempt to substantiate his "living principle" argument.

Person icon (29x43)Johannes Lisman (c.1900-c.1990)
Dutch scientist
1946 Economics iconCompiled the book Econometrics, Statistics, and Thermodynamics; his 1949 “Econometrics and Thermodynamics” picks apart Harold Davis’ attempt (1941) to use thermodynamic equations, in an isomorphism manner, to make a theory of budgets.

Ubbelohde 75Alfred Ubbelohde (1907-1988)
Belgian-born English thermodynamicist
1947Life icon|Economics icon|Love icon|sociology icon 29x20In his Time and Thermodynamics, he notes that life-histories of people would have to be taken, e.g. whether or not a bachelor had been successful in business or not prior to a first date, into account to formulate human chemical thermodynamic models of equilibrium, such as in measuring the financial temperature of a cinema; in his 1955 Man and Energy, chapter "Thermodynamics and Life", he introduced the subject of animate thermodynamics (a modern-day replacement for the incorrigible term life thermodynamics) by stating that "animate matter" is the synonym for the old-fashioned outdated shorthand term "life", thus seeding the 2009 defunct theory of life; also coined the term disentropic.

Person icon (29x43)Emyr Hughes (1905-1978)
Welsh physical chemist
1947molecule man 35Promoted the view that “energy among molecules is like money among men. The rich are few, the poor numerous.”

Tjalling Koopmans 75Tjalling Koopmans (1910-1985)
Dutch-born American mathematician, theoretical physicist, and economist
1947molecule man 35|Economics iconViewed people as the "molecules of economic life"; in 1970s, began speculating on how entropy applies to the study of these molecules of economic life.

Person icon (29x43)Andrew Pikler (c.1910-c.1980)
American electrical engineer
1947Economics iconGave an overview of the use of mechanics and thermodynamics in economics in the early years and highlighting connections, such as between temperature and velocity of circulation of money; his economic ideas were promoted by John Neumann.

Claude Shannon (1916-2001)
American electrical engineer
1948 information iconHis article “A Mathematical Theory of Communication” attempt to make a formal parallel between Boltzmann entropy and the informational content of 1s and 0s sent in telegraph lines, infamously also calling the latter by the name “entropy”; in 1955, after years of attack for his name borrowing affair, he had to recant that the basic results of his subject are “not necessarily relevant to such fields as psychology, economics, and other social sciences.”

Norbert Wiener 75Norbert Wiener (1894-1964)
American mathematician
1948 Cybernetics icon|information iconHis Cybernetics: or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine, introduced the subject of cybernetics and commented (based on the 1943 work of Erwin Schrodinger) that "the notion of information attaches itself very naturally to a classical notion in statistical mechanics: that of entropy"; his 1950 The Human Uses of Human Beings: Cybernetics and Society, contains a chapter "Entropy and Progress", in which he theorizes about progress entropically.

Harold Blum (1899-1980)
American biologist
1950His Time’s Arrow and Evolution aimed to reconcile the second law, time's arrow, with organic evolution.

Richard Raymond (c.1935-)
American physicist
1950 His 1950 “Communication, Entropy, and Life” extends on the work of Leon Brillouin, Norbert Wiener, and Ludwig Bertalanffy to discuss ideas on entropy, information, and living organisms; authored the 1951 “The Well-Informed Heat Engine” on what seems to be Leo Szilard's ideas.

Josef Fischer (1894-1973)
Czech philosopher and sociologist
1950sWorked hard to develop a fourth law of thermodynamics.

icon 75 (test)Reinhold Furth (1893-1979)
Czechoslovakian-born English physicist
1951 His 1951 BAAS lecture “Physics of Social Equilibrium”, he outlines a recommendation that sociology students should use both the sciences of crystallography and statistical mechanics as their models for the study of society, the latter of which he says holds great possibilities.

Pope Pius XII 75Pope Pius XII (1876-1958)
Head of Catholic Church, 1939-1958
1951 Religion icon 20x27|universe iconIn his notorious Nov 28 Christmas lecture, he argued that Rudolf Clausius' law of entropy provides "eloquent evidence of the existence of a Necessary Being."

Jacob Moreno (1889-1974)
Romanian-born American psychologist
1951His ‘social atom theory’, a modified Freudian-Jungian psychology mixed with extrapolated chemistry-physics metaphors, in which each person is defined as a social atom, with focus on the differences in energy levels of different relationships, and how invested energy in specific relationship bonds can cause spontaneous quantum leaps or up or down shifts in relationship structure and dynamics.

C.G. Darwin 75C.G. Darwin (1887-1962)
English physicist
1952PV = K\mid_{n,T} \,evolution icon|molecule man 35|caged bird iconThe introduction to his book The Next Million Years, defined the science of "human thermodynamics" as the statistical mechanics of conservative dynamical systems of "human molecules", a subject that he viewed to have the power to predict the next million years of human evolution, outlining the framework of this subject using an analogy on Boyle's law (adjacent).

Jerome Rothstein 75Jerome Rothstein (1918-)
American physicist
1952 Noted for his various publications, beginning in 1952, arguing for the equivalence of system “organization” and the information theory version of “negative entropy”; his 1960 lecture “Thermodynamics and Some Undecidable Physical Questions” argued that the second law is violated in the cases of: determinism and free will, the origin of the universe, the fate of the universe, and the discovery or causes of purposes in nature; his circa 1974 “Generalized Life”, uses thermodynamic arguments to conclude that life forms in the cosmos may exist as self-replicating, computer-controlled, heat engines able to play survival games, that we may not be able to recognize.

Vera Daniel (c.1913-)
English physicist and electrical researcher
1952His “Physical Principles in Human Cooperation” uses analogy as a starting point to apply physical principles to human affairs; his 1954 “The Uses and Abuses of Analogy” attempts to show that while most analogy abstractions to human modeling are unsound, that his is justified because his approach uses the scientific method and that his “excursion into sociology constitutes a use and not an abuse of analogy”; comments on Winiarski's social mechanics that it would involve "calculations of fantastic difficulty".

Motoyosi Sugita (1905-1990)
Japanese physicist
1952 His article “Negative Entropy” critiques Erwin Schrodinger’s 1943 negative entropy hypothesis; founder of Society for Studies on Entropy.

Person icon 75William Jordy (1917-1997)
American historian
1952 F = C + 2 - P \,His Henry Adams: Scientific Historian is highly critical of Henry Adams’ attempt to apply the laws of science, in particular the phase rule and the second law, to history; goes into detail discussing Willard Gibbs and his phase rule equation (shown) applied to history.

Gordon Van Wylen (1920-)
American mechanical engineer
1953Wrote a thermodynamics textbook which included a discussion of God.

Howard Odum (1924-2002) American ecologist and systems theorist1953His 1953 Fundamentals of Ecology, co-written with his brother Eugene Odum, he penned chapter on energetics introduced an type energy circuit language; in 1955, in coordination with American physicist and chemical engineer Richard C. Pinkerton, motivated by Alfred Lotka's 1922 articles on the energetics of evolution, they developed a theory (maximum power principle) that natural systems tend to operate at an efficiency that produces the maximum power output, not the maximum efficiency. This theory in turn motivated Odum to propose maximum power as a fundamental thermodynamic law; a fourth law, as he later came to call it (1994).

Eugene Odum (1917-2002)
American zoologist
1953 His textbook Fundamentals of Ecology incorporated the first two laws of thermodynamics into ecology.

Claude Levi-Struass 75Claude Lévi-Strauss (1908-2009)
French anthropologist
1955 anthropology icon|Cybernetics iconIn the 1950s, gained an understanding of entropy from cybernetics; in 1955 coined the terms entropology and entropologist; in 1959 discussed the energetic and entropic nature of “hot” (primitive cultures) and “cold” (modern cultures) societies; discussed how modern civilizations are “powered by a difference of electrical pressure expressed in various forms of social hierarchy, where a social imbalance is used to produce both much greater order and much less entropy in relations between people.”

Walter Albersheim (1897-c.1982)
German-born American electrical engineer and physicist
1955Wrote an article on entropy and evil.

Fred Cottrell (1903-1979)
American sociologist
1955 His Energy and Society sought to explain human societies as thermodynamic systems and to connect this with cultural evolution.

Elizabeth Porteus 75Elizabeth Porteus (1911-2010) American philosopher 1956 Happiness icon|philosophy 39x20|universe icon|evolution icon|molecule man 35|Love icon|sex iconBegan working out her impulse theory of happiness, while in college (1930s), defining humans a ‘chemical units’ or ‘units of energy’ that attract toward each other, as well as bang into each other causing friction and heat, as do other atoms and particles of the universe, and that the reason for existence is not to be found in sex but rather circling around a certain disposition towards following one’s impulses (as well as giving direction to the impulses of one’s children) in the creation new unities, orders, and harmonies, in accordance with the second law; ran a popular column (1956) expounding on her philosophy in the Honolulu Advertiser, which ran for 26 columns; eventually compiled and published in My Twentieth Century Philosophy (1987) and later online (1999) and in the JHT (2005).

Charles Herrick 75Charles Herrick (1868-1960)
American neurologist
1956Psychology icon|evolution iconHis The Evolution of Human Nature speculates on how the second law of thermodynamics may or may not apply to the mind, in relation to entropy increases or decreases in open or closed systems; discussing aspects of human social evolution thermodynamically.

Isaac Asimov 75Isaac Asimov (1920-1992)
Russian-born American biochemist and science fiction writer
1956 His short story The Last Question is centered on the second law and heat death; authored the 1970 “In the Game of Energy and Thermodynamics You Can’t Break Even”; his 1975 Biographical Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, was the staple reference for Ingo Muller’s 2007 A History of Thermodynamics.

Ramon Margalef 75Ramon Margalef (1919-2004)
Spanish ecologist
1957 In his Information Theory in Ecology outlined a cybernetics, information theory, and thermodynamics theory of ecology; is noted for his exosomatic energy vs. endosomatic energy theories.

Thomas Pynchon 75Thomas Pynchon (1937-)
American engineering physicist turned writer
1958 Cybernetics iconIn his short story "Entropy", he employed the entropy models of Henry Adams and Norbert Wiener; followup entropy-themed stories and novels, including:The Crying of Lot 49 (1966), The Slow Learner (1985), etc., that have gained a sort of cult-following.

Alan Watts 75Alan Watts (1915-1973)
Anglo-American philosopher
c.1960philosophy 39x20|yin yang iconWrote on a mixture of thermodynamics and Eastern philosophy.

Jacques Lacan 75Jacques Lacan (1901-1981)
French psychoanalyst
1960s Noted for his dissection of Freudian logic in regards to how it rested on the view of man as an energy machine; in his 1968 lectures, he extrapolated on the conservation of energy and entropy, albeit in a very obscure and riddled manner, speaking of entropy, for example, as a “loss of jouissance”, in some way connected to the pleasure principle or a loss of enjoyment.

Niklas Luhmann 75Niklas Luhmann (1927-1998) German sociologist1960s Studied under Talcott Parsons (1961); later would emphasize entropy, disorder, and communicative failure; is said to have shared systems views of society with Jacques Ellul.

Howard Seifert (1911-1977)
American aeronautics physicist
1961His talk “Can We Decrease Our Entropy?” takes issue with Robert Lindsey’s thermodynamic imperative, on the suggestion that it is it is one’s moral responsibility to create order, even though no one knows or agrees on what constitutes “maximum order”.

Steven Polgar (1931-1978)
Hungarian-born American anthropologist
1961 His “Evolution and the Thermodynamic Imperative” builds on Robert Lindsay’s 1959 thermodynamic imperative to talk about ‘entropy retarding’ and ‘availability of energy’ aspects of living systems in the development of cultures and in the actions of information transmissions through generations.

Person icon 75Werner Stark (1909-1985)
Austrian social economist
1962Economics icon|sociology icon 29x20|molecule man 35Was of the opinion, culled from Henry Carey, that “in the physical universe, heat is engendered by friction. Consequently the case must be the same in the social world. The ‘particles’ must rub together here, as they do there. The rubbing of the human molecules, which produces warmth, light and forward movement, is the interchange of goods, services, and ideas.”

Bernard Strehler (1925-2001)
American biologist
1962 Began developing aging theories in 1944; attempted to establish an aging research institute with Leo Szilard in 1956; his 1962 book Time, Cells, and Aging, attempt to explain how entropy relates to aging.

Person icon (29x43)Ivan Bazarov (1916-2005)
Russian thermodynamicist
1964universe icon|Religion icon 20x27In his Thermodynamics textbook, he argued logically against the thermodynamic proof of the existence of god; in particular, a version discussed by Friedrich Engels.

James Lovelock 75James Lovelock (1919-)
English scientist
1964 Life icon|globe icon|Beauty icon 15x21|information iconWhile at NASA, in theorizing in their upcoming plans to explore Mars, proposed that to build a machine that would recognize alien life, it would need to be able to look for or detect an “entropy reduction, since this must be a general characteristic of all forms of life”; outlined his model in his 1975 article “Thermodynamics and the Recognition of Alien Biospheres”; this resulted in the 1979 "Gaia hypothesis" which argued that the earth is a type of living symbiotic organism.

Eric Berne (1910-1970)
Canadian-born American psychiatrist
1964 His Games People Play builds on the psychodynamic work of Sigmund Freud, particularly ego states, to frame out a social psychodynamics where players motives depends on aspects of the mental states of the other players in the game; focuses on the notion that stimulus-hunger through social interaction is parallel to that of the hunger for food and that in the modern world, with an over-abundance of food available to the average person, the former hunger takes precedence in one’s waking hours.

Peter Hammond (c.1929-)
American anthropologist
1964 His Cultural and Social Anthropology, culls from Schrodinger and Boltzmann, argues that to understand man we must understand that “cultural systems, like biological systems, expend energy that is captured [by the sun]; in performing a ritual, playing a game, regarding a churinga with awe, or breathing a silent prayer, the event is an expression of energy expended.”

Jurgen Ruesch (1910-1995)
Swiss-born American psychiatrist
1964 Psychology iconNoted for having classified “psycho-thermodynamics” as the psychological modeling of human functioning based on energy analogies; as contrasted with “psychohydraulics” (pressure analogies) or “psychoelectronics” (machine analogies).

Douglas Spanner (c.1920-)
English biophysicist and minister
1964 Religion icon 20x27Wrote An Introduction to Thermodynamics: Experimental Botany; later wrote on the creation and evolution debate (1987; 2004).

James Coleman 75James Coleman (1926-1995)
American chemical engineer and sociologist
1964 His Introduction of Mathematical Sociology outlined a Shannon entropy type "entropy index" of racial diversity, which he claimed was parallel to Gibbs entropy and Boltzmann entropy.

Jack Kirkaldy 75Jack Kirkaldy (1926-)
Canadian materials science engineer
1965His “Thermodynamics of the Human Brain” outlines a free energy minimization principle of brain operation, consciousness, and development; his “Thermodynamics of Terrestrial Evolution” argues that the “causal element of biological evolution and development can be understood in terms of a potential function which is generalized from the variational principles of irreversible thermodynamics.”

Horton Johnson (1923-)
American pathologist
1965 Wrote a number of articles (1965-1987) on information theory, thermodynamics, and cellular biology; his 1970 “Information Theory in Biology after 18 Years” concludes (as one might have guessed) that “applications of information theory to biology, have not proved very useful.”

Csíkszentmihályi 75Mihály Csíkszentmihályi (1934-)
Hungarian-born American psychologist
c.1965Psychology iconAfter stumbled upon a chance lecture of Carl Jung was instantly converted into the path of becoming a psychologist, thereafter using Jung's theories on entropy to formulate a flow theory of optimal experience, i.e. Csíkszentmihályi flow, or “states of optimal experience”, as outlined in his popular 1990 Flow – the Psychology of Optimal Experience, and others to follow.

Roegen 75Nicholas Georgescu (1906-1994)
Romanian-born American mathematician
1966Economics iconPublished an introductory essay on the relation between entropy and economics; his highly-cited 1971 book The Entropy Law and the Economic Process, situated a material entropy theory which argued that economic systems are governed by the second law, albeit he misinterpreted bound energy and free energy, to mean that, in economic terms, available energy stored in fossil fuels tends to be used up over time and converted into an unusable form of waste heat or energy.

William Plank 75 William Plank (c.1934-)
American philosopher
1966 diploma icon 27x20Completed his MA thesis on “Art and the Artist in the Cosmogenesis of Teilhard de Chardin” on Pierre Teilhard; his 2002 book The Will to Power and the Nature of Dissipative Structures outlines a Teilhard-based dissipative system philosophy on Friedrich Nietzsche's "will to power".

Erwin Hiebert (c.1926-)
American science historian
1966Wrote essay: The Uses and Abuses of Thermodynamics in Religion.

Kenneth Boulding 75Kenneth Boulding (1910-1993)
English-born American economist
1966 Economics icon|Ecology iconHis article “The Economics of the Coming Spaceship Earth”, which introduced the factitious concept of “material entropy”, is often-cited as having launched the modern field of economic thermodynamics; his 1978 Ecodynamics: A New Theory of Social Evolution, discusses entropy and the second law.

John O'Manique (1936-2003)
Canadian philosopher
1966diploma icon 27x20Did PhD dissertation on Pierre Teilhard; later wrote Energy and Evolution (1969).

Daniel Katz (1903-1998)
American psychologist
1966 His highly-cited The Social Psychology of Organization, co-written with Robert Kahn, utilizes a mix of energy, entropy, general systems theory, to model individuals as carriers of energy so to outline a social psychology of organization.

Robert Kahn (1918-)
American psychologist / systems theorist
1966Co-author to energy-entropy themed book The Social Psychology of Organization with Daniel Katz.

Stephen Brush 75Stephen Brush (1935-)
American chemist, physicist, and science historian
1967 Was the 1964 English translator of Ludwig Boltzmann’s Lectures on Gas Theory; his 1967 “Thermodynamics and History” addresses the use of thermodynamic theory in art and literature; his 1976 book The Kind of Motion We Call Heat, on the history of kinetic theory, won the Pfizer Award of History of Science Society; his 1978 The Temperature of History: Phases of Science and Culture in the Nineteenth Century, in which he discusses the thermodynamics of Henry Adams and Freud’s death wish, among other topics.

Herman Daly 75Herman Daly (1938-)
American economist
1967 Economics icon|Ecology iconCompleted his PhD in economics under Nicholas Georgescu; in his follow up articles and books, e.g. “On Economics as a Life Science” (1968), Steady State Economics (1977), Beyond Growth (1996), etc., employed a Boulding material entropy / Georgescu entropy hourglass model to argue that the ultimate natural sources of scarcity is low-entropy matter-energy.

Walter Buckley (1922-2006)
American sociologist
1967 In his Sociology and Modern Systems Theory utilized negentropy, culled from general systems theory, in theorizing about social decline.

Johan Galtung 75Johan Galtung (1930-) Norwegian sociologist1967 Bazooka joe iconHis “Entropy and the General Theory of Peace”, a mix of thermodynamics and information theory to explain peace and conflict using conceptions such as “conflict energy”, “conflict transformation”, “actor entropy”, and “interaction entropy”; postulates that macro-conflicts, such as war between nations, will occur when entropy level is low, while micro-conflicts, such as cognitive dissonance, will occur when the entropy level is high; defines entropy condition of messiness or disorder but not in a pejorative sense; the incapacity of a system to crystallize or establish order permits, for instance, greater complexity and diversity, thus acting to mitigate the reification of violent structures.

