In terminology, living system is defunct term conjunction (see: defunct theory of life), tending to refer, historically to a system that is alive; in life terminology upgrade terms to a powered CHNOPS+ system.

Further reading
● Gatlin, Lila L. (1972). Information Theory and the Living System. Columbia University Press.
● Thaxton, Charles B., Bradley, Walter L., Olsen, Roger L. (1984). The Mystery of Life’s Origin: Reassessing Current Theories (ch. 7: Thermodynamics of Living Systems). Philosophical Library.
Mishra, R.K. (1989). Molecular and Biological Physics of Living Systems (pgs. 1-2). Taylor & Francis.
● Welch, G. Rickey. (1991). “Thermodynamics and Living Systems: Problems and Paradigms”, J. Nutr. 121: 1902-06.
Capra, Fritjof. (1996). The Web of Life: a New Scientific Understanding of Living Systems. New York: Anchor books.
● Gladyshev, Georgi P. (2005). “The Second Law of Thermodynamics and the Evolution of Living Systems”, Journal of Human Thermodynamics, Vol. 1, pgs. 68-81, December.

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