Robert E. Mueller (c.1927-)
American art theorist
1967 Cybernetics iconHis 1967 The Science of Art: the Cybernetics of Creative Communication employs entropy, cybernetics, Maxwell’s demon, etc., theory to discuss art and communication.

Lila Gatlin (1928-)
American biophysicist
1967 In 1967, gave a series of lectures to graduate students in biology at Bryn Mawr on life defined as an “information processing system”, such that DNA stores the information, the brain process it, and the who thing has something to do with entropy; this resulted in her 1972 Information Theory and the Living System, in which she argues that entropy reduction within living systems occurs whenever information is stored, and devotes a section on the “Reductionist—Anti-reductionist Controversy”.

Georges Balandier (1920-)
French anthropologist
1967 Noted for his view that “power may be defined, for every society, as resulting from the need to struggle against the entropy that threatens it with disorder.”

Harry Overstreet (1875-1970)
American philosopher and naturalist humanist
c.1967philosophy 39x20|Beauty icon 15x21|Religion icon 20x27Introduction of the term “extropy”, a counter-entropy (anti-entropy) quantity, which he defined as involving truth and beauty and goodness, would be expected to lead inevitably to God.

Ludwig Bertalanffy 75Ludwig Bertalanffy (1901-1972)
Austrian biologist
1968His General Systems Theory employs a mix of biology, information theory (from Claude Shannon), cybernetics (from Norbert Wiener), and bit of verbal thermodynamics, to outline a general systems theory to which he alluded could be applied sociologically.

Frank Lambert 75Frank Lambert (1921-)
American organic chemist
1968 Wrote the article “The Ontology of Evil”, discussing different types of thermodynamic evil; taught a course on entropy to humanities students for many years; in circa 2000 launched a slurry of entropy/second law websites, promoting a energy dispersal view of entropy, among other subjects.

Person icon (29x43)Bruce Gunn (c.1940-)
American business marketing and management theorist
1968business iconArgued that Le Chatelier's principle and transformation of energy define employee motivation.

Ronald Fox 75Ronald Fox (1943-)
American physicist
1969 Completed PhD in 1969 with a dissertation on “Contributions to the Theory of Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics”; his 1998 Energy and the Evolution of Life argues that the flow of energy through matter was the impetus for the origin of life and for the continued complexity of evolution as it occurs.

John Bowlby 75John Bowlby (1907-1990)
British developmental psychologist
1969Psychology iconDevoted the entire first chapter, titled “Point of View”, of his monumental three-volume Attachment series treatise, towards an effort to discredit psychodynamics founder Sigmund Freud in his use of physics terms, such as energy, entropy, force, pressure, or inertia, as in "principle of inertia", etc., in psychology; arguing, for instance, that “nor is it to be supposed that the principle of entropy apples to living as it does to non-living systems.”

Nathan Schwartz 75Nathan Schwartz (c.1940-) Swiss-born American Jungian psychologist1969Psychology icon|new ageDid 222-page PhD thesis on Entropy, Negentropy, and the Psyche: an Inquiry into the Structure of Psychic Energy.

Person icon 75Elihu Fein (c.1916-)
American physicist
1970molecule man 35|sociology icon 29x20In his "Demography and Thermodynamics", he outlines a "molecular sociology", in which he explains how social activity is analogous to molecular activity; using concepts such as adiabatic and entropy in social systems.

Robert Nisbet 75Robert Nisbet (1913-1996)
American sociologist
1970 In his The Social Bond, attempted to use modern chemistry and physics as a role model to outline a version of sociology where a “man is chemical and physical being”, but “also social”, and sought to pinpoint the “forces” that hold individuals together in groups and institutions (employing the terms: 'social bonds' actuating the 'social molecule' to explain these subjects; devoted a chapter to "social entropy" (on order and disorder in society).

Rudolf Arnheim (1904-2007)
German-born American psychologist and visual arts theorist
1971 His Entropy and Art: an Essay on Disorder and Order, overviews a number of views on the ordering tendencies in life in relation to statistical disorder and art.

John Garcia (1936-2001)
American writer
1971Built on Pierre Teilhard, to outline a type of anti-entropy creative moral evolution theory.

Alan Wilson 75Alan Wilson (1939-)
English urban architect
1970architect iconIn his book Entropy in Urban and Regional Modelling, he used thermodynamics and entropy logic to facilitate city planning, based on the logic of general systems theory and entropy.

Person icon 75Daedalus (c.1930-)
Science writer
1971 Outlined a molecular sociology based type of financial thermodynamics, in several weekly columns of New Scientist, describing money as a heat-like entity whose concentration determines a financial temperature.

Arthur Iberall 75Arthur Iberall (1918-2002)
American physicist-engineer
1971 molecule man 35|Life icon|sociology icon 29x20Beginning with his Toward a General Science of Viable Systems and culminating with his 1993 Foundations for Social and Biological Evolution, he outlined a rather detailed and interesting systems within systems theory of dynamical change, defining people as “human atomisms”, using theories such as homeokinetics, field thermodynamics, i.e. the Hamiltonian applied to sociology and biology, each heavily integrated with thermodynamics and physics.

Frederick Rossini 75Frederick Rossini (1899-1990)
American chemical thermodynamicist
Government icon\ln K = -\frac{\Delta H^\circ}{R} \left( \frac{1}{T} \right)+\frac{\Delta S^\circ}{R}|Freedom icon 18x20Argued that the equilibrium constant version of the Gibbs equation (adjacent) explains the paradox between freedom and security in social life, in a chemical thermodynamics sense; this hypothesis launched the 2006 Rossini debate on whether or not this human chemical thermodynamics framework is true, especially in a post 9/11 world.

Person icon 75Roy Henderson (c.1935-)
Australian mechanical engineer
1971molecule man 35|Statistical mechanics iconModeled of crowd behavior and pedestrian traffic on fluid mechanics and ideal gas models; in his first paper, the highly-cited 1971 “The Statistics of Crowd Fluids”, he measured the movements of college students on a campus and children on a playground, finding that in both cases their movements fit the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution.

Henry Bent (c.1927-)
American physical chemist
1971In 1962, introduced the global entropy analysis approach used to assess the spontaneity of physicochemical processes; published the The Second Law (1965); his 1971 “Haste Makes Waste: Pollution and Entropy” attempts at a connection between the maintenance of the environment and entropy; his 1977 “Entropy and the Energy Crisis” coins the phrase “personal entropy ethic” in arguing that to help the energy crises one needs to be ethical in the energetic aspects of life based on knowledge of the second law and spent a year on the road conducting a “Thermodynamics, Art, Poetry, and the Environment” workshop for the Office of Science Education.

Stephen Berry 75Stephen Berry (1931-)
American physical chemist
1971 His 1971 article “The Option for Survival” argues that in order to understand ‘survival’ one must use a thermodynamics view on the premise that people must recycle waste while the thermodynamic potential is still moderately high; authored at least three followup articles on the application of thermodynamics to economics (1972, 1978, 1979).

Tibor Ganti (c.1930-)
Hungarian chemical engineer
1971Developed his theory that living organisms are chemotons, or chemical automatons; his 2003 Chemoton Theory: Theory of Living Systems discusses the energy/thermodynamics based “life theories” of four noted thinkers: Gottfried Leibniz (particularly his theory of the soul), Erwin Bauer, Erwin Schrodinger, and Ludwig Bertalanffy.

Olivier Beauregard 75Olivier Beauregard (1911-2007)
French theoretical physicist
1972 In his 1972 “Information Theory and Thermodynamics”, co-written with Myron Tribus, defe1963nding the thermodynamics interpretation of information; his 1963 The Second Principle of the Science of Time, Entropy, Information, and Irreversibility attempts to reconcile reversible time of relativity, and irreversible time of consciousness and thermodynamics, using the information theory ideas of Leo Szilard and Leon Brillouin.

Marlan Blissett (c.1933-)
American political scientist
1972 His Politics in Science, has a chapter “Big Science and the Laws of Social Thermodynamics”, in which he pens a set of "laws of social thermodynamics"; argues that “social and political space must be constantly affirmed against the entropy of an environment”; collaborated Howard Odum in 1987, on the topic of emergy analysis.

Jacques Ellul (1912-1994)
French sociologist
1972 His The Political Illusion speculates on entropy in modern society; his 1990 The Technological Bluff uses entropy in social systems theories, discussing terms such as economic entropy, technological entropy, and neg-entropy in the reverse process.

George Effinger (1947-2002)
American writer
1972 His science fiction novel What Entropy Means to Me, concludes with a section on black hole entropy and god.

Stephen Coleman 75 newStephen Coleman (1942-)
American political scientist
1972 diploma icon 27x20|politics icon|information iconHis PhD dissertation-turned book (Measurement and Analysis of Political Systems: a Science of Social Behavior, 1975) employed information theory concepts (mostly) to concepts such as political thermodynamics, political entropy, and voting, to argue ideas such as: “an entropy value for a unitary social system is analogous to a temperature reading for a thermodynamic system, such as a volume of gas. In a state of temperature equilibrium one temperature measurement describes the whole volume of any part of it. If a social system is in an entropy equilibrium, a single entropy measurement describes the state of the system or any subsystem. For a system in partial equilibrium, the entropy values of its subsystems must be known.”

Kenneth Friedman 75Kenneth Friedman (c.1945-)
American physicist, philosopher, and financial theorist
1973 After completing his MS in physics and PhD in the philosophy of science at MIT, he then studied nonlinear thermodynamics under Ilya Prigogine (and Laszlo Tisza), as well as studying under philosophers such as Karl Popper and Huston Smith; after chairing the philosophy department at SUNY at Oswego, for twelve years, he then worked as a securities analysis and money manager, during which time he claims to have capitalized on a cyclic view of markets grounded in nonlinear thermodynamics; his 2003 Myths of the Free Market models economies as nonlinear thermodynamic systems where people are viewed as interacting economically similar to the way the neighboring molecules of a Benard cell “cooperate” in their movement to dissipate heat.

Stephen Hawking 75Stephen Hawking (1942-)
British astrophysicist
1973 Co-authored the 1973 paper “The Four Laws of Black Hole Mechanics”, Brandon Carter James Bardeen, on black hole thermodynamics and black hole entropy; his 1988 book A Brief History of Time discusses entropy and the psychological arrow; his Illustrated 1996 edition contains a order-disorder diagram of a human in the act of reading in regards to entropy change (one of the clues that stimulated Libb Thims in to figuring out (2001) how the quantity “H – TS” changes from states to states of human instances or periods of human configurational existence.

Eugene Ruyle 75Eugene Ruyle (1936-)
American anthropologist
1973Pioneered the science of ethnoenergetics, a precursory themed subject to human thermodynamics, arguing that labor, value, money, and capital are all forms of “ethnoenergy”, defined as “somatic energy expended by the members of a population”, that property is an “ethnoenergetic field”, and that money is “a symbol for energy, a claim on the energy of other people”; in 2003, outlined a theory of social “thermodynamic flows” and discussed the idea of a "thermodynamic substratum" underlying human society.

Person icon (29x43)Lev Rozonoer (c.1934-)
Russian cybernetician
1973 Economics icon|information iconHis “A Generalized Thermodynamic Approach to Resource Exchange and Allocation” discusses analogies in thermodynamics and economics; in 1998, was theorizing on the relation between information, entropy, and energy dissipation in information transmission.

Harold Nieburg (1927-2001)
American political scientist
1973 politics iconHis Culture Storm contains a chapter entitled "political thermodynamics" (his coining) that cites a few individuals such as Bertrand Russell, Claude Levi-Strauss, and Eric Berne, to outline ideas such as how “in any specific bargaining engagement, one party’s order becomes another’s entropy”; how The boundaries of conflicting systems of order can overlap creating arenas of social entropy (relative disorder) and competition”; how there may exist a “postulate a thermodynamic law of behavior”, among other ideas.

Lynn Margulis 75Lynn Margulis (1938-)
American biologist
c.1973Life icon|sex icon|globe icon|evolution icon|information iconBegan working with James Lovelock (1964) in efforts to explain the symbiotic relation the biosphere and the atmosphere using a mixture of chemical thermodynamics, cybernetics, information theory, employing the 1968 essergy theory of Robert Evans to unify the entire approach; went on to write a number of books over the years, e.g. What is Life? (1995), What is Sex? (1997), Dazzle Gradually: Reflections on the Nature of Nature (2007), with her son Dorion Sagan, etc., all themed on a variety of life-centric thermodynamic theories.

Henry Morris (1918-2006)
American civil-hydraulics engineer
1974Argued that evolution is impossible according to the second law.

Albert Szent-Gyorgyi 75Albert Szent-Gyorgyi (1893-1986)
Hungarian physiologist and bioenergetics
1974Nobel Prize icon|Life iconProposed (1974) to replace the term "negative entropy" (or negentropy) with “syntropy”, which he pictured as a force which causes living things to reach "higher and higher levels of organization, order and dynamic harmony"; followed this up with his 1977 article "Drive in Living Matter to Perfect Itself"; winner of the 1931 Nobel Prize in physiology for his synthesis of Vitamin C.

Paul Davies 75Paul Davies (1946-)
English physicist and astrobiologist
1974universe icon|Life icon|Religion icon 20x27His The Physics of Time Asymmetry is a detailed exposition on reversibility; in circa 1983, he began to develop a gravity-driven entropy gap theory of order creation to account for the origin of life, which he has expanded on in a number of books into the 1990s and 2000s.

Carter Finn (1935-)
American writer
1974diploma icon 27x20Did thesis/dissertation on Religion, Philosophy, and the Second Law of Thermodynamics.

Richard Adams (1924-)
American anthropologist
1975 His Energy and Structure: a Theory of Social Power, cites individuals and topics such as: Claude Levi-Strauss, dissipative systems, Erwin Schrodinger, Alfred Lotka, energy forms, embodied energy, maximum power principle, Nicholas Georgescu, Howard Odum, Leslie White, Maxwell’s demon, negative entropy, etc., to argue that social power and anthropological studies of energy processes are based on the first and second law, to the effect that social power is based on control over energetic processes; his 1988 book The Eighth Day: Social Evolution as the Self-Organization of Energy, argues that energy processes provide a basis for explaining, comparing, and measuring complex social evolution, wherein society is conceived as a self-organization of energy.

Joel de Rosnay 75Joel de Rosnay (1937-)
French biochemist
1975His The Macroscope: a New World Scientific System, uses a mix of cybernetics, systems theory, biochemistry, and thermodynamics, the human particle view (advanced intelligence perspective), energy, entropy, negentropy, and free energy to a significant extent, to outline a “macroscopic view of society”; his 1995 book The Symbiotic Man cites the likes of Ilya Prigogine, Pierre Teilhard, and chaos theory, etc., and comments that there are “two great tendencies of matter, toward life and toward entropy.”

Orrin Klapp (1915-1997)
American sociologist
In 1975, spoke in terms of controlling boundaries in order to, among other things, restrict the entry of entropy into the social system; his 1978 Opening and Closing outlines a general systems theory / Shannon-thermodynamics type theory of “entropic communication” in society.

Person icon (29x43) David Foster (c.1919-)
English scientist
1975 Religion icon 20x27|Cybernetics icon|philosophy 39x20His Intelligent Universe: a Cybernetic Philosophy, mixes the second law ideas with blind random chance notions; his 1985 The Philosophical Scientists outlines a rather convoluted existence of God theory in which employs "specificity" (improbability), along with cybernetics, to argue that something called "logos" (that which is behind DNA) "circumnavigates the second law", and that universe was brought into existence by the void of God's mental space, or something along these lines.

Arthur Young 75Arthur Young (1905-1999)
American engineer and philosopher
1976Religion icon 20x27|philosophy 39x20|No determinism 18x20In his 1976 Reflexive Universe, he attempts to discredit determinism using negentropy ideas and attempts to explain consciousness and the soul in terms of the first law.

icon 75 (test)Jeffrey Wicken (c.1940-c.2000)
American biochemist
1976evolution icon|sociology icon 29x20|Economics icon|Religion icon 20x27|Hinduism icon|philosophy 39x20|information iconPublished a number of articles and book chapters centered around thermodynamics, evolution, complexity, information, with side-excursions on religious commentary, culminating in his 1987 book Evolution, Thermodynamics, and Information; he is cited by those as Eric Schneider, Charles ****, among others, as sort of a legend and main inspiration behind continued thermodynamic excursions.

Fred Fox (1919-2007)
American professor of science education
1976Outlined ideas on ethics based on the second law, e.g. that social aspirations are anti-entropic, organization equates to potential energy, etc.

Ed Stephan 75Ed Stephan (1939-2008)
American chemistry major turned political scientist and sociologist
1977  E = ST - pV + \mu N \,In 1977, following a talk on human population distributions, began with physicist Louis Barrett questions such as whether “humans are fermions or boson”; in 1980, began to discuss with chemist George Gerhold the subject of how the a Gibbs fundamental equation (version shown) applies to sociological systems of people; questions they speculated on included: “What is the total time in a social system? At the level of particles, temperature is just velocity of movement. I sense an analogy between temperature in physical systems and the technology of transportation and communication in social systems. Modern societies are 'hotter'. Big cities (high interactance centers) are 'hot': People, commodities and ideas move around faster. 'Hot' regions subdivide territory more thoroughly than 'cool' ones. And what is entropy — unpredictability? is that what we call freedom? What is the social equivalent of the product entropy-times-temperature? Freedom of movement? What do pressure and volume suggest, if anything? Could the raw product kNT be given some sociological meaning? Do humans have something like chemical potential, some sort of (bonding) potential? Maybe the last two terms in could be combined into something with a meaning specific to sociology. Combining them into -N(1 + α), with N as a population — what would be the sociological significance of the factor -(1 + α)/β? Could the value for β computed above in the case of urban population distributions (β = 2v/xμ) have any application?”; published some of his finalized ideas in the 1995 online book The Division of Territory in Society.

Reiner Kummel 75Reiner Kummel (1939-)
German theoretical physicist
1977Economics icon|University iconHis first articles was “Energy and Economic Growth”; followed up by books such as Energy and Justice; since 2005, has been teaching a course on "Economics and Thermodynamics", at the University of Wurzburg, and authored the 2011 book The Second Law of Economics: Energy, Entropy, and the Origins of Wealth.

Edgar Morin (1921-)
French philosopher
1977 Known for his “complexity theory” of sociology, in which he utilizes a mixes of the second law, entropy, disorder and organization, cybernetics, among others; is described as one of "Prigogine's disciples", arguing to the effect that organization emerges out of disorder, in such a way that organization constantly absorbs more and more energy, in order to become more dense, dynamic and productive.

Paul Ehrlich (1932-)
American biologist
1977 His chapter “Availability, Entropy, and the Laws of Thermodynamics”, co-written with Anne Ehrlich and John Holdren, discusses, very superficially, the high-grade (availability) low-grade (non-availability) of energy forms, e.g. stored energy in gas, versus room temperature heat; his 2008 The Dominant Animal discusses the second law degradation model of the steps of the food-chain.

Georgi Gladyshev 75Georgi Gladyshev (1936-)
Russian physical chemist
Gladyshev's evolution integral
evolution icon|Life icon|sociology icon 29x20|Chromatography icon smallIn reaction-opposition to Ilya Prigogine's 1937 far-from-equilibrium, dissipative structure thermodynamics model of life and evolution, he developed a "hierarchical thermodynamics" type of quasi-equilibrium model using his law of temporal hierarchies, principle of substance stability, liquid chromatography models, to make a Gibbs free energy volumentric-style equation (above) to explain the evolution of living beings and society; in the 1990s, began developing thermodynamic anti-aging theories of foodstuffs; his 1997 book Thermodynamic Theory of the Evolution of Living Beings, captures the gist of his theory.

Dick Hammond 75Dick Hammond (c.1938-)
American entropy philosophy educator
1978 diploma icon 27x20|Scales icon 26x20Competed his EdD in 1978 on “Analysis of Entropy Reduction and its Implications for Ethical Instruction in Public Education” under Ilya Prigogine; would go onto teach, promote, and organize workshops on instilling a type of "entropy ethics" morality model to children and young adults; the summary of which culminated in his 2005 book Human System from Entropy to Ethics.

Morgan Peck (1936-2005)
American psychiatrist
1978Outlined his view on entropy, evolution, evil, and love in his famous The Road Less Traveled.

Peter Molton (c.1943-)
American chemist
1978 His article “Polymers to Living Cells: Molecules against Entropy” defines life as “regions of order that use energy to maintain their organization against the disruptive force of entropy.”

James Miller (1916-2002)
American psychologist
1978His Living Systems attempts to integrate the biological and social sciences in the universal physical science terms of English physicists Arthur Eddington and James Jeans; the result, however, ends up being a melting pot of ideas about boundaries, negative entropy, matter-energy, information, etc., all jumbled together will little overall sustenance.

Rupert Riedl (1925-2005)
Austrian zoologist
1978 His Order in Living Systems argues that living organisms do not violate the second law, but rather, as open systems they are able to evade the second law and are “exentropic” owing to the flow of energy from the sun to outer space, whereby local processes may lead to order such as a sonnet or the smile on a Mona Lisa.

Serge Galam 75Serge Galam (c.1945-)
French physicist
1979 sociology icon 29x20|Freedom icon 18x20|molecule man 35|Phase diagram iconSince circa 1979, has been working to promote and develop the science of sociophysics; his 1982 article “Entropy, Disorder, and Individual Freedom”, attempts to argue that facets of freedom exist within the confines of universal heat death; published the 1996 chapter “When Humans Interact Like Atoms”; in his 2004 “Sociophysics: A Personal Testimony”, he gives an inside look at the 25-years of resistance he has faced from both young and old, established and non-established scientists at the premise of a physics based sociology.

Robert Ulanowicz 75Robert Ulanowicz (1943-)
American chemical engineer and theoretical ecologist
1979 Ecology icon|Life icon| F = U - \theta S \,Religion icon 20x27|philosophy 39x20|information icon|caged bird icon|No determinism 18x20Conceived (in 1979) of an information theory based version of free energy applied to ecosystems, termed “ascendency”, which he considered as a pseudo-thermodynamic function (first outlined in his 1980 article “An Hypothesis on the Development of Natural Communities”); his 1986 book Growth and Development extends on this using Helmholtz free energy (equation shown); his 2009 A Third Window: Natural Life Beyond Newton and Darwin, seems to argue for the existence of God in the context of an emergent (or process biology) thermodynamic depiction of evolution (or ascendency), supposedly, under the guise of the “ontic openness of nature”; is presently of the view that “entropy or entropy-related measures (such as free energy) should *not* be invoked for living systems!” (email communicate to Libb Thims, 2011), which he says he first argued on page 21 of his 1986 book.

Person icon 75Wil Lepkowski (c.1938-)
American chemist and science writer
1979 His article “The Social Thermodynamics of Ilya Prigogine”, argues that the nonequilibrium thermodynamics of Ilya Prigogine can lead to new ways of understanding social processes in the form of 'social thermodynamics'.

Tjalling Koopmans 75Tjalling Koopmans (1910-1985)
Dutch-born American mathematician, theoretical physicist, economist
1979 Nobel Prize icon|molecule man 35|Economics iconIs credited with introducing the “human molecule” version of the economic agent, in economics, stating that it is no longer possible for economists to deny the usefulness of the human molecular hypothesis; began thinking about entropy in the 1970s, and in 1979 stated “if we will be more forthcoming with explanations of our cherished terms, our science colleagues may be more inclined to help us with ‘entropy’, which to me is a more difficult concept than anything economics has to offer.” Winner of 1975 Nobel Prize in economics.

John Bryant 75John Bryant (1944-)
English mechanical engineer and business consultant
1979Economics iconBegan thinking about the relationship between the cost of oil, energy, and thermodynamics in the 1970s; published articles such as “A Thermodynamic Approach to Economics” (1982), and a 2009 book Thermoeconomics: A Thermodynamic Approach to Economics, all making crude isomorphism extrapolations of thermodynamic equations and variables to economics.

Freeman Dyson 75Freeman Dyson (1923-)
English-born American theoretical physicist
1979Life icon|universe iconProposed the view that life in the future will be able to cope with the cooling and dimming expected from heat death of the universe; postulated that intelligent beings generate a fixed entropy ΔS per thought; his 1999 book Origins of Life, argues that the complexity of a living organism is proportional to the negative of its entropy and also computes the entropy of a human being.

Robert Costanza (1950-)
American systems ecologist and economist
1979 Ecology icon|Economics icon|molecule man 35Completed his PhD in 1979 in systems ecology under Howard T. Odum (embodied energy theorist) with a minor in economics; would extend on Odum’s work as the founding editor of Ecological Economics (1989-); in a 1995 publication, he and Thomas Prugh seem to object to the view of people as ‘human molecules’.

Paul Colinvaux (1930-)
English-born American zoologist and ecologist
1979 His Why Big Fierce Animals are Rare uses the second law to argue that big meat-eating animals are rare because the available energy in each step in the food chain is degraded.

Daniel Hershey 75Daniel Hershey (c.1931-)
American chemical engineer
1980  \frac{dS}{dt} = \frac{dS_e}{dt} + \frac{ds_i}{dt} \,His The New Age-Scale for Humans argues that the derivative of the Prigogine entropy with respect to time (equation shown) applies to human systems; in the 1980s and 1990s, published near to a dozen articles on entropy, aging, and death; his 1992 "A Rational Design of a Governing Structure for Czechoslovakia, in General Systems Alternative Economics and Values" seems to be on thermodynamic applications in economics and government; his 2009 book Entropy Theory of Aging Systems argues that entropy is a measure of disorder, and that systems left to their own tend to age towards disorder and speculates on corporate structure.

Jean-François Lyotard (1924-1998)
French philosopher
1980sUtilized entropy and negentropy in his post-modernism philosophical theories.

Michel Serres (1930-)
French philosopher
1980sNoted for philosophical excursions into thermodynamics.

Person icon (29x43)Irving Simon (1920-)
American writer
1980 evolution iconWrote the 1980, 70-page booklet Centropy: the Vertical Aspect of Evolution; and followup 1989, 250-page book Centropy: Evolution of Energy Systems, arguing for a centropy model of evolution.

Jeremy Rifkin 75Jeremy Rifkin (1945-)
American economist
1980Economics icon|Ecology icon|Religion icon 20x27In his 1980 Entropy: A New World View (Entropy: Into the Greenhouse World, 1989 revised), uses Nicholas Georgescu’s material entropy views as a platform to argue, in a misunderstood way, that just about every modern-day malady, from pesticides, to city crime, to mental illness, is due to the “entropy law”; religiously, he argues that “the spiritual plane is not governed by the ironclad dictates of the entropy law”; in his 2010 The Empathic Civilization, argues that global warming and increased CO2 emissions are the “entropy bill” for the industrial revolution, among other illogical contrivances.

Jay Teachman 75Jay Teachman (c.1950-)
American sociologist
1980 information icon|sociology icon 29x20His “Analysis of Population Diversity” introduced a Shannon entropy type of index of diversity measure (Teachman index).

Peter Atkins 75Peter Atkins (1940-)
English physical chemist
1981 molecule man 35|evolution icon|universe icon|sociology icon 29x20|philosophy 39x20|Religion icon 20x27|His 1978 multi-edition textbook Physical Chemistry is his bread and butter; on a second less rigorous side, his various over-laymanized books (The Second Law, 1987; Four Laws that Drive the Universe, 2007; etc.) have promoted an energy dispersal view of entropy and the second law. On this latter laymanized basis, he has attempted to combat the religious view of creation to argue for a physical chemistry distorted “purposeless universe” model of human existence. His 1992 Creation Revisited and 2011 On Being exemplify this line of argument. Overall, he argues that elephants and men are evolved emergent types of "molecules equipped for competition, survival, and reproduction", albeit molecules that are "unimportant", "insignificant", and "without purpose" on the mis-aligned basis that the "driving force" of chemistry and chemical reactions is the tendency to chaos.

Jean Baudrillard (1929-2007)
French social philosopher and pataphysicist
1981Theorized on 'cultural molecules', energy, negentropy, information, cybernetics.

Julian Simon 75Julian Simon (1932-1998)
American economics
1981 Economics icon|Ecology iconIn his The Ultimate Resource (1996 3rd ed), in commentary on material entropy (pseudo second law) natural resource theories of Nicholas Georgescu (1971), Jeremy Rifkin (1989), etc., concludes that “the notion of entropy is entirely irrelevant to us” (supposedly, on the logic that plate tectonics and geological processes will renew natural resources); after which he came under attack by those including Paul Ehrlich, comment: “one wonders if Simon could not at least find a junior high school science student to review his writings”, and Garrett Hardin, comment: “I am appalled at your misunderstanding or denial of the second law and the conservation laws.”

Richard Gregory (1923-2010)
British neuropsychologist
1981 His Mind in Science argues that "life is a systematic reversal of entropy" and that “somehow living organisms including plants [have] succeed[ed] in reducing their entropy.”

George Glider 75George Glider (1939-)
American economist
1981 Religion icon 20x27|information icon|Economics icon|Government icon|evolution iconIn his million-copy best seller Wealth and Poverty, he argues that the mind transcends the second law, on the logic that knowledge and mental information accumulation compounds as it is used; he is an intelligent design advocate and against materialism and evolution; his 1990 Microcosm, has a chapter on the “Curve of Declining Entropy”; his 2000 Telecosm, argues, owing to Shannon information, that through learning, humans have now figured out how to defy the thermodynamic laws behind the rise and fall of civilizations.

Vonda McIntyre (1943-)
American biological geneticist turned science fiction writer
1981Her science fiction novel The Entropy Effect formed the basis of the early framework of the Star Trek series.

Xenophon Zolotas 75Xenophon Zolotas (1904-2004)
Greek economist
1981 Economics iconIn his Economic Growth and Social Welfare, he devotes a few pages to addressing Nicholas Georgescu’s 1971 material entropy version of the second law, stating that recycling won’t help things; and concludes that in the future when newer forms of energy resources become available, such as solar or wind, the second law will become “practically irrelevant, since the economic process would be part of an open system”; of note, Zolotas’ growth function stimulated the later Gibbs free energy based economic work production function of Dimitris Keranis (2005).

Adriaan de Lange 75Adriaan de Lange (1945-)
South African chemical physicist
1982  \Delta G - W < 0 \,Chromatography icon small|Battery icon (small)|Bifurcation icon|Psychology icon|Religion icon 20x27Very well-read physical-sciences based thinker (above the 500+ book level in studying how thermodynamics applies to the humanities) who in 1982 began to view the idea that entropy production must apply to the spiritual world; then, in 1986, while teaching physical chemistry class, grasped the idea that “the intricate calculations concerning free energy in chemical reactions” must apply to the process of knowing and learning, on the extrapolation that student's learning behaviors must follow or map to the behaviors of molecules moving through the chromatograph column; in 1987, completed a yet unpublished manuscript Entropy, Creativity, and Learning; in the late 1990s, began posting and discussing his theories at the Learning-org.com forums; and in 2009 published an online book Irreversible Self-Organization (in Afrikaans).

Jeremy Campbell (c.1952-)
English-born American investigative journalist
1982 information icon|Life iconHis 1982 Grammatical Man: Information, Entropy, Language, and Life, tells the story of rise of information theory and discusses thermodynamics and life; his 1990 chapter “Some Parallel Themes in Modern Science and Literature”, discusses Stephen Brush, Maxwell’s demon, etc., a bit.

Robert Russell (c.1946-)
American physicist-theologian
1982Outlined theories on the relation between entropy, disorder, and evil.

Ivan Kennedy 75 Ivan Kennedy (c. 1940-)
Australian agricultural biophysicist
1983 Beginning with articles such as the “Action and entropy in a neurological disorder”, began to introduce an action thermodynamics theory, a type incongruous unitless thermodynamics, which argues that energy quantums are the integral cause of action or movement in all systems, molecular to biospheric, and that these movements must correlate with movements towards equilibriums as defined by the spontaneity criterion, which employs concept of 'action', a type of unitless property said to be related to entropy, resulting from impulses of energy on matter producing force, framed in the conservation of momentum; his 2001 Action in Ecosystems: Biothermodynamics for Sustainability and 2008 “Sustaining Action and Optimising Entropy” expand on this view; an example excerpt from the latter: “given the forceful tendency of internal energy to change the action of the system as a whole, there is a real sense in which an initial nonequilibrium state of higher free energy following absorption of a quantum of light is more chaotic and disordered than the more relaxed state of higher action and entropy toward which the system evolves”.

Eric Zencey 75Eric Zencey (1953-)
American political philosopher and social historian
1983 In circa 1980, after reading Thomas Kuhn’s Structure of Scientific Revolutions, began collecting references to the second law used as a metaphor for social theory; made this the title of his 1985 dissertation and second chapter (and thematic framework) to his 2000 book Virgin Forest: Meditation on History, Ecology, and Culture.

Anthonie Muller 75Anthonie Muller (1951-)
Dutch biophysicist
1983Life iconDeveloped a thermosynthesis theory which posits that the origin of life, prior to photosynthesis, began as a type of thermoelectric driven heat engine.

Enzo Tiezzi 75Enzo Tiezzi (1938-)
Italian physical chemist
1983 Bifurcation icon|evolution icon|sociology icon 29x20Has penned a number of books: The End of Time (1983), Steps Towards and Evolutionary Physics (2006), and City Out of Chaos (2009), all of which seem to focus on outlining a thermodynamics based model of sustainability to counter so-called unsustainable human behaviors.

Malte Faber 75Malte Faber (1938-)
German economist
1983Economics icon|sociology icon 29x20Has written a number of articles over the years to develop a physico-economics publications, on the introduction of entropy and irreversibility into economics and sociology.

Kenneth Bailey (1941-)
American sociologist
1983Completed his sociology PhD (1968) in general systems theory; in 1983, began to publish articles on sociology and entropy; his 1990 Social Entropy Theory outlines a very indigestible nonequilibrium version societal analysis using a mix of Ludwig Bertalanffy's general systems theory, Claude Shannon's entropy (predominately), and Rudolf Clausius' entropy.

Seth Lloyd (1960-)
American physicist / quantum informationist
1983 Completed PhD dissertation on “Black Holes, Demons, and the Loss of Coherence: How Complex Systems Get Information, and What They Do With It”; wrote on thermodynamic depth (1988).

Philip Mirowski 75Philip Mirowski (1951-)
American economist and physics historian
1984 Economics iconBeginning with his “Physics and the Marginalist Revolution”, in which he address the works of thinkers such as Leon Walras, Francis Edgeworth, Vilfredo Pareto, etc., and books to follow, i.e. Against Mechanism: How to Protect Economics from Science (1988), More Heat than Light: Economics as Social Physics, Physics as Nature’s Economics (1989), etc., he devotes considerable effort to addressing the history of economic thought, with specific focus on a critique of the incorporation of physics theories (many from thermodynamics), often in the form of metaphors, analogies, and isomorphisms, into economic theory, giving what seems to be an objectionable view along the way.

Klaus Jaffe 75Klaus Jaffe (1951-)
Venezuelan chemical biologist
1984Life icon|sociology icon 29x20 Beginning with his 1984 article “Negentropy and the Evolution of Chemical Recruitment in Ants”, he has published a number of articles on the energetics of social phenomena, outlining an irreversible thermodynamics model of social life, based on studies of ant societies and extends the model to explain the energetics of human societies in 1999; as of 2010, working on a book on the thermodynamics of the social process.

James Kay 75James Kay (1954-2004)
Canadian ecologist
1984evolution icon|Life icon|Ecology iconPhD was “Self-organization and the Thermodynamics of Living Systems”, a Prigoginean-based model of self-organization in living systems, arguing that the evolution of natural systems is a progression away from disorder and equilibrium, into the formation of high organized structures that exist some distance away from equilibrium, in contrast to the equilibrium-seeking decay toward death and random disorder, supposedly portrayed by Boltzmann; went on to co-author a gradient based evolution theory with American ecologist Eric Schneider (1994).

Isabelle Stengers 75Isabelle Stengers (1949-)
Belgian chemist-philosopher
1984philosophy 39x20Noted for her co-authoring work with Ilya Prigogine, namely Order Out of Chaos (1984) and The End of Certainty (1997), in which she is often said to have been responsible for the laymanizing of Prigogine’s theories; she also produced independent related works.

Daniel Brooks 75 Daniel Brooks (1951-)
Canadian zoologist
1984 His “Evolution as an Entropic Phenomenon” and followup Evolution as Entropy: Toward a Unified theory of Biology, both co-written with Edward Wiley, employ a melting pot theory of thermodynamics and evolution, e.g. Ludwig Boltzmann’s complexions, Gibbs free energy change, Carnot efficiency, Ilya Prigogine's internal entropy, the “energy flow” models of Elton Sutherland and Raymond Lindeman, Alfred Lotka, Robert Ulanowicz, Jeffrey Wicken, Harold Morowitz, arrow of time, Dollo’s law, S = k ln W which they assume to be equivalent to Shannon entropy, all centered around the hypothesis that living organisms differ from nonliving systems in that organisms contain something Brooks and Wiley term “instructional information”.

Edward Wiley 75 new Edward Wiley (c.1950-)
American systems ecologist
1984 Co-author with Daniel Brooks (1984, 1988); also noted for his solo 1988 chapter “Entropy and Evolution”, wherein he discusses the reductionist anti-reductionist debate in the context of entropy and biology.

icon 75 (test)George Scott (c.1939-)
American physical chemist
1985 His 1985 Atoms of the Living Flame: an Odyssey into Ethics and the Physical Chemistry of Free Will speculates on ethics and free will in the context of physical chemistry and applies Ilya Prigogine’s dissipative structure theory to topics in human sociological studies; his 1991 symposium presentation “Time, Rhythms, and Chaos in the New dialogue with Nature” is on social and humanistic applications of dissipative structures.

Greg Myers 75Greg Myers (1954-)
American-born English rhetoric and communications theorist
1985sociology icon 29x20|Economics icon|evolution icon|universe icon|Book icon|Religion icon 20x27|philosophy 39x20His article “Nineteenth-Century Popularizations of Thermodynamics and the Rhetoric of Social Prophecy”, gives a pretty good historical overview of the top two-dozen thinkers, from Balfour Stewart (1974) to Yevgeny Zamyatin (1919), to have extended thermodynamics into the humanities realm.

Person icon (29x43)John Proops (1947-)
English ecological economist
1985 Economics icon|Ecology iconWrote chapter “Thermodynamics and Economics: from Analogy to Physical Functioning”; also co-authored various articles with Malte Faber.

Bruce Weber 75Bruce Weber (c.1941-)
American biochemist and philosopher
1985evolution icon|Life icon|information icon|Religion icon 20x27|philosophy 39x20Organized a conference, with David Depew, on "Evolution, Entropy, and Information", resulting in a follow-up multi-author book by the same name (1988); their 1996 Darwinism Evolving devotes several chapters to thermodynamics; Weber's own research focuses on the application on nonequilibrium thermodynamics to religion, philosophy, and the origin of life.

Mikhail Volkenstein 75Mikhail Volkenstein (1912-1992)
Russian biophysicist
c.1985 His circa 1985 Entropy and Information employs a mix of Prigoginean thermodynamics, Gibbsian thermodynamics, and Shannon entropy version of messages, genomes with entropy, etc., to show how entropy applies to biology, culture, and the production of artistic work; contains trivia on Russians to theorize on thermodynamics of biology, e.g. Erwin Bauer.

Stuart Kauffman 75 newStuart Kauffman (1939-)
American physician and biochemist
1986 In 1986, implemented a computer program to show that autocatalytic polymer systems can be physically realizable in the framework of thermodynamics; expanded on this in his 1993 The Origins of Order; in his 1995 book At Home in the Universe, he outlines an expanded evolution theory framed in work-producing, auto-catalyzed, free energy driven, Carnot cycle-based reactionary systems; his 2000 book Investigations argues for a fourth law of thermodynamics; his 2008 Reinventing the Sacred attempts to put a divine spin on the corpus of his previous theories, with specific focus to society and human purpose, arguing to the affect that "God is the creativity of the universe".

Arthur Peacocke (1924-2006)
English biochemist-turned-theologian
1986Attempted to reconcile evolution and Christianity via Prigoginean thermodynamics.

Louise Young 75Louise Young (1919-2010)
American physicist and geologist
1986 universe iconHer The Unfinished Universe, attempts to give meaning, purpose, and morality to human existence, in the context of a continuously changing universe, inexorably advancing in time, situated in the cosmological theory of the ultimate heat death extinction by universal entropy.

Thomas DeGregory 75Thomas DeGregory (c.1937-)
American economist
1986 Economics iconIn his “Technology and Negative Entropy”, argues, in opposition to the material entropy increase view of Nicholas Georgescu and Jeremy Rifkin, that life is an island of negative entropy; that alternative technology will stave off inevitable organization losses of by creating new resources.

James Beniger (1946-2010)
American sociologist
1986 His The Control Revolution argues that a system can sustain work only if its “internal energy is purposively organized in a heat gradient”; that “living systems work as if guided by some vitalist equivalent of Maxwell’s demon”; that the end state of the universe is heat death.

Vaclav Havel (1936-) Czech playwright and former Czechoslovakian president 1986 Noted for his view that the basic law of life is to be ever more highly structured and to struggle against entropy.

Keith Burich 75 Keith Burich (c.1950-)
American historian
1987Noted for a number of articles (building on the previous 1952 work of William Jordy), beginning with his 1987 “Henry Adams, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, and the Course of History”, on the thermodynamical ideas of American physical historian Henry Adams.

Juan Martinez-Alier 75Juan Martinez-Alier (c.1941-)
Spanish economist
1987 Economics iconHis Ecological Economics: Energy, Environment, and Society, is said to be on par with the economics thermodynamics work of Nicolaus Georgescu (1971) and Philip Mirowski (1989); is of the view that “the starting point for economics should be the first and second laws of thermodynamics.”

Joseph Vogel 75Joseph Vogel (c.1960-)
American-Puerto Rican economist
1987 Economics iconDid PhD on economics, sociobiology, evolution, and entropy; wrote 2009 book on the economics of climate change from a thermodynamic perspective.

Person icon 75 Laurence Foss (c.1940-)
American philosopher
1987  \Delta G_{universe} > < 0 \,His The Second Medical Revolution, co-written with Kenneth Rothenberg suggests a new approach to medicine based on quantum mechanics, irreversible thermodynamics, and information theory; his follow-up 2002 book The End of Modern Medicine has a section on what he calls the “second law of psychothermodynamics” (equation shown), wherein, building on Michael Guillen’s idea that human existence is an unnatural anomaly in the framework of a universe governed by the second law, he slants the second law into a contrived anthropomorphism to argue, in his own words, for a vitalistic (vitalism), mentalistic (mentalism), and spiritualistic (autopoietic) universal view, unlike the mechanistic (mechanism), physicalistic (physicalism), and materialistic (materialism) prevailing scientific world view.

David Aberle (1918-2004)
Canadian anthropologist
1987 His lecture “What Kind of Science is Anthropology?” argues that anthropology needs to discard the Newtonian reversible model and instead to use thermodynamic irreversible models.

Elmar Altvater 75Elmar Altvater (1938-)
German political scientist
1987 His article turned chapter “Ecological and Economic Modalities of Time and Space” outlines how social, economic, and ecological processes unfold historically through the dimensions of space and time, both framed in the context of thermodynamic irreversibility.

Lyndon LaRouche 75Lyndon LaRouche (1922-)
American politician
1987 politics iconBegan to write about negative entropy (of the Norbert Wiener variety) in the context of economics in the 1970s; his 1987 The Power of Reason discusses negentropy; in recent years he has gained a large following, embodied in the LaRouche Political Action Committee, who promote his “physical economy” model (culled from Vladimir Vernadsky), with videos and articles, to argue that acts of creativity resulting in new technology should be the basis of a type of economic unit of value, measured someway in terms of an increase in “energy-flux density” per region of the economy; his 2009 “Economic Science, In Short” presents a real screwball outline of thermodynamics, e.g. calling Clausius a “hoaxster”, among other nonsensical comments.

Tom DeMarco 75 Tom DeMarco (1940-)
American electrical engineer and business consultant
1987 business iconIn Peopleware: Productive Projects and Teams, co-written with Timothy Lister, they use science analogies to theorize on how project teams can “jell”, e.g. certain people acting as catalysts (human catalyst), the modeling of travelling consultants as “free electrons” (human particles), terms such as “corporate entropy” (defining entropy in corporations as “levelness or sameness”), energies associated with bonded and unbounded teams and cliques, a “second thermodynamic law of management”, among other ideas; their six person consulting group The Atlantic Systems Guild employs terms such as “business catalyst” (an activation energy lowering entity).

Timothy Lister 75Timothy Lister (c.1950-)
American consultant
1987business iconCo-author of Peopleware with Tom DeMarco.

Benjamin Kyle 75Benjamin Kyle (1927-)
American chemical engineer and thermodynamicist
1988  \Delta S \approx 0 \,universe icon|Religion icon 20x27|Life icon|sociology icon 29x20|anthropology icon|History icon 19x20|Economics icon|Book icon|art icon|arrow of time icon|Psychology icon|philosophy 39x20His article “The Mystique of Entropy”, summarizes historical attempts to use thermodynamics to explain things such as computers, art, poetry, or prove the existence of god, etc.; this was expanded into the 1999 multi-chapter CD-ROM textbook attachment Entropy: Reflections of a Classical Thermodynamicist; alludes to a philosophy in which, given the knowledge of universal entropy increase, provides a saving grace by showing us the ‘way’, which he seems to equate with paths of negligible entropy change (equation shown).

Kozo Mayumi 75Kozo Mayumi (1954-)
Japanese bioeconomics engineer
1988 diploma icon 27x20|Ecology icon|Economics iconCompleted his MS thesis under Nicholas Georgescu, thesis “Land: Ecological and Economic Achilles’ Heel”, supposedly building on his ‘material entropy’ scheme; followed up later by the 2001 The Origins of Ecological Economics: the Bioeconomics of Georgescu-Roegen, along with other publications, such as the 2004 chapter “Entropy in Ecological Economics.”

Peggy La Cerra 75 Peggy La Cerra (c.1959-)
American evolutionary psychologist and neuroscientist
1988 Psychology iconIn 1996, in a state of prolonged immobilizing depression, she had an epiphany that, in the framework of evolutionary psychology, depression was not a condition, but rather: understood that there is an energetic calculus in our brains and minds that effects this downward shift: “when our intelligence system perceives that there is not much to gain by carrying on with the tasks of life — when we are overcome by too much loss or are facing a period of too little gain — we get ‘depressed.’ By the same token, the seasonal shutdown psychiatrists call seasonal affective ‘disorder’ is actually a normal, if uncomfortable, recalibration for the energetically barren winter months; this kind of motivational downshifting forces us to radically reconfigure our lives and our selves in an effort to keep us energetically solvent; the motivational system [shuts down] to keep from wasting any more behavioral energy on a dead-end path;” this was expanded into a 1998 article and followup 2002 book The Origin of Mind, both co-written with Roger Bingman, wherein energy and entropy ideas formed the basis of argument; in 2011, she commented on Hmolpedia that: “if people are using this site to do their PhD dissertations and getting away with that, their advisors should be shot.”

Rod Swenson (1945-)
American evolutionary systems theorist
1988 In the early 1980s, began to devote time to focus on discrepancies between biology and physics with reference to evolutionary and culture theory, during which he began to focus on spontaneous order production or self-organization; by 1988 he had proposed and elaborated a law of maximum entropy production as the missing piece of the physical or universal law that would account for the ubiquitous and opportunistic transformation from disordered, or less ordered, to more highly ordered states,”; in 1991 authored “Thermodynamic Reasons for Perception-Action Cycles” with Michael Turvey.

Louis-Marie Vincent 75Louis-Marie Vincent (c.1940-)
French electromechanical engineer and biophysical chemist
1988 Life icon|RIP icon|Love icon|Psychology iconHis book Can We Believe in Resurrection, which speculates on life and death in a modern scientific context, arguing that “the brain is a machine that obeys the laws of thermodynamics”, albeit he argues, in a detractive sense, that soul is a type of quantum field attached to superluminal particles; has theories on how love is a form of thermodynamic potential, that may be converted into heat and movement, and how the brain, being comprised of matter and energy, thus obeying the laws of matter and the laws of thermodynamics, may act in a “change of state” of energy at the time of death; his 2002 book Other Logic of Living, uses physical methods, such as information and analysis of form, to model the living being as a whole and to argue that “not only do we not really know what life is, but we are not quite sure what death is either.”

Charles Dȳke 75Charles Dȳke (c.1950-) American evolutionary dynamics philosopher1988 evolution icon|sociology icon 29x20|philosophy 39x20His The Evolutionary Dynamics of Complex Systems, biosociology in evolution, e.g. who processes are "entropy driven", entities are dissipative structures, boundary conditions must be stated in evolution, etc., and followup 1994 chapter “From Thermodynamics to Economy: A Thorny Path”, states that the ‘classic treatments’ of entropy and economy include: Nicholas Georgescu (1971), Howard Odum and Elisabeth Odum (1976), Kenneth Boulding (1981), Richard Adams (1982), Peter Allen (1985), and Jeffrey Wicken (1987).

Tom Bell (c.1966-)
American philosopher-lawyer
1988Adopted the term "extropy" as a basis for a new type of futurism philosophy.

Justin Lancaster 75 Justin Lancaster (1955- )
American physicochemical ecologist and lawyer
1989 His “The Theory of Radially Evolving Energy” argues that evolution is a function of energy itself, and that all energetic systems, including societies, evolve with the bounds of thermodynamics laws, whereby nonequilibrium thermodynamics, following Ilya Prigogine, is joined with ecological energetics and chemical evolution to reveal "a strong analogy between chemical, biological, social, and ecosystem evolution.”

Tony Rothman 75Tony Rothman (1953-) American theoretical physicist1989 His Science a la Mode: Physical Fashions and Fictions devotes an essay, supposedly, to debunk the overuse of entropy as a metaphor in sociology.

Bela Lukacs 75Bela Lukacs (1947-)
Hungarian theoretical physicist
1989 Economics icon|Ecology iconHis article “Once More about Economic Entropy”, supposedly, equates economic variables to thermodynamic variables; his 1994 lecture “On Economics and Other Utilities”, argues that economy in itself can never satisfy the Gibbs-Duhem relations, subsequently an economy in itself can never have a thermodynamic formalism, but rather only the set economy + ecology, may possibly have such a formalism.

William Paulson (1955-)
American literature theorist
1988 His The Noise of Culture, which uses a mix of thermodynamics and information theory to analyze themes of various novels and stories; it is used as reference material in a course at Texas Tech University taught by Bruce Clarke.

Rodger Penrose (1931-)
English mathematical physicist
1989 His The Emperor’s New Mind argues that humans are "configurations of tiny entropy".

Kent Hovind 75Kent Hovind (1953)
American creation science promoter
c.1989Religion icon 20x27|evolution iconHis numerous 1990s video lectures give dumbed-down versions of the first and second law in a way that convinces audience members that thermodynamics disproves evolution.

Anson Rabinbach 75Anson Rabinbach (c.1945-)
American historian
1990His The Human Motor: Energy, Fatigue, and the Origins of Modernity outlines the history of the use of thermodynamics and the human motor metaphor in society.

Bengt Mansson 75 Bengt Mansson (c.1960-)
Swedish-German theoretical ecologist
1990 His chapter on “Thermodynamics and Economics” views human economic activity from the dissipative systems model, focuses exergy as his variable of study, and mentions the physiocrats, Nicholas Georgescu, Tjalling Koopmans; his 1993 “Ecology, Thermodynamics, and H.T. Odum’s Conjectures” discusses the work of Howard Odum.

Remy Lestienne 75Remy Lestienne (c. 1943-)
French elementary particle physicist and neuroscientist
1990 His The Children of Time: Causality, Entropy, Becoming which chapters on entropy and information, dissipative structures, what is life, the mind and time, among others; his 1998 book The Creative Power of Chance, supposedly, devotes four chapters to an attempt to reconcile an information interpretation of entropy with a thermodynamic interpretation of entropy with recourse to "randomness in dynamic systems".

Elias Khalil 75 Elias Khalil (1957-)
American economist
1990 Noted for several articles, e.g. his “Entropy Law and Exhaustion of Natural Resources: Is Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen’s Paradigm Defensible?” (1990) to his “The Three Laws of Thermodynamics and the Theory of Production” (2004), in which he gives commentary on theorists, such as Julius Davidson and Nicholas Georgescu; he also penned the 1996 Evolution, Order, and Complexity with Kenneth Boulding, which employs thermodynamics logic.

Ronald Pearson 75Ronald Pearson (c.1933-)
American mechanical engineer and thermodynamicist
1990 RIP iconHis book Intelligence behind the Universe, argues for an ‘intelligent ether’ theory of continued consciousness after death, which supposedly originated from his 1984 rejection of big bang theory as being a violation of the conservation of energy.

Person icon (29x43)Plinio Prioreschi (c.1924-)
Italian physician
1990RIP iconIn his A History of Human Responses to Death, he devotes the first chapter to a discussion on whether or not death is reversible, in a thermodynamic sense.

Richard Delgado (c.1948-)
American law professor
1990 His “Does Voice Really Matter?” introduced a metaphoric type of law of racial thermodynamics, that: “there is change from one era to another, but the net quantum of racism remains exactly the same. Racism is neither created nor destroyed.”

Jaynes 75Edwin Jaynes (1922-1998)
American physicist
1991 Economic entropy (Jaynes)Economics icon|Phase diagram icon|Statistical mechanics iconHis article “How Should we Use Entropy in Economics” outlines how Willard Gibbs’ 1973 graphical thermodynamic ideas, such as entropy convexity, can be mixed with logarithmic interpretations of economic entropy (shown), e.g. multiplicities and macroeconomic states, and connected in some way to French mathematician Rene Thom’s 1960s catastrophe theory, and the thermodynamics of ferromagnetism and the Curie temperature. [6]

Luigi Sertorio 75Luigi Sertorio (1933-)
Italian theoretical ecophysicist
1991Ecology icon|Psychology iconHis Thermodynamics of Complex Systems, attempts to give an outline of the thermodynamics of societies, embedded in ecosystems, i.e. the subject of "ecophysics", using a statistical mechanics style of approach, with an end chapter on "the intellectual house".

Luis Fernández-Galiano 75Luis Fernández-Galiano (1950-)
Italian architect
1991architect iconOutlined an energy and entropy theory of architectural design as discussed in his energy-entropy themed book Fire and Memory.

Valter Caggio 75Valter Caggio (1954-)
Italian mechanical engineer
1991information icon|Psychology icon|Economics icon|philosophy 39x20|Scales icon 26x20|Government icon|Religion icon 20x27In 1991, began giving lectures in which he advised the incorporation of negentropy logic and thinking into the humanities; in circa 2004 laugned the sites: Negentropy.us, Negentropie.com, and Negentropia.com; his 2008 book Negentropy and its New Global Meaning, attempts to use the negentropy concept as a universal model to explain psychology, ethics, economics, politics, philosophy, and religions.

Karl-Henrik Robèrt (1947-)
Swedish physician
1991 Developed a thermodynamics-based “natural step” theory of societal sustainability, based on cyclical growth, rather than linear.

Jurgen Mimkes 75 Jurgen Mimkes (1939-)
German solid state thermodynamicist and socio-economic physicist
1992 Economics icon|sociology icon 29x20|University icon|Racism icon|Phase diagram icon L = E + T \ln P \rightarrow \text{max} \,|Statistical mechanics iconSince 1992, at the University of Paderborn, has been involved in the development of physical chemistry of social and economic systems, with articles such as “Binary Alloys as a Model for the Multicultural Society” (1995), “Society as a Many Particle System” (1997); he helped in getting the ‘physics of socio-economic systems’ recognized as a new scientific field by the German Physical Society (2001); has produced at least two graduate students by 2002 (Christian Thought and Thorsten Frund); published two chapters on a thermodynamic formulation of sociology and economics, respectively, in which he derives a Lagrange function (equation shown) of a social system of N interacting people, where (-L) is the free energy or common happiness of the agents, E the energy or collective laws of society, ln P the combinatorial probability distribution of the elements or individual social behavior (in which the social system is posited to be stable at maximum mutual happiness); as of 2010, was working on finishing a manuscript entitled the Chemistry of Social Bonds.

Teresa Brennan 75Teresa Brennan (1952-2003)
Australian-born feminist philosopher and social-political theorist
1992 Her 1992 Interpretation of the Flesh, explains that “the solution to the riddle of femininity depends on unraveling Freud’s neglected if confused theories on psychical energy, while discarding the assumption that the subject is energetically and emotionally self-contained”; she discusses social energy, emphasizing the notion of conflicting forces complemented by bound energy and free energy; in her 1997 article “Social Pressure”, she argues that social pressure operates as physical energy, arguing that social pressures are pressures to conform but also those exerted on the psyche in the same way that physical pressures are exerted on the body; her 2004 The Transmission of Affect, presents the idea that one can soak up someone else’s depression or anxiety or sense the tension in a room, arguing that the emotions and energies of one person or group can be absorbed by or can enter directly into another.

Eric Schneider 75Eric Schneider (c.1938-)
American marine geologist and ecological thermodynamicist
1992 Development of his gradient-based evolution thermodynamics theory with James Kay (1992-2004), which culminated with the 2005 book Into the Cool: Energy Flow, Thermodynamics, and Life (co-written with Dorian Sagan), which covers a good deal of historical precursory material on thermodynamic ideas on life; his The Purpose of Life (co-written with Dorian Sagan), tackles religion vs. science debate to argue that that life’s natural purpose is defined in the context of being a function in an energy-driven cosmos.

Matthias Ruth 75Matthias Ruth (1964-)
American ecological economist
1992diploma icon 27x20|Ecology icon|Economics iconCompleted his PhD dissertation on “Economic Processes and Environmental Repercussions”, a synthesis of economics, ecology, and thermodynamics; made into followup 1993 book Integrating Economics, Ecology, and Thermodynamics; article ““When, Where and By How Much Does Thermodynamics Constrain Economic Processes?” (1997) on Nicholas Georgescu; chapter “Insights from Thermodynamics for the Analysis of Economic Processes” (2005).

Kenneth Stokes (c. 1960-)
American political economist
1992 politics iconHis Man and the Biosphere mentions Frederick Soddy, Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Herman Daly, Karl Polanyi, negentropy, thermodynamics, physiocrats, energy, entropy, cybernetics, embodied energy, etc., to argue for a evolutionary version of political economy; his 1995 Paradigm Lost argues that equilibrium used by Talcott Parsons was borrowed from thermodynamics.

Gilbert Chauvet 75 new Gilbert Chauvet (1942-)
French mathematical physicist and physiologist
1992 Introduced the entropy portmanteauorgatropy” as the thermodynamic “potential of functional organization” and the “functional equivalent of the second law applied to living organisms”; his 2004 The Mathematical Nature of the Living World attempts to integrate biology, physics, thermodynamics, physiology, and neuroscience through the lens of mathematics in an effort to explain how life originated from non-living matter; his 2006 Understanding the Organization of Living and its Evolution Towards Consciousness elaborates on this with regard to consciousness.

Marek Roland (1954-)
Polish-born Canadian physicist
1992 His “Life on Earth: Flow of Energy and Entropy” attempts to explain evolution using a combination of negative entropy arguments, various energy balance calculations, and information theory; in 2008, was notable for applying his theories of thermodynamics and information theory to a new-age longevity diet.

George Carlin (1937-2008)
American stand-up comedian
1992 Noted for his "I'm an entropy fan" comedy routine.

Martin Goldstein 75Martin Goldstein (1919-)
American physical chemist
1993 His The Refrigerator and the Universe: Understanding the Laws of Energy, includes a chapter subsection entitled “The Entropy of a Mouse”, that rather cogently discusses, in what seem to be Lewis thermodynamics terms, the standard procedure needed in order to actually calculate the measurement of the entropy a mouse (or mouse molecule) in terms of “before” (initial state) and “after” (final state) of the synthesis of the mouse.

Douglas White (1942-)
American anthropologist
1993 University icon|anthropology iconCo-authored the 1993 Foundations for Social and Biological Evolution with Arthur Iberall and David Wilkinson; in circa 2000, taught a course on anthropological thermodynamics at UC, Irvine, based on the works of Iberall.

Bill Nye 75 Bill Nye (1955-)
American mechanical engineer
1993 Love icon|Government iconSummarized the subject of human thermodynamics as historical attempts to use the laws of thermodynamics to explain various facets of human existence, from car wreck behaviors, to politics, to the process of falling in love.

Mae-Wan Ho 75Mae-Wan Ho (1941-)
Chinese-born English biochemist
1993Life icon|philosophy 39x20|new ageHer The Rainbow and the Worm: the Physics of Organisms, in which she attempts to pick up where Erwin Schrodinger left off in his famous 1943 What is Life?, spending the first chapters on the second law.

Tom Stoppard (1937-)
British playwright
1993 His award-winning Elective Affinities (1809) remake play Arcadia takes place in two different time periods, 1809, the year of Goethe’s novella and the modern day, wherein Stoppard incorporates talk of “sexual energy”, “heat”, entropy via his discussion of the “second law”, and human chemical affinity, via his talk of “the attraction that Newton left out … all the way back to the apple in the garden”, the steam engine, among other topics.

Paris Arnopoulos (c.1935-)
Canadian political scientist
1993 His Sociophysics, on the subject of sociophysics, attempts to use ‘powerful physics metaphor’ to speculate on topics such as the temperature, volume, pressure, and entropy of societies.

icon 75 (test)James Reiss (c.1937-)
Australian organic chemist and commerce theorist
1994Economics icon|Chemical reaction iconUses physical chemistry and drug receptor thermodynamics models to explain economic systems, e.g. postulating how tools, like hammers, act as catalysts to lower the activation energy barrier; how the “chemical interaction” factors of electronic attractions and repulsions and stereochemical shape and fitting of molecules will play a roll, economic temperature effects, etc.; made one of the first human thermodynamic variable tables.

Erland Lagerroth 75Erland Lagerroth (1925-)
Swedish humanism theorist
1994 In 1985, came across Erich Jantsch’s The Self Organizing Universe (1979) and thereafter would go on to pen ten books, e.g. Toward a New Science (1986) outlining a holistic type of unified humanism theory, atoms to people; his 1994 The Re-enchantment of the World and Science is his biggest book on Ilya Prigogine and Jantsch, wherein he discusses the “riddle of entropy death contra evolution”, among other related topics.

John Christie 75John Christie (1947-)
Australian physical chemist and chemical thermodynamicist
1994Economics icon|Statistical mechanics iconHis chapter "A Survey of Thermodynamical Ideas" discusses how microcanonical ensembles can be used to formulate economic analogies, specifically using the "island model" of a small number of inhabitants, in which goods are traded, resulting in a microstate currency distribution; how social equilibrium relates to Gibbs free energy; how coupling and time scales may play a role, etc., in economic processes.

Duncan Foley 75Duncan Foley (1942-)
American economist
1994 Economics iconHis 1994 “A Statistical Equilibrium Theory of Markets”, discussed the thermodynamic notion of equilibrium as a conceptual tool in economics; in the late 1990s, convinced physicist Wayne Saslow (1999) to write and economics thermodynamics article; in the 2000s, began collaborating with physicist Eric Smith (2002) on a number of economic thermodynamics articles.

Kevin Kelly (1952-)
American futurist
1994Outlined theories on extropy and evolution in the context of futurism and technology.

Frank Tipler 75Frank Tipler (1947-)
American physicist
1994 RIP icon|Religion icon 20x27|new ageIn his book The Physics of Immortality, in which he builds on French philosopher Pierre Teilhard’s 1938 omega point theory in conjunction with English-born American physicist Freeman Dyson’s 1979 paper “Time Without End: Physics and Biology in an Open Universe”, to reconcile the second law of thermodynamics, with life, heat death, and Biblical resurrection, by postulating that in the future a supercomputer program will ressurrect the dead.

William Gairdner 75William Gairdner (1940-)
Canadian writer
1994 His The Trouble with Canada devotes a section to “The Concept of Social Entropy”, in which he employs a thermal words (“patriotic fire”, “getting heated”, “feel cool”, etc.) as fact polemic to argue that the fuel that energizes a given society is the strength or “heat” of its belief system; that less demanding values are “cooler” as compared to “hotter” more demanding values; uses Venn diagrams to argue that cultural wedges (strong ideas, attitudes, beliefs) are constantly driven between basic features of society and specific entropic forces that tend to dissipate that feature, causing the feature to lose energy (value); etc.

Pierre Levy 75 Pierre Levy (1956-)
Canadian cyberspace philosopher
1994His Collective Intelligence attempts to theorizes on human molecule / human chemistry / human thermodynamics type of metaphors and logic applied to the growing social bonding and organization of the internet.

Libb Thims 75Libb Thims (c.1975-)
American chemical engineer, electrical engineer, and thermodynamicist
1995 \Delta G < 0 \,molecule man 35|Chemical reaction icon|Statistical mechanics icon|Psychology icon|Love icon|Beauty icon 15x21|RIP icon|philosophy 39x20|Scales icon 26x20|man digging icon|Life icon|University icon|caged bird icon|evolution icon|sex icon|Economics iconBegan to speculate as to how the spontaneity criterion (adjacent equation) applies to mate selection, with enthalpy change ΔH and entropy change ΔS specifically quantified in terms of standard evolutionary psychology variables, mapped to second-by-second changing measures of individual differential human molecular Gibbs free energy variations dG, as shown below (see: HMO theory): G = (H_{AVG} + H_{AGE} + H_S + H_X + H_L + H_F + H_C) - T(S_P + S_O + S_I + S_S + S_N) \,
such as if one was to predict which of two mates would be more favored to bind "stably" into a standard 18-year human chemical reaction; a number of precipitates have followed from this endeavor: one of the first calculations of the human molecular formula (2002); first formulations of the physics model of the human chemical bond A≡B (2005); launched Journal of Human Thermodynamics (2005); authored first human chemistry textbook (2007); launched the EoHT.info wiki (2008), and as of 2011 has authored over 1,800 online articles connected to and surrounding these topics, i.e. human physics, human chemistry, human thermodynamics, and hmol science.

Paul Bohannan 75Paul Bohannan (1920-2007)
American anthropologist
1995anthropology iconHis How Culture Works outlines the difficulties involved in the application of thermodynamics to the study of cultural transformation, in relation to how transformation are studied in physics; an example passage: “adapting thermodynamic ideas to the study of culture is limited by a very simple fact: nobody has yet figured out what might be the cultural equivalent of heat or energy … nobody has yet found the ‘heat’ or the ‘energy’ in cultural matters … the concepts of ‘cultural temperature’ to refine our understanding of ‘cultural heat’ have not yet appeared. This is one of the most pressing problems for the next generation of anthropologists, and the difficulties are profound.”

Dorian Sagan 75 (small)Dorian Sagan (1959-)
American science writer
1995 Son of Carl Sagan (1934-1996) and coauthor of thermodynamically-themed books, such as What is Life? (1995) and What is Sex? (1997), co-written with his mother Lynn Margulis, Into the Cool: Energy Flow, Thermodynamics, and Life (2005), co-written with Eric Schneider; his 2004 article: “Gradient Reduction Theory: Thermodynamics and the Purpose of Life”, co-written with Jessica Whiteside, argues that the purpose of existence is to degrade the solar gradient in accordance with the second law, discussing life vs. non-life issues, such as “inanimate purpose”; his 2010 The Purpose of Life, written with Schneider, digs into the religion vs. science debate to argue that the more profound questions can be answered thermodynamically, namely that life’s natural purpose is defined in the context of being a function in an energy-driven cosmos.

Stefan Baumgartner 75Stefan Baumgartner (1968-)
German physicist and ecological economist
1995Economics icon|Ecology iconCo-authored a 1995 discussion article "Entropy: A Unifying Concept for Ecological Economics" (and follow-up 1996 chapter), co-written with Malte Faber and John Proops; others include: article on thermodynamics of waste management (2003); his 2004 chapter “Thermodynamics Models” summarizes the history and usages of thermodynamics in ecological economics; article on thermodynamics of production theory (2005), among others.

Hector Sabelli (1937-)
Argentinean-born American psychiatrist
1995 His 1995 “Social Dynamics” chapter uses a mixture of thermodynamics, entropy, psychodynamics, bifurcation theory, and chaos theory, among others, to explain aspects of social and mental phenomenon, such as biopolarity, wherein he considers people to be social atoms; his 2005 Bios: a Study of Creation attempts to argue that creative processes, at all levels of organization, physical, biological, economic, social, and psychological, are not headed towards entropic decay, but towards an infinite attractor in the universe; book contains section calls ‘biotic thermodynamics’ or entropy as diversity.

Peter Corning 75Peter Corning (1935-)
American complexity theorist
1995 evolution icon|Life icon|information icon|Economics iconBegan to incorporate thermodynamics, information theory, complexity theory, emergence, self-organization, cybernetics, bioeconomics, etc. into his synergy theory of evolution, views culminating in his 2003 Nature’s Magic: Synergy in Evolution and 2005 Holistic Darwinism, the third part of the latter devoted to thermodynamics, information theory, and thermoeconomics.

Richard Coren (1932-)
Electrical and computer engineer
1995 information icon|Cybernetics icon|Religion icon 20x27Beginning with his 1995 article “Logistic Escalation as the Mechanism of Emergence” and followup 1998 Evolutionary Trajectory, he attempts to outline a cybernetic-thermodynamic-information theory of evolution and civilization; his 2006 book God and Science Among the Infinities, Coren attempts to use complexity theory, intermixed with bits of thermodynamics (citing: Jeffrey Wicken, James Kay, Eric Schneider, Ilya Prigogine, and Rod Swenson), such as Bénard cells, to argue that God originated in the mathematical concept of infinities.

Michael Guillen 75Michael Guillen (c.1950-)
American physicist
1995 Religion icon 20x27His Five Equations that Changed the World details a rare biographical history of the early years, upbringing, and possible religious outlooks of German physicist Rudolf Clausius; on life in the context of the Bible (his “favorite book”), he comments: “contrary to popular belief, being alive is unnatural; in fact, all life exists in defiance of, not in conformity with, the most fundamental law of the universe.”

Victor Stenger (1935-)
American physicist
1995 Introduced his "entropy per unit volume" argument for how how life (or order) formed following the big bang (which he says started in a state of maximum entropy (per unit volume) and zero energy); in his Has Science Found God? (2003) and God: the Failed Hypothesis (2007) he elaborates on this platform in attempts to disprove the existence of God.

Christopher Edwards (c.1959-)
American mechanical engineer and thermodynamicist
c.1995University iconIn his thermodynamics class, at Stanford University, he teaches his students at that life is a path function.

Bruce Clarke (c. 1950-)
America literature and science theorist
1996 University icon|Book iconIn circa 1995, he began to develop a fascination with the use of Maxwell's demon as an allegorical figure employed in literature; his 1996 Dora Marsden and Early Modernism, includes discussions of the vitalistic vs. thermodynamic models; his 2001 Energy Forms: Allegory and Science in the Era of Classical Thermodynamics analyzes the interactions among energy and entropy, heat and radiation, and their symbolic presentations in the literature of the times, e.g. the Nefastis machine, and draws on the writings of James Maxwell, William Thomson, Balfour Stewart, H. G. Wells, Camille Flammarion, Yevgeny Zamyatin, and D. H. Lawrence, among others; in 2001, began teaching a course on literature thermodynamics at Texas Tech University.

Alexander Zotin 75Alexander Zotin (1926-2000)
Russian biophysicist and thermodynamicist
1996Life icon|evolution icon|sociology icon 29x20His “Aspects of Bioenergetics and Civilization”, co-written with Ingolf Lamprecht, argued that the appearance of civilization is regarded as a mechanism to hasten the heat death of our universe.

Fritz Sollner 75Fritz Sollner (c.1965-)
German environmental economist
1996Economics icon|Ecology iconHis 1997 article “A Reexamination of the Role of Thermodynamics in Environmental Economics”, commented on by Herman Daly and James Kay, is based on his 1996 habilitation Thermodynamik und Umweltökonomie (Thermodynamics and Ecological Economics).

Fritjof Capra (1939-) Austrian-born American theoretical physicist1996 In his Web of Life he outlines a fairly readable Prigoginean thermodynamics dissipative structure based theory of biospheric living systems.

Colin Tudge (1943-)
English biologist-zoologist
1996 His The Time Before History outlines a version of the surface law: “for homoeothermic land animals, the physics of heat comes into play: gravity and thermodynamics determine that, on land, body size, shape, and lifestyle are bound to be intimately linked.”

Sture Nordhom 75 Sture Nordholm (1944-)
Swedish physical chemist
1997  F = E - Tk_B \ln W \,Economics icon|Freedom icon 18x20|Government iconIn his article “In Defense of Thermodynamics: an Animate Analogy”, coins the subject name "animate thermodynamics" as the thermodynamics of human behavior, and argues that thermodynamic formulation can be applied to explain human behavior, on the logic that the basic elements of the description of atoms, molecules, and matter can be scaled up to the realm of living organisms without changes other than in complexity of the systems and their behavior; equates energy to wealth, kinetic energy to cash, potential energy to property, and entropy to freedom; states that nature's goal is to minimize the free energy of the subsystem; and ends with the assignment of eight example homework problems (with clues).

icon 75 (test)Michael Macrakis (1924-2001)
Greek-born American mechanical-electrical engineer and physicist
1997 Economics icon|evolution icon|Life iconHis Scarcity’s Ways: the Origins of Capital: a Critical Essay on Thermodynamics, Statistical Mechanics and Economics, attempts to explain capital, scarcity, and value in terms of thermodynamics, with focus on measurement, and with excursions into evolutionary biology and the origin of life.

Charles Wynn 75 Charles Wynn (1967-)
American physical chemist
1997 His JCE article “Heat Flow vs. Cash Flow: A Banking Analogy” (which inspired a similar follow up article by Evguenii Kozliak), equates one’s money inside an ATM to potential energy in the form of a chemical system, according to which money withdrawal is considered as an exothermic reaction (exocash) and money deposit an endothermic reaction (endocash).

Ira Livingston (c.1960-)
American cultural theorist
1997 politics iconHis Arrow of Chaos: Romanticism and Postmodernity discusses the use of thermodynamics in literature, politics, and psychology, such as Sigmund Freud, Stuart Kauffman, and Michel Serres; contains a section of on the “Political Thermodynamics in Burke and Paine”, in which he analyzes the late 18th century publications of Edmund Burke and Thomas Paine; coins obscure words, such as “politiothermodynamics”, Freud’s “thermopsychodynamics”, among others.

Robert Clark (1940-)
American political scientist
1997 His book The Global Imperative cites Herman Daly, Ilya Prigogine, James Beniger, etc., to argue that “entropy is inextricably linked to human values and thus is central to economic processes of production and consumption” and that dissipative structures models will help cities grow and prosper; his 2001 Global Life Systems expands on this model, citing Jeffrey Wicken and Colin Tudge.

Migene Gonzalez-Wippler 75Migene Gonzalez-Wippler (c.1950-)
Puerto Rican cultural anthropologist turned new-age author
1997 RIP icon|new ageHer book What Happens After Death, attempts to build a theory of death based on the first law of thermodynamics, albeit in the end digresses to conclude that there is a creative intelligence at work in the universe; likewise, her 1987 book Kabbalah for the Modern World, she uses thermodynamics and entropy to make a case for the existence of a creative force at work in the universe.

Nikos Salingaros 75Nikos Salingaros (c.1949-)
Australian-born American mathematician and architect
1997architect iconUses verbalized analogies, unitless thermodynamic variables, e.g. architectural entropy and architectural temperature, chaos theory, and complexity, outlining what he calls the “three laws of architectural order” geared to match building design with emotional comfort and beauty.

Erich Muller 75Erich Muller (1963-)
Venezuelan-born English chemical engineer and thermodynamicist
1998 molecule man 35|Racism icon|Phase diagram iconHis “Human Societies: a Curious Application of Thermodynamics”, outlined a version of integration and segregation thermodynamics of attractions and repulsions of human molecules, defined in terms of thermodynamic potentials, and was the prototype model article for the JHT; the Muller stability ratio and Muller dispersion force are named after him; in his thermodynamics lectures he is noted for his use of human molecular themed descriptions, drawing analogies between the behaviors of molecules and people, to explain concepts.

Person icon 75Satish Boregowda (c.1968-)
American mechanical engineer
1998 diploma icon 27x20His PhD dissertation Thermodynamic Modeling and Analysis of Stress Responses, attempts to quantify human stress thermodynamically, namely to use the second law to examine two types of stressors: thermal stress and mental stress; his 2005 article “Modeling of Human Physiological Stresses: A Thermodynamics-based Approach”, co-written with Waldemar Karwowski, expands on this using Maxwell relations to develop formulas to quantify human stress due to the artifact-human interactions.

Richard Piccard (c.1947-)
American physicist
1998 University iconIntermittently, from 1998 to 2006, at Ohio University, taught a course called “Entropy and Society”; albeit based generally on barely-digestible entropy theories of Jeremy Rifkin.

Person icon 75Borisas Cimbleris (c.1938-)
Brazilian nuclear engineer and thermodynamicist
1998Economics iconIn his “Economy and Thermodynamics”, in which attempts he defined money as the ability to make people work and hence money and its equivalents as a type of energy or capacity to produce work, which he says is the motive power of human action.

Gerard Nahum 75Gerard Nahum (1956-)
American chemical engineer and physician
\int\limits_{t_0}^{t} W(t) dt = \frac{g}{c^2} \left (     \int\limits_{t_0}^{t} E(t) dt + \int\limits_{t_0}^{t} C(t) dt    \right ) \,
RIP icon|Statistical mechanics icon|information iconWas presenting a 25-page “A Proposal for Testing the Energetics of Consciousness”, in which consciousness, viewed as a type of residual negative entropy of the conserved mind, might survive death and in which the measure of the deceased consciousness would be quantified by an equation (shown), to various universities and international consciousness studies meetings, in order to gain $100,000 in funding for experimental testing of his theory; in 2005, theory was covered in Mary Roach’s Spook: Science Tackles the Afterlife; published in JHT in 2010.

Bernard Beaudreau 75Bernard Beaudreau (1955-)
Canadian economist
1998 Economics icon|information iconHis Energy and Organization attempts to pick up the work of Nicholas Georgescu (1971) and Matthias Ruth (1992) to outline a simple theory of production; expands on this slightly in his 2005 Energy Rents; his "Identity, Entropy, and Culture" (2006), toys with the notion of information entropy.

Jerome Heath (c.1940-)
American information scientist
1998 His “Thermodynamics of Culture” attempts to apply energy and entropy to social science, albeit very superficially.

Robert Cross (c. 1950-)
American financial theorist
1998His Revenue Management outlines views on internal entropy and external entropy in companies.

William Dembski 75William Dembski (1960-)
American mathematician-theologian
1998Religion icon 20x27|information iconNoted for his articles and books in attempts to synthesize a information theory version of intelligent design on the theology of the Gospel of John using a fourth law of thermodynamics.

Edison Bittencourt 75 Edison Bittencourt (c.1948-)
American-born Brazilian chemical engineer
1999 University iconHis engineering conference presentation “Teaching of Thermodynamics in Chemical Engineering” advocating the teaching of the thermodynamic imperative to chemical engineering students and defined living beings and ecosystems as "open, coherent, purposive, irreversible" systems (PICO systems); his 2011 “From Modern Thermodynamics to How Nature Works”, argues that societies, economies, and ecological aggregates are emergent ordered dissipative structures and that nonlinear irreversible thermodynamics is the key to understanding these structures, in particular the problem of sustainability.

Wayne Saslow 75Wayne Saslow (c. 1941-)
American physicist
1999 Economics icon U = TS + W = \Psi + \lambda M + p N \,His “An Economic Analogy to Thermodynamics”, goes through a considerable, albeit mostly empty, derivation, wherein starts off with a 1980 study on the experimental findings of rat economic behaviors, then goes on to equates wealth W to negative Helmholtz free energy (-F), utility U to negative energy (-E), surplus Ψ to entropic energy (TS), price p to chemical potential, and number of goods n to number of chemical species crossing the boundary N; gives a thermodynamic-to-economic variables table, similar to James Reiss (1994).

Cutler Cleveland 75 Cutler Cleveland (c.1958-)
American earth scientist
1999 His “Biophysical Economics: From Physiocracy to Ecological Economics and Industrial Ecology”, cites Sergei Podolinsky, Friedrich Engels, Wilhelm Ostwald, Frederick Soddy, Alfred Lotka, Nicholas Georgescu, etc., so to define “biophysical economics”; senior editor of Encyclopedia of Energy (2004), Dictionary of Energy (2009); main curator behind the online Energy Library (2007-2009) and the Encyclopedia of Earth (2006-), the latter of which has many economic thermodynamics articles.

Karlis Ullis 75 Karlis Ullis (1959-)
American sports medicine and anti-aging physician
1999 His chapter “The Critical Point and the Theory of Human Thermodynamics”, of his book Age Right, compares people to physiological engines or anabolic biomachines, outlining a thermodynamic human lifespan perspective, wherein he attempts to connect entropy to a critical point theory of a balance between anabolic and catabolic states.

Forbes Allan (c.1960-)
American writer
1999 His novel Milton's Progress, refers to humans as “people are like particles, they behave in groups as if they were molecules in a test-tube” and has a chapter on human thermodynamics, where one of the characters, a Ilya Meiliakin, is themed on Ilya Prigogine.

Person icon (29x43)Mladen Knezevic (c.1958-)
Croatian sociologist-agriculturist
1999sociology icon 29x20His article “Some Possibilities on the Use of General Systems Theory and Thermodynamic Theory in the Development of Local Communities”, in which he theorizes on topics such as parental social work, social boundaries, entropy, as well as energy and potential energy drawn and used interpersonally.

Lawrence Chin (c.1969-)
Chinese-born Canadian-American philosopher
1999 Began writing a thermodynamic-dissipation interpretation of history; in 2005, discussion with Libb Thims on his chapter “Power, the Second Law of Thermodynamics and the Problem of Evil”, stimulated the writing of the first article for the Journal of Human Thermodynamics.

Terrel Gallaway (c.1970-)
American economist
1999 politics iconHis Encyclopedia of Political Economy article “Entropy, Negentropy, and the Laws of Thermodynamics” overviews the use of thermodynamics in political economics.

Luciano Floridi (1964-)
Italian philosopher
1999 Beginning with his “Entropy as Evil in Information Ethics” he culls from Norbert Wiener to argue that entropy, as a form of lost information, is a type of “natural evil” that can harm or destroy anything that anyone might value; penned four laws of information in the infosphere; speculates on entropy ethics.

Holmes Rolston (1932-)
American religious philosopher-physicist
1999 Argues that "god as a countercurrent to entropy, a sort of biogravity that lures life upward."

Joseph Dewey 75Joseph Dewey (1945-)
American newage spiritual philosopher
1999 His coil-bound booklet The Molecular Relationship, outlines a barely-readable newagey theory that can best be described as a mix of the Bible, relationship self-help, early 20th century energy vibration theories, energy chakra theory, all stitched together with a very crude chemical analogy model, with chapters on things such as romantic energy, sex energy, desire energy, etc., or how each person has different "units" of romantic energy, etc.

21th century HT pioneers | 2000+
The following is a chronological listing of individuals with human thermodynamics theories, ideas, and opinions professed in 2000 or later:


Josip Stepanic 75Josip Stepanic (1970-)
Croatian physicist and mechanical engineer
2000  \tilde{U} = \tilde{G} + \sum_i \tilde{f}_i \tilde{x}_i + \tilde{T} \tilde{S} \,sociology icon 29x20In his “Approach to a Quantitative Description of Social Systems Based on Thermodynamic Formalism”, outlines a toy model of social systems in thermodynamic terms (equation shown), where \tilde{U} \,is the internal energy,  \tilde{G} \,the Gibbs potential,  \tilde{T} \,the temperature,  \tilde{S} \,the entropy, where the tilde (~) means the quantities are social “analogous quantities” to actual thermodynamic potentials, and where the  \tilde{f}_i \,denote external factors (influencing the people of the system), which influence some of the social system characteristics \tilde{x}_i \,, upon which the internal energy depends; founded the journal Interdisciplinary Description of Complex Systems (2003); followup articles include: “Social Equivalent of Free Energy” (2004), “Social Free Energy of a Pareto-Like Resource Distribution” (2007), among others.

Jing Chen 75Jing Chen (c.1965-)
Chinese-born, Canadian mathematical economist
2000 Economics icon|evolution icon|information icon|Beauty icon 15x21|sex icon|Psychology icon|Bifurcation iconIn his 2000 “Economic and Biological Evolution”, argued that economic systems are as open dissipative systems, which need to extract negative entropy from the environment to compensate for continuous dissipation; in his “Universal Natural Law and Universal Human Behavior” (2002), he argued that just as are the "lower" needs of humans, such as eating, thermodynamic processes, so too are the "higher" needs, such as literature, good poems, and distinct paintings, which are rare events, characterized by high information content, which can be represented as a low entropy level and act as methods of attracting members of the opposite sex in the competition for reproduction; thus, the display of low entropy evolved as the universal signal of attractiveness in sexual and social communication; thus, he argues, from poem writing to money making, the pursuit of low entropy is the main drive of human behavior; followed this up with “An Entropy Theory of Psychology and its Implications to Behavioral Finance” (2003), The Physical Foundations of Economics (2005), and“Understanding Social Systems: A Free Energy Perspective” (2008), among others.

Valery Chalidze 75 Valery Chalidze (1932-)
Russian-born American mathematician and physicist
2000 His Entropy Demystified: Potential Order, Life and Money, cites Nicholas Georgescu, Malte Faber, Jeremy Rifkin, and Claude Shannon , etc., to extrapolate entropy into the social sciences, and argue that money is a purely energetic and low-entropic component of an economy, that human activity (the subject of economic study) is a local entropy lowering process; in his final section: “The Unpredictability of Will and Physics”, he incorrigibly argues that “our will, which is informed energy, is capable of deviating from the prescriptions of physical laws.”

Person icon (29x43)Srdan Lelas (1939-2003)
Indian science philosopher
2000 His Science and Modernity utilizes negative entropy ideas, Maxwell’s demon, among others, to argue that life is a local violation of the second law.

Granville Sewell 75Granville Sewell (c.1944-)
American mathematician and intelligent design advocate
2000 evolution icon|Religion icon 20x27Has published a number of essay, videos, and one book in which he argues that the four fundamental forces could never have synthesized humanity starting from the original conditions of atoms and subatomic particles in the state of the earth four to five billion years ago and that the 1946 “local entropy decrease” rebuttal as well as the “open system” rebuttal to the argument that thermodynamics violates evolution are both fallacious, as summarized in his 2010 In the Beginning and Other Essays on Intelligent Design.

Andrew McIntosh 75Andrew McIntosh (c.1950-)
English thermodynamics professor
2000 His Genesis for Today: Relevance of the Creation-Evolution Debate to Today’s Society argues against the theory of evolution and promotes young earth creationism.

Philip Parker 75Philip Parker (1960-)
American economist
2000 Economics iconHis Physioeconomics, attempts to explain latitude-based economic variations in terms of hypothalamic activity and a real simplified touch of thermodynamics.

Christopher Hirata (small)Christopher Hirata (1983-)
American physicist
(IQ icon=225)
c.2000 -K_B T \ln K_{eq} = \Delta E + P \Delta V - T \Delta S  \,molecule man 35|Chemical reaction icon|Love iconIn his "physics of relationships" he outlined a chemical thermodynamic model, using a variation of the Gibbs equation (equation shown) of how single and paired students form in a typical college student body during a single school year, showing how the equilibrium constant could change per various conditions; discussed concepts such as the gay molecule or polygamy molecule, etc.

David Hwang 75David Hwang (c.1980-)
American computational chemist
2001 G = H - TS \,molecule man 35|Chemical reaction icon|Love iconHis article "The Thermodynamics of Love" explains how one can determine whether or not any given male-female reaction is "favored" in terms of specific Gibbs free energy (equation shown), in which he makes one of the first reaction coordinates for a human chemical reaction.

Gavin Ritz 75 new Gavin Ritz (1959-)
New Zealand civil engineer and business school professor
2001  \Delta F < W_o + W  \,business iconIn circa 1992 began theorizing on how to employ thermodynamic logic in business and social concerns; his 2001 conference presentation “Motivational Modelling” began to mention thermodynamical ideas, e.g. Ilya Prigogine, Stuart Kaufman, Nicholas Georgescu, etc., in his motivation work theory; his 2009 “The Fundamental Formula as Energy and Work” employed the relatively unknown human free energy theories of African chemist and physicist Adriaan de Lange to argue that a version of the Gibbs equation (shown), where F is Gibbs free energy, W is work, Wo is organical work done by living organisms (the product of J, mental exertion, and T, target time).

icon 75 (test)Alfredo Infante (c.1960-)
Peruvian chemical engineer
2001  G = H - TS \,His “Social Entropy: A Paradigmatic Approach of the Second Law of Thermodynamics to an Unusual Domain” uses advanced intelligence perspective to argue that the Gibbs free energy of a social system is the total energy in the system less the energy that is unavailable and that this difference represents the ‘state’ of the system.

Alf Hornborg 75 Alf Hornborg (1954-)
Swedish cultural anthropologist
2001 His The Power of the Machine, written over a period of ten-years, cites Erwin Schrodinger (1944), Leslie White (1959), Howard Odum (1971), Nicholas Georgescu (1971), Richard Adams (1975), Eugene Ruyle (1977), and Ilya Prigogine (1984), etc., to argue among other things that: “industrial infrastructure—whether a factory, an industrial city, or the global ‘technomass’—must maintain an unequal exchange of free energy with its hinterland in order to survive”; discusses concepts such as the “thermodynamics of imperialism”, “thermodynamics and the economy of order”, the “exergy of hunter-gatherer societies”, among others.

Person icon (29x43)Claudia Rotondi (c.1969-)
Italian political economist
2001Economics iconHer chapter “Competition and Economic Temperature: the Entropy Law in Emanuele Sella’s Work” in which she revives the near-forgotten 1910 work on economic temperature and economic entropy of Italian economist Emanuele Sella.

Francisco Louca 75Francisco Louca (1956-)
Portuguese politician and economist
2001molecule man 35|Economics iconHis chapter “Particles or humans? Econometric Quarrels on Newtonian Mechanics and the Social Realm”, on human particle models and thermodynamics, discusses how the late 19th century wave of mechanical analogies met with considerable resistance from some of the more established economists.

David Christian (1946-)
American-born English historian
2001 In 1989, began to develop an outline model on how to teach history over “long durations”, starting from the big bang; this culminated in 2001 in the teaching of “big history” at San Diego State University, and the 2003 book Maps of Time: an Introduction to Big History, which embeds various entropy and free energy explanations of life and civilization emergence, with loose connections to ideas on complexity.

Victor Sergeev 75Victor Sergeev (c.1943-)
Russian physicist
2001Economics iconNoted for his article “A Thermodynamic Approach to Market Equilibrium”, and follow-up 2005 book by the same title.

Sean O'Reilly 75Sean O'Reilly (c.1949-)
American psychologist-philosopher
2001sex icon|Psychology icon|philosophy 39x20|yin yang icon|new age|Religion icon 20x27His How to Manage Your Dick, outlines a Freudian-style energy psychology of how to use one's sexual energy productively, explained in terms of energy and entropy, mixed with bits of new age models and Greek philosophy.

Lynn Liss 75 Lynn Liss (c.1977-)
American business strategist
2001 business iconEarly reviewer of drafts of Libb Thims’ unpublished human thermodynamics manuscripts (2001-2004) and his 2007 Human Chemistry; her 2005 JHT article “Human Thermodynamics and Business Efficiency” attempted to extrapolate thermodynamic models to the area of business consulting.

Evguenii Kozliak 75Evguenii Kozliak (c.1961-)
Russian-born American physical chemist
2002molecule man 35|Chemical reaction icon|University icon|Economics icon|business icon \Delta G = \Delta H - T \Delta S \,His JCE article “Energy and Money, Chemical Bonding as Business, and Negative ΔH and ΔG as Investment”, outlines a type of human thermodynamics education style of teaching, defining people as human atoms or human molecules and applies chemical thermodynamics, namely the Gibbs equation, to business (see: business thermodynamics), specifically as a way to facilitate the teaching of physical chemistry; possibly also outlining a human chemical bond theory.

Ingo Muller 75Ingo Muller (1937-)
German metallurgical physicist and thermodynamicist
2002 Phase diagram icon|sociology icon 29x20 dS = \frac{1}{\tau} (dU + pdV) \,In his 2002 “Socio-thermodynamics: Integration and Segregation in a Population”, explains behaviors of a metaphorical population of hawks and doves using an extrapolation of logic from the thermodynamics of binary mixtures whose components mix at high temperature, but separate at low temperature exhibiting miscibility gaps; included an expanded chapter on this in his 2005 Energy and Entropy, in which he derives a first law, second law, and combined Gibbs equation (shown) of socio-thermodynamics, where S is the entropy, U the shortfall, V the volume (or habitat), p the "population pressure", and τ the homogeneous temperature inside the population; his 2007 A History of Thermodynamics, includes a section on “socio-thermodynamics”, in which he states that this "subject belongs more to the future of thermodynamics than to its history", and at present is struggling to be taken seriously.

Jack Hokikian 75 Jack Hokikian (1945-)
Egyptian-born American physicist
2002 His The Science of Disorder is a well-researched treatise on the use of thermodynamics in the humanities, discussing the works of many of the thinkers above.

Tor Nørretranders (1955-)
Danish philosopher
2002 Conceived the thermodynamic depth theory, loosely translated as the thermodynamic measure of the unspoken signals associated with the energetic value and history of the cost of producing a given product, such as the peacock’s tail or a classic poem, and sexual attraction.

Leong Ying 75 (new)Leong Ying (c.1960-)
Chinese-born American nuclear physicist
2002  S_U = S_{U^+} + S_{U^-} \,universe icon|yin yang icon|Life icon|RIP iconHis “twin universe theory”, first online in 2002, written while he was an atheist, attempts to reconcile the yin yang view of life and death, with the first and second law, on the logic that there exists a second universe, energetically and entropically coupled to this one where entropy tends to a minimum, so to speak, loosely based on the matter-antimatter model, wherein particles can transfer between the two universes, based on the double slits, at absolute zero; in 2003, began to visualize god as a “single omnipotent consciousness”, a bridge between science and faith; in 2007, published Klystar, a science fiction version of his theory; in 2010, began adding to this theory that the hypothesis that nuclear fusion is what is driving cosmological expansion; overall theory supposes that the soul exists.

Mark Blumberg (1961-)
American biopsychologist
2002 His Body Heat: Temperature and Life on Earth, discusses how thermodynamics relates to sexual behavior and changes in body temperature; spends a good amount of time investigating the notion of “thermal words”, such as exemplified by his chapter “The Heat of Passion”.

Christian de Quincey 75Christian de Quincey (c.1955-)
American philosopher
2002philosophy 39x20|evolution icon|yin yang icon|Religion icon 20x27|No determinism 18x20|caged bird icon|new ageHis Radical Nature, attempts to update and synthesize the views of Henri Bergson (1907), Pierre Teilhard (1938), and Arthur Young (1976), to argue that conceptions such as consciousness, free will, and spirit (or soul) extend all the way down the evolutionary ladder to molecules, atoms, electrons, photons and beyond (presumably to the sub-atomic realm).

Steven Rosen 75Steven Rosen (1955-)
American Hindu studies author
2002RIP icon|Hinduism icon|new ageHis book Gita on the Green discusses reincarnation, karma, soul, etc., in terms of energy and the first law; his 2007 book Krishna’s Song, elaborates on how one’s “actions (karma) and desires (kama)”, might be explained in terms of quantums of energy and the first law.

Suma Varughese 75Suma Varughese (c.1960-)
Indian newage spiritual philosopher
2002 Hinduism icon|new ageStimulated, it seems, by James Lovelock, Morgan Peck, and Pierre Teilhard, has written at least two articles on Hinduism, entropy and the life force.

John Avery 75John Avery (1933-)
Lebanese-born Danish physicist and theoretical chemist

2003 Nobel Prize icon|evolution icon|information icon|Life icon|molecule man 35 \Delta S_{universe} = - \frac{\Delta G_{system}}{T}  \,His Information Theory and Evolution, attempts to explain the phenomenon of life, including its origin, evolution, and human cultural evolution, in terms of thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, and information theory; arguing that the paradox between the disorder view of the second law and highly ordered complex living systems, has its resolution in the Gibbs free energy that enters the biosphere from outside sources; built on Erwin Schrodinger's infamous "turn the discussion toward free energy" addendum, by adding to it Gilbert Lewis' 1923 Gibbs free energy of formation model, Fritz Lipmann’s 1941 free energy coupling theory and John Neumann's circa 1945 free energy automaton theory; was one of the reviewers for Libb ThimsHuman Chemistry (2007) offering the intuitive suggestion that human molecules move along paths of minimum Gibbs free energy. Co-winner of the 1995 Nobel Peace Prize.

Babics Laszlo 75Babics Laszlo (1944-)
Hungarian sociologist
2003 His “The Mechanics and Thermodynamics of Mass Societies” speculates on topics such as the volume of society (social volume), social acceleration due to gravity (social acceleration), and potential energy (social potential energy) and entropy of society (social entropy); makes an attempt at a calculation of a sociological version of Avogadro's number (social Avogadro number), which he calculates to be A = 60 individuals, as well as a sociological version of the Boltzmann constant
(social Boltzmann constant).

Joseph McCauley 75Joseph McCauley (1943-)
American physicist and econophysicist
2003 Economics iconHis article “Thermodynamic Analogies in Economics and Finance”, argues that "real financial markets cannot behave thermodynamically", his reason being that "financial markets are unstable, they do not approach statistical equilibrium, nor are there any available topological invariants on which to base a purely formal statistical mechanics"; his 2004 econophysics book Dynamics of Markets: Econophysics and Finance, has a section entitled "Why Thermodynamics Analogies Fail", in which he uses the Legendre transform to argue that formal thermodynamic analogies will always fail when trying to describe economic behavior.

Robert Doyle 75Robert Doyle (1936-)
American physicist and philosopher
2003 caged bird icon|philosophy 39x20|information icon|Statistical mechanics icon|Religion icon 20x27His 2003-launched site InformationPhilosopher.com is thematically-similar to Hmolpedia in regards to hosting biographies on the overlap statistical thermodynamics, quantum mechanics, and philosophy in regards to formulating a semi-materialistic theory of information that connects the creation process of the universe with a belief in the existence of human free will; a summary of this is outlined in his 2011 book Free Will: the Scandal in Philosophy, which attempts to grapple with the second law, determinism, and the wave function collapse.

Gilbert Wedekind 75Gilbert Wedekind (c.1946-)
American thermodynamics professor, engineer, and pastor
2003 Religion icon 20x27His book Spiritual Entropy attempts to explain what the second law has to say about the social, moral, and spiritual realms; he seems to advocate both creationism and intelligent design.

Person icon (29x43)Francisco Téllez (c. 1980-)
Chilean psychologist
2003 His article “Transorgasmic Sexuality” outlines a psychodynamic theory of a reversible, mini-reaction, type of heightened sex.

Attila Grandpierre 75 Attila Grandpierre (c.1950-)
Hungarian astrophysicist
2004 His “Entropy and Information of Human Organisms and the Nature of Life” claims to be the first publication of the calculate the entropy content of a human being (human entropy); his 2007 “Thermodynamic Measure for Nonequilibrium Processes”, co-authored with Katalin Martinas, attempts to use the “extropy” concept to for formulate a new second law for non-equilibrium conditions, biological or otherwise.

Eann Patterson 75 Eann Patterson (c.1955-)
English mechanical engineer
2004 business iconIn The Entropy Vector: Connecting Business and Science, co-authored with Robert Handscombe, they argue that to learn to manage and control change (social, technical, and business) one must obtain a better grasp of science, in particular energy and entropy; the book seems to be very thermodynamical, with chapters on “natural philosophy and business”, “life the universe and entropy”, “energy and entropy”, “time and entropy”, “managing disorder”, “creativity and innovation”, “risk and entropy”, “mental entropy”, “entropy tradeoffs”, etc.; dominate terms and people used include: Nicholas Georgescu, Leon Brillouin, Stephen Hawking, Rudolf Clausius, Maxwell’s demon, and interestingly free energy; Patterson currently is chair of mechanical engineering at Michigan State University.

Person icon 75Robert Handscombe (c.1955-)
English engineer and business management professor
2004business iconCo-author with Eann Patterson of The Entropy Vector: Connecting Business and Science.

Mazyar Lotfalian 75 Mazyar Lotfalian (c.1969-)
American cultural anthropologist
2004 His Islam, Technoscientific Identities, and the Culture of Curiosity, contains chapter section entitled “Thermodynamics as a Model” in which he critiques the use of thermodynamics to explain and model culture and humanity by Mehdi Bazargan, in larger part, and his 1956 Thermodynamics of Humanity, and Michel Serres, Thomas Pynchon, Sigmund Freud, Max Weber, among others; grapples with questions such as “how would thermodynamics affect the debunking of faith and knowledge?” or “how does Bazargan use thermodynamics to theorize about the role of morality in everyday life?”

Keii (145)Tominaga Keii (1920-2009)
Japanese chemical engineer and chemical thermodynamicist
2004 Chemical reaction iconIn his chapter two, Thermodynamics of Chemical Reactions, devotes a section to “Chemical Affinity in 1806”, wherein he quotes several paragraphs of Goethe’s 1809 Elective Affinities, to only conclude, in the end, that “it did not add any scientific value.”

Person icon (29x43)Charles Hansen (1943-)
American engineer and business economist
2004Love icon |Religion icon 20x27His Technology of Love attempts to define “love” in scientific formalism, in part using entropy, anti-entropy, and thermodynamics logic; is mixed up with religious diatribe: Jesus is mentioned on the backcover, believes that the spirit of the human system runs on energy, etc.

Patrick Ezepue 75 Patrick Ezepue (c.1965-)
Nigerian-born English social statistician
2004 Has been working out a “human thermodynamics” (his term usage) quantitative model for educational businesses, in which what he calls the soft mathematical “state equations” quantify the movement of a student, productively and creatively, through the university and eventually, as a professional, through the corporate academic model, who sell their intellectual work as a business.

Dimitris Keranis 75 Dimitris Keranis (1948-)
Greek lawyer and social-economist
G = H - T S\,Economics icon|sociology icon 29x20In his essay “Human Values and the Second Law of Thermodynamics”, he argues that human purposeful action can be quantified formulaically, using the Gibbs function (as shown), arguing that energy and entropy are the two opposing forces involved in nature’s tendency to organize itself through the production of work and the associated acts that are responsible for the flow of energy in social systems, of which economic activity is central aspect and in which intellectual actions, such as speech, scientific productions, poetry, and literary, etc., translate into “value flows” in the social systems, reflecting the tendency of systems toward equilibrium, through the dispersal of wealth, income redistribution, and decentralization of power, etc.; of which he argues, the flow of economic acts and value acts are captured in Xenophon Zolotas’ 1981 economic and social welfare growth function.

Stefan Pohl-Valero 75 Stefan Pohl-Valero (c.1977-)
Spanish mechanical engineer and social thermodynamicist
2005 diploma icon 27x20Gave a workshop talk (Third Milan Workshop on the Physical Sciences in the Third World) on "The 'Morality' of Thermodynamics: the Controversy of its Laws in a New Public Sphere, Spain 1868-1880"; his 2007 PhD dissertation “The Circulation of Energy: Thermodynamics, National Culture, and Social Progress in Spain, 1868-1890” builds on the work of Crosbie Smith and Greg Myers to discuss how William Thomson, Balfour Stewart, Peter Tait, and Thomas Huxley, etc., applied and used thermodynamics to theorize about humanist implications; recent articles include: “The Communication of Thermodynamics: Physical Culture and Power in Spain in the Second Half of the Nineteenth Century” (2009), “Thermodynamics, Social Thought, and Biopolitics in the Spain of the Restoration” (2010), and “Energy, Entropy, and Religion: A Historical Review” (2010), the latter co-written with Favio Vitery.

Eric Smith 75 Eric Smith (c.1965-)
American physicist
2005 Economics iconHas been working, for three years, at the Santa Fe Institute, on the application of thermodynamics in economics, the economic version of Helmholtz free energy, entropy, the entropies of economic agents, similar to that done in the Lausanne school.

Christopher Southgate 75Christopher Southgate (1953-)
English biochemist and theologian
2005 In 1993, began teaching a course on the science-religion debate; his 2005 book God, Humanity, and the Cosmos discusses the thermodynamic eschatology views of Robert Russell (1984); his 2008 book The Groaning of Creation: God, Evolution, and the Problem of Evil, speculates on evil in thermodynamic terms; he cites Ted Peters (1993), among others.

Paul Strassmann 75Paul Strassmann (c. 1925-)
Czechoslovakian-born American electrical engineer and business management theorist
2005 business iconHis lecture “Information Management and Organizational Entropy” argues that the “issue of information management” is all about Shannon entropy and Clausius entropy, which he seems to convolute as the same thing; his 2007 book The Economics of Corporate Information Systems, argues that the structure of the tooth-to-tail ratio of an organization, “tooth” being the employees at the front end of the company “tail” being the overhead staff, middle managers, support structure, etc., the tail is “always the source of disorder”, representing a loss of useful energy (available energy), and thus the focal location of the second law at work within companies.

Andrei Khrennikov 75 Andrei Khrennikov (1958-)
Russian-born Swedish applied mathematician
2005 His “Financial Heat Machine”, cites John Neumann, Marc Lichnerowicz, Borisas Cimbleris, Joseph McCauley, etc., and models financial markets from the point of view of phenomenological thermodynamics, describe a financial Carnot cycle, and argue that an economic perpetual mobile is possible “under some conditions”; discusses the “boiling of the financial market”, the “heating of expectations”, etc.

Yuji Aruka (c. 1950-)
Japanese economist
2005 His “Carnot Process of Wealth Distribution” and 2006 “An Evolutionary Theory of Economic Interaction: Introduction to Socio- and Econo-Physics”, both co-written with Jurgen Mimkes, employ concepts such as social temperature, a Carnot theory of wealth, in econophysics / sociophysics.

Alastair Jenkins 75Alastair Jenkins (c.1952-)
Danish atmospheric physicist
2005 Economics icon|information iconHis “Thermodynamics and Economics” gives a decent historical overview of thermodynamics, then concludes with an attempt to apply Edwin Jaynes’ 1957 maximum entropy production theory to model economic processes.

Terry Bynum (c. 1938-)
American philosopher
2005 His “Entropy and Purpose in Human Life”, culls from Norbert Weiner, to discuss the impact of the internet and morality.

Mary Roach 75Mary Roach (c.1968-)
American writer
2005RIP iconIn her book Spook: Science Tackles the Afterlife, she devotes 10-pages to thermodynamics, in which she defines a "soul theorist", e.g. Gerard Nahum, as one who uses physics, chemistry, information theory, and thermodynamics to study the soul.

John Sanford 75John Sanford (1950-)
American plant geneticist
2005 Religion icon 20x27His book barely-readable book Genetic Entropy, promotes the concept of "genetic entropy" in aims to reconcile the Bible with evolution.

Robert Kenoun 75Robert Kenoun (1950-)
Iranian-born American materials scientist and metallurgical-electrical engineer
2006 His A Proposition to Theory of History and Social Evolution outlines a semi-approximate thermodynamics system-based view of social change (social internal energy minimization theory), using a logic of hierarchical systems embedded within systems and a type of social energy “coupling” theory.

Mark Janes 75Mark Janes (1973-)
English chemical engineering student turned biotechnologist
2006  \Delta G = \Delta H - T \Delta S \,molecule man 35|evolution icon|Life icon|sex icon|philosophy 39x20|RIP icon|Religion icon 20x27His carbon entromorphology theory is a human atom based scheme, which considers the human being to be a ‘type of gigantic carbon atom’ (Mr. Carbon Atom), and uses aspects of thermodynamics, particle physics, and the atomic model logic (molecular orbital theory) to explain facets of humanity; an example being his “soulatrophic” model of morality, in which state of humanity is positied to be evolving to a future iron-like orbital structure of stability (similar to Pierre Teilhard’s omega point theory).

Peter Pogany 75 Peter Pogany (c.1939-)
Hungarian-born American economist
2006 His Rethinking the World argues that “culture may be regarded as a thermodynamics system [where] the world’s economic and commercial activities may be reduced to the simple definition of organized molecular structures creating, maintaining, operating, discarding, and reusing other organized molecular structures; [and] cultural evolution is subject to the laws of thermodynamics”; on humans he employs a human molecule viewpoint: “accumulated knowledge suggests that humans are billions of highly evolved, overgrown super-molecules that swarm in ever larger numbers on a piece of rock that wobbles, spins, revolves, and soars into nothingness at break-neck speed with an agitated, burning furnace in its interior”; his 2009 conference talk: “Observations Through the Thermodynamic Lens of World History” expands on these ideas.

Person icon 75Harold Leonard (c.1926-)
American chemist
2006 His 2006 Journal of Chemical Education letter “Chemical Thermodynamics in the Real World”, wherein that we should begin to use Frederick Rossini’s 1971 chemical thermodynamics based model of political thermodynamics to help society understand the relation between freedom and security in a 9/11 world, sparked the “heated” Rossini-Leonard-Wojcik debate.

Person icon 75John Wojcik (1938-)
American physical chemist
Religion icon 20x27In the Rossini debate, sent in an rebuttal letter to the Journal of Chemical Education, arguing that there is great “danger” in the use of “anthropomorphism in chemistry” in that some may “come to believe that there is substance in them”; moreover: “worst of all, there is the danger that chemical thermodynamics will have ascribed to it a power that it simply does not have, namely, the power to 'explain' the human condition.”

Todd Silverstein 75 Todd Silverstein (c.1954-)
American chemist
2006 His response letter “State Functions vs State Governments” argued in defense of the use of chemical thermodynamics to explain or study human freedom and security, commenting that: “I do not agree that such ‘loose thinking’ should be ‘purged’ from science altogether”, as Wojcik suggests.

Adrian Bejan (1948-)
Romanian-born American mechanical engineer
2006 His articles, e.g. “Constructing Animal Locomotion from New Thermodynamics Theory” (2006), and books, e.g. Constructal Theory of Social Dynamics (2007), have been attempting to outline a constructal theory of social dynamics, where society is seen as a live “flow system” (e.g. a river basin, vascularized tissue, city traffic).

John Patrick 75John Patrick (c.1950-)
American civil engineer and architect
2006 His unified theory of evolution incorporates aspects of QED and thermodynamics to argue that God created the universe, which operates according to physical laws.

Tullio Scrimali 75Tullio Scrimali (1952-)
Italian psychiatrist
2006 Psychology icon|information icon|Cybernetics iconHis Entropy of Mind and Negative Entropy, attempts to explain schizophrenia and outline treatment methods, using a mixture of negative entropy, complexity theory, Prigoginean thermodynamics, dissipative structures, information theory, chaos theory, systems theory, cybernetics, among others.

Eric Beinhocker 75Eric Beinhocker (c. 1968-)
American-born English business economist
2006 Economics icon|evolution icon|information iconHis The Origin of Wealth includes a chapter wealth defined as “fit order”, in which he attempts to integrate the work of Nicholas Georgescu (1971) together with evolution and the concept of survival of the fittest; mixed together with bits of complexity theory and information theory.

DMR Sekhar 75DMR Sekhar (1952-)
Indian chemical engineer and mineral engineer
2006 Hinduism icon|evolution icon|RIP iconDeveloped a “genopsychanti-entropy type theory, which argues that DNA is a self-programming conscious entity, inside of which exists a special extensive conscious ordering force or property, which is god or part of god, is undying and non-physical (i.e. soul), that runs counter to entropy and gives rise to and directs biological evolution.

Manuel De Landa (1952-)
Mexican-born American philosopher
2006Outlined an "intensive" properties based philosophy.

Leland Gilsen (c.1945-)
American anthropologist
2006 Outlined a computer simulation theory of culture modeled as a thermodynamic machine.

Andrew Morrow (1961-)
American chemical engineer and computer programmer
2006 Developed a mosaic of atoms with a mind thermodynamic philosophy; since 2020 has been working on a population control advocating manuscript Thermostat for Thermonuclear War, which he hosts at Thermo4Thermo.org.

Marguerite Callaway (1950-)
American business consultant
2006 new age|business iconHer The Energetics of Business cites Carl Jung, Mihály Csíkszentmihályi, Rupert Sheldrake, etc., to outline a newage-type of “business energetics” model, crouched on the idea that there exists a “living energy” in the universe, that energy fields envelope the human body, etc.

icon 75 (test) Wayne Angel (1945-)
American physicist and computer scientist
2007 In his online book Theory of Society he employs Herbert Callen’s 1960 Thermodynamics to outline an equation-rich subject he calls “relation thermodynamics” (thermodynamics formalism to human relation dynamics), defined as the study of macroscopic consequences of myriads of individual actions on the interdependence coordinates within human relation systems, whereby due to statistical averaging do not appear in the macroscopic description of systems; he employs terms such as “relation energy”, i.e. the internal relation kinetic energy of a human system is determined by the rate of change of relationships between entities, “relation temperature” (which he says can be measured using the Carnot efficiency equation); outlines a type of coupling theory (similar to Robert Kenoun’s 2006 social internal energy minimization theory), where human systems are said to be able to transfer some of its internal relation energy to other human systems, thereby doing relation work on other human systems, “relation heat”, relation heat transfer, among other interesting derivation; the entire discourse seems interestingly to be of an original variety derived straight from Callen’s version of thermodynamics.

John Schmitz 75 new John Schmitz (c.1950-)
Danish chemist
2007His 1980 PhD was "Thermodynamic and Activation Parameters of Redox Reactions of Transistion Metal Coordination Complexes"; his 2007 The Second Law of Life discusses how entropy is used in fields including history, sociology, economics, art, ecology, and religion; contains a schematic of the changes of values of human entropy (entropy of a human) over a lifespan.

Octavian Ksenzhek 75Octavian Ksenzhek (c.1945-)
Russian bioelectrochemist
2007 Economics icon|molecule man 35His Money: Virtual Energy: Economy through the Prism of Thermodynamics, builds on the work of Herbert Spencer, Vilfredo Pareto, and Frederick Soddy; defines an economy as a very large and complicated system, people being the ‘molecules’ of which its consists; defines “energy coupling” in social systems as being mediated mainly through materialized forms of energy.

Angelo Letizia (c.1975-)
American philosopher
2007 His The Battle for Existence attempts to answer Gottfried Leibniz’s famous question "why does the universe exist?” in thermodynamic and entropy terms, utilizing ideas on entropy ethics.

Viktor Minkin 75Viktor Minkin (c.1960-)
Russian biometrist
2007 In 2007, began communicating with Libb Thims in aims to incorporate human thermodynamics models (entropy measurements of emotions) in to a theory of finger printing and vibrational imaging; his 2008 “Application of Vibraimage Technology and System for Analysis of Motor Activity and Study of Functional State of Human Body” incorporates some of this discussion; in 2009, incorporated some of this logic into the launching of the site PsyMaker.com, which claims to facilitate: recognition of emotions of visitors, couple compatibility matching, among others.

David Weir (c. 1950-)
American comparative literature theorist
2007His Decadent Culture in the United States situates the cyclical rises and falls of decadence in the US at the turn of the 20th century in the context of Brooks Adams 1895 theory of energy and entropy acting on civilization, in the form of expansions and contractions.

Richard Rudd 75Richard Rudd (1967-)
American newage spiritual philosopher
2007 His article “Human Thermodynamics: the ‘Great Niggle’ and How to Get Rich Slowly”, speculates on the three laws applied to humans; topics including: energy flow, evolution, purpose, activation energy, the energy of good will, and the hidden energy of the universe.

David Alkek 75David Alkek (c.1931-)
American dermatologist
2007Psychology icon|Scales icon 26x20|Religion icon 20x27|new age|No determinism 18x20His The Self-Creating Universe attempts to explain existence, morality, ethics, and purpose, origin of consciousness (or soul), using Pierre Teilhard's theory of complexification and Paul Davies' idea of self-development and reverse entropy, among others.

icon 75 (test)Satch Ejike (c.1957-)
African-born American lawyer and social scientist
2008 Love iconHis Find a Good Man and Keep Him, uses Libb ThimsHuman Chemistry (2007) as the framework for his section the “Physics of Attraction” to explain how relationship interactions and bondings are the result of interactions of photons and electrons whose operations are governed by thermodynamics.

Dean Hamden Dean Hamden (c.1950-)
American physicist
2008 Has been conducting a four-year human physics study based of 500 individuals as to be summarized in his 2012 book His The Physics of Human Behavior, which contains a third chapter on an “exploration of the laws of thermodynamics and entropy to learn how one can keep one's relationship healthy and how to assess the suitability of an intended mate.”

Antoine Bousquet 75 Antoine Bousquet (c.1974-)
English complexity theory economist
2008 Bazooka joe iconHis The Scientific Way of Warfare: Order and Chaos on the Battlefields of Modernity has a chapter on “thermodynamic warfare” (war thermodynamics) and the science of energy.

Helge Kragh 75Helge Kragh (1944-)
Danish science historian
2008Religion icon 20x27His Entropic Creation: Religious Contexts of Thermodynamics and Cosmology, gives a detailed history of the extensive use of entropy and thermodynamics in religion, e.g. the entropic proof of god's existence.

Barkley Rosser 75 Barkley Rosser (1948-)
American mathematical economist
2008 Economics iconHis “Debating the Role of Econophysics” is a critique of the use of physics concepts, such as entropy, thermodynamics, chaos theory, complexity theory, in economics (in the form of econophysics), touching on the work of Georg Helm (1887), Leon Winiarski (1900), Alfred Lotka (1925), Harold Davis (1941), Paul Samuelson (1990), the relatively unknown American economist Julius Davidson, among others.

Brian Schill 75Brian Schill (c.1960-)
American physicist and paranormal investigator
2008RIP icon|new ageHis book Stalking Darkness, attempts to explain death and ghosts in terms of thermodynamics and released bioelectric fields; in the context of the first two laws, but argues to explain the theory of ‘cold spots’, or anomalous regions of energy absorption, supposedly left by ghosts, in terms of the third law of thermodynamics.

Richard Hughes (c.1955-)
American mechanical engineer and government and politics theorist
2008University iconTaught a course on the thermodynamics of government (government thermodynamics) and politics (political thermodynamics), at California State University.

Sergio Franzese (1963-2010)
Italian moral philosopher
2008 Religion icon 20x27His The Ethics of Energy: William James’ Moral Philosophy in Focus recounts William James’ ethical energy (reserve energy) views in the context of the growing counter tendency of Darwinism framed against the “pessimistic ideologies of social entropy”; the book has a religious tinge, ending with Balfour Stewart and Peter Tait’s unseen universe model, speaking about God being real and associated with the energy humans get from divine experience, etc.

John Correia 75John Correia (c.1950-)
American biochemist
2008Religion icon 20x27Considered a proposal (Mar 18), by American chemical engineer Libb Thims, to give a presentation on the "thermodynamics of human molecules", at the annual Gibbs Conference on Biothermodynamics (focused that year on molecular thermodynamics), to be "a joke".

James Sandham (c.1984-)
Canadian writer
2008 Wrote novel The Entropy of Aaron Rosclatt, the summary of which is that “we are all inevitably subject to the slow slide into entropy”.

Claes Johnson (1943-)
Swedish mathematician
2008 Outlined a computational thermodynamics view of emergence of life forms and humans.

Thomas Wallace 75Thomas Wallace (c.1937-)
American physical chemist
2009Economics icon|History icon 19x20|sociology icon 29x20|Scales icon 26x20|Chemical reaction icon \Delta G = \Delta H - T \Delta S \,|Battery icon (small)His book Wealth, Energy, and Human Values, applies the basics of physical chemistry and chemical thermodynamics, in particular the Gibbs equation (adjacent), to the modeling of the rise and fall of civilizations, in what he considers a ‘mechanistic-thermodynamic paradigm’; contains a good appendix on "The Fundamentals of Thermodynamics Applied to Socioeconomics", which outlines a decent reaction coordinate depicted initial state / final state view of mechanism-based society reaction processes.

Surya Pati 75Surya Pati (1983-)
Indian chemist and business management theorist
2009 G = H - TS \,molecule man 35|Chemical reaction icon|Love iconExplain how single people with higher Gibbs free energy (adjacent equation) are “more restless” and thus resultantly tend to form a bond with another person to “stabilize” themselves; also speculates on how activation energy, entropy, and enthalpy apply to human relationships.

Yuri Tarnopolsky 75 Yuri Tarnopolsky (1936-)
Russian-born American organic chemist
2009His ebook Introduction to Pattern Chemistry, on the subject of what he calls “econochemistry”, builds on a number of previously written 55 or so essays (2001-2008), he outlines a “chemistry on the human scale” model of society and economy, arguing, using Greek philosopher Lucretius’s atomic theory as a basis, that an “economy is an assembly, separation, and rearrangement of atoms and molecules,” and that transitions such as the transformation of Russia from absolute monarchy to constitutional monarchy (1905) to republic (1917) to totalitarian (1936) to chaotic democracy (1991) to opaque authoritarian (2000) is the story of a system consisting of “essentially the same atomic human entities (his term for human molecule)” undergoing a type of chemical isomerization, similar to when propyl alcohol molecule isomers to methyl ethyl ether molecule. Tarnopolsky speculates on the thermodynamics of these types of processes, on things such as social temperature (which he equates to social freedom), activation energy in relation to money, among other topics.

Victor Maslov 75 Victor Maslov (c.1936-)
Russian mathematical physicist
2009 His “Similarity Laws in Thermodynamics”, argues that we should begin to “move from the general statistical laws for molecules to jurisprudence and the elaboration of laws in human society. Here the matter concerns the origin of social laws based on the same principles of natural selection which annihilates biological communities when their entropy decreases”; his 2010 “Thermoeconomics of Russia”, employs the work of Georgi Gladyshev (1997), Wayne Saslow (1999), Libb Thims (2002), among others, to begin to use “Feynman diagrams of collisions and creations of separate particles, as well as collisions and interactions of market goods transferred into money” so to “combine this into general laws of thermodynamics of fluids dealing with few variables.”

Yi-Fang Chang 75 Yi-Fang Chang (1947-)
Chinese particle physicist
2009 His “Social Synergetics, Social Physics, and Research of Fundamental Laws in Social Complex Systems” attempts to formulate social thermodynamics equations and theorize on concepts such as social temperature.

Gregory Botanes 75 Gregory Botanes (c.1965-)
Spanish telecommunications engineering and business theorist
2009 business iconFounded (with Alberto Hernando) the thermodynamics-based business consulting company Social Thermodynamics Applied Research (SThAR), anchored at SocialThermodynamics.org, which employs a mix of subjects (mostly human physics theories) including Zipf’s law, the Dunbar number, six degrees of separation, Shannon information, MaxEnt theory, and Fisher information, etc., to consult, predict, and guide business operations and social change, similar to how chemistry and physics is used to “predict” chemical and physical change.

Alberto Hernando 75 Alberto Hernando (1981-)
Spanish physicist
2009 business iconCo-founder (with Gregory Botanes) of thermodynamics-based business consulting company Social Thermodynamics Applied Research (SThAR); his 2009 article “Fisher-information and the Thermodynamics of Scale-invariant Systems” in which he and his associates, supposedly, “confirm analogy between properties of social systems (such as electoral results, city populations, citations in physics journals) and the thermodynamics of gases and liquids”, which thus forms the basis of his theory of social thermodynamics; is described (incorrectly) by them as the “father of social thermodynamics”.

Tanya Maslova (1979-)
Russian economist
2009Book iconIntroduced the subject of ‘thermolinguistics’ or the thermodynamics of language, concepts such as the energy or temperature of a text, the entropy of languages, isotherms of a text, etc.; her 2010 “Thermolinguistics and Human Thermodynamics”, employs the work of Libb Thims, and speculates on how pair-wise chemical potential between entities, such as people, or plants in field, in the form of attractions and repulsions, may find explanation in the statistical mechanics work of Russian physicist Nikolay Bogolyubov.

Margherita Long 75 Margherita Long (c.1967-)
American comparative literature scholar
2009 Her This Perversion Called Love has a chapter (a mixture of literature thermodynamics and psychological thermodynamics) on the thermodynamics theories of Sigmund Freud, the writings Sato Haruo, among others; concludes with discussion of Junichiro Tanizaki in the context of the Freudian psychodynamics and the first and second.

Arthur Jonath 75Arthur Jonath (1931-)
American aeronautics engineer
2009 Economics icon|Religion icon 20x27In his “Saving Capitalism from Finance: the Power of Thermoeconomics”, co-written with psychologist Richard Goldwater, promoted at ProfitAndEntropy.com, argues that “entropy is an idea that applies to populations of humans as well as of molecules”; in his video “Isomorphism, Entropy, and God”, on isomorphisms argues that the entropy principle is a replacement for god.

Dickey Eason (c. 1965-)
American social dynamics theorist
2009 His The Impacts Dynamic attempts uses an energy dispersal view of the second law viewed as a driving force for both society and the universe; extrapolates protons bonding with electrons up to the human-human interaction scale, to explain how male and females find stability in their bonding as a sort of needed energy.

Len Fisher 75Len Fisher (1942-)
Australian-born English chemist, physicist, biologist, and philosopher
2009sociology icon 29x20|Statistical mechanics iconAdheres to the Prigoginean view, arguing that humans and society, as advanced types of Bénard cells, exist constantly at the edge of chaos.

Robert Fogel 75Robert Fogel (1926-)
American economic historian and scientist
2009 Nobel Prize icon|Economics iconCommented "much of this [economic] gain was due to improvement in human thermodynamic efficiency. The rate of converting human energy input into work output appears to have increased by about 50 percent since 1790"; winner of 1993 Nobel Prize in economics.

Philip Moriarty 75Philip Moriarty (c.1965-)
Irish thermal and nanomolecular physicist
2009 Statistical mechanics icon|Bifurcation icon|sex iconCentral objector in the Moriarty-Thims debate, argued in video interview that arrangements of students socializing in a field cannot be defined by a thermodynamic entropy; considers Libb Thims’ assertion that thermodynamic principles can be applied to ‘human molecules’ to be “flawed” and pseudoscience; views the idea of ‘sexual heat’ to be something of a humorous fairly tail, a subject not germane to discussions in modern hard science and thermodynamics.

Jose-Manuel Rey 75Jose-Manuel Rey (c.1975-)
Spanish mathematical economist
2010 Love iconHis “A Mathematical Model of Sentimental Dynamics Accounting for Marital Dissolution”, builds on the work of John Gottman, to attempt to formulaically and graphically explain marital dissolution using a metaphorical version of the second law to indicate that “indicate that the feeling of attachment in a relationship ‘cools down’ (thermal word) as time evolves—unless energy in form of effort is supplied to keep things alive.”

Barri Gold 75Barri Gold (1966-)
American English professor
2010Book iconHer book ThermoPoetics outlines the usage and interaction of energy theories, thermodynamics, and heat engine models in the themes of Victorian literature.

Toralf Zschau 75Toralf Zschau (c.1975-)
German-born American biologist and sociologist
2010 His PhD dissertation “The Authoritarian Cosmos: Complexity, Elective Affinities, and the ‘Thermodynamics’ of Self” uses Max Weber’s elective affinities as a framework for tackling Orwellian-type dystopia phenomena; the work, however, has almost no thermodynamic content.

Adrian Hough 75 Adrian Hough (c.1958-)
English physical chemist and priest
2010 Religion icon 20x27His The Flaw in the Universe attempts to explain both sin and natural disaster in terms of the second law.

Person icon (29x43)Dorothy Sherrill (c.1940-)
American nurse
2010new ageHer booklet Thermodynamics: the Secret Life of Heat, attempts, through mostly autobiography, to explain subjects concerning extrasensory perception, e.g. death, ghosts, remote sensing, male energy, female energy, emotion, etc., using sparse bits of thermodynamics terminology, mostly concerning sensory perception as a form of heat radiation.

Bogdan Anghel 75Bogdan Anghel (1984-)
Romanian electronic music producer
2010molecule man 35Produced the electronic music EP Human Thermodynamics, with the tracks 1. Pressure correlations (themed on the gas laws); 2. Phase transition (themed on phase transitions topics, e.g. Gibbs phase rule, enthalpy of vaporization, etc.); 3. Aerospace race (themed on human molecules flying or racing about like gas molecules); 4. Transport phenomena (themed on heat or mass transport of humans; with a cover art depicting futuristic humans flying about like semi-attached gas particles over the surface of a futuristic HumanThermodynamics.com like earth.

Sean Carroll 75Sean Carroll (1966-)
American astrophysicist
2010arrow of time iconHis From Eternity to Here, attempts to outline a synthesis of his views on the big bang, relativity, entropy, universal expansion, human existence, purpose, and time.

Lubos Motl 75Lubos Motl (1973-)
Czech-American theoretical physicist (string theory) and black hole thermodynamicist
2010Believes that Christopher Hirata’s 2000 theory of human thermodynamics of mating reactions in college student bodies is “a joke”, not to be taken seriously; that the “thermodynamics of human relationships is bullcrap”; that it is “blatant absurdity” to try “to model the laws governing human relationships using the rules of thermodynamics, a set of rules that only apply at a molecular level”; that “human beings are NOT molecules, they are composed of molecules”; that people “aren't giant molecules”; that human relationships are governed mostly by human psychology” (not thermodynamics); that one must be “senile or crazy to believe this nonsense”.

Ryan Grannell 75 Ryan Grannell (c.1991-)
Irish biochemistry student
2011 Spent a month blogging to explain how human chemistry and human thermodynamics are "bulls**t" subjects, “junk science”, and a horrendous analogy; believes that “human behavior is more complex than something that can be modeled with a couple of thermodynamic equations."; considers the human chemical reaction model "A + B → AB" to be a "pretentious way of stating something we already know; it tells us absolutely nothing new”; views Johann Goethe’s 1799 human elective affinities model of existence is a “nutty theory”; considers Libb Thims’ 2011 thermodynamic proof that good always triumphs over evil to be nothing but “calculus coated woo, hidden behind a smokescreen of rhetorical mathematics”; believes that enthalpy has nothing to do with the sexual heat of physical attraction, among other objections.

Mohsen Mohsen-Nia 75 Mohsen Mohsen-Nia (1958-)
Iranian-born American chemical engineer
2011 Lennard–Jones potentialHis JHT article “A Thermodynamic Methodology for Evaluating Friendship Relations Stability”, co-authored with Iranians human scientist F. Arfaei, thermodynamicist H. Amiri, and computer engineer A. Mohsen Nia, present the results of a small relationship study, of different pairings of male and female co-workers, in which they discuss the results in energetic terms and attempt to explain interhuman relationship potential modeled on the Lennard–Jones potential (shown).

James Ferri 75James Ferri (c.1960-)
American chemical engineer
2011 Ostwald equationInitiated and supervised the engineering student-produced video “Thermodynamics of Life: Occupy Wall Street Edition”, made by Angela Wnek (ChBE, 2013), Isaac Lavine (ChBe, 2014), Ashley Kaminski (ChBE, 2013), which applied a number of different molecular, physical chemistry, and chemical engineering principles to the ongoing “Occupy Wall Street” protests, and used equations such as Calvin equation, the Ostwald equation (shown), etc., to explain the Pareto principle, i.e. the 80-20 rule for the division of wealth in a society.

Charles Hall 75Charles Hall (c.1943-)
American systems ecologist
2011His book Energy and the Wealth of Nations: Understanding the Biophysical Economy, co-written with Kent Kiltgaard, attempts to outline, thermodynamically, how the first law and second law, should be integrated into economic policy, albeit in what might be called the Roegen-Daly school of thought on entropy, i.e. the view of Nicholas Georgescu and his student Herman Daly, namely the very tenable view that entropy, in economic terms, equates to “value lost to waste”, and that this explains pollution, resource scarcity, unemployment, and depletion.

Kent Kiltgaard (date-)
American economist
2011Co-author with Charles Hall.

See also
HC pioneers (70+)
HP pioneers (20+)
HMS pioneers (120+)
HM pioneers (5+)
Thermodynamics pioneers (40+)
Human thermodynamics (objections to)
● Human chemistry (objections to)
● Human physics (objections to)
● Human mathematics (objections to)
Libb Thims (attack)

Some individuals are listed in duplicate (or triplicate, in a few cases) on this page and the HC pioneers, HP pioneers, and HMS pioneers pages, depending on if the individual made contributions in either chemistry, physics, thermodynamics, or hmol science in general.

EoHT symbol