In science, a number is a type of symbol used for counting and measuring, whose operations are defined by mathematics.

The modern-day concept of numbers is based on the counting system of the ten digits of two human hands, which evolved into various bone tally mark systems, known to have existed 20,000 years ago.

The concept of negative numbers, supposedly, were first used in the 200BC Chinese book Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art (Jiu zhang suan-shu), in which red counting rods denoted positive coefficients and black rods negative coefficients.

The symbol zero, \bar 0 \,, in the form of a small circle with a long overbar, was supposedly first introduced by Roman-Egyptian scientist Ptolemy in his 130AD Syntaxis Mathematica.

Human group sizes
In hmol sciences, numbers refers to various group size numbers at which significant patterns emerge in human group formations and interactions. Some of these are listed below and in the adjacent drop box.


The number of gods a zerotheist, i.e. an adherent of zerotheism, believer to exist.
Human molecule
(human particle)
The unit number for one individual "human molecule" or person considered as a molecular entity.
Dihumanide number (A≡B)
(dihumanide molecule)
The number of human molecules in the bound state unit of a marriage or close relationship.
Nuclear family number4.5
The number of human molecules in the average 2.5-child nuclear family.
Continuity bond number
(Continuing bond)
The average number of people in a persons network of connections and relationships whose death would leave one truly devastated: people typically listing 10-15 names, with the average being twelve. [1]

The so-called “12/30 motif” (Murdock, 2009) refers to the respective ages of Horus (and Jesus) (Ѻ) when he was said to have first impressed the leading priests with his “intelligence” (age 12) and later the time when he returned as an “adult” (age 30), both of which are astro-theological, in the sense of the sun, aka “Horus the child”, being at full power at noon (12) and the sun, yearly, travelling through 12 constellations or zodiac signs, each being segmented into 30 degree regions a circle, according to which 12 times 30 equals 360, which is the number of days of the year (plus the five intercalation days, wherein, according to the myth, Osiris, Horus, Typhon, Isis, and Nephthys were born, one on each day), at which point the sun is reborn. [7]

In Egyptian religio-mythology, 14 is number of pieces Set hacked the body of Osiris into. Isis uttered 14 magical words to revive him. 14 magical words were spoken to restore the eye of Horus, which Set blinded in battle. Astrologically, the number 14 refers to (a) the number of days the moon wanes or waxes and or (b) the number of stars in the Orion constellation, which was thought to be representative of the astral body of Osiris. (Ѻ)

“They say that the date on which this deed – Set trapping Osiris in chest and throwing it into the Nile – was done was the seventeenth day of Athyr [Nov 13] when the sun passes through the Scorpion, and in the twenty-eighth year of the reign of Osiris; but some say that these are the years of his life and not his reign.”
Plutarch (100AD), On Isis and Osiris (pg. 37); note: compare Horus being bitten by a scorpion and Isis summoning the sun and moon to heal him, as told in Sorrows of Isis (line 205), and as rescripted in Joshua 10:13

“The fourteen parts into which the body of Osiris was broken refer, beyond doubt, to the fourteen pieces which were assumed to be broken or bitten off from the moon during its period of waning, just as twenty-eight years [lunar month] of reign, or life, of Osiris, refer to the days of the moon’s life. Apart from the fact that Osiris is actually called “Asar Aah”, i.e. ‘Osiris the Moon’, there are so many passages which prove beyond all doubt that at one period at least Osiris was the ‘moon god’, that it is difficult to understand why Diodorus stated that Osiris was the sun and Isis the moon. The Egyptian texts suggest that in late times the sun-god of night may have been regarded as a form of Osiris.”
Wallis Budge (1911), Osiris and the Egyptian Resurrection, Volume One (pg. 21)

● Number of “nomes” (states) of Ancient Egypt (22 Upper Egypt + 20 Lower Egypt).
● Became, in Anunian theology, the number of components (Negative Confessions) of the weight of the soul (soul weight).
● Became, in Anunian theology, the number of gods (see: nome god) in the Judgment Hall (of Osiris) in the afterlife.
● Became, in Christianity monotheistic rewrite of Aten-version of Anunian theology, the number of generations, according to Matthew’s genealogy (Ѻ), between Abraham and Jesus.
Social Avogadro number60
First calculated attempt to develop a "human molar number" (or "hmol") equivalent to Avogadro's number ( 6.022 \times 10^{23} \,), done by Hungarian sociologist Babics Laszlo (2003).

● 72 conspirators, along with Set, closed the lid on the chest of Osiris. [6]
● 5 (days gained by Thoth in game of draughts with moon) x 72 = 360 (degrees in circle) [6]
● 72 x 360 = 25,920 (precession completion) [6]
● The stars or constellation movement, based on the axial precession of the earth on its tilted axis, move 1° every 72 years (Ѻ)(Ѻ).
● Number of the names of god (Ѻ) according to Athanasius Kircher.
Nile River flood period
Dunbar number
● The number of days of the Nile river flood, which became the basis if Noah’s flood, as told in the Bible, Genesis 7:24: “And the waters prevailed upon the earth an hundred and fifty days”. (Ѻ)
● The maximum group size that a system will remain stable, based solely on interpersonal ties, without overarching established rules and laws (Robin Dunbar, 1992). [2]

Was regarded as sacred by Pythagoras and a miracle story of him catching a large number of fish was attributed to him; the ratio 265/153, being the height-to-width ratio of the intersection of two circles (called by Archimedes in 250BC the "measure of the fish"); rescripted into the Biblical story of Jesus predicting that a group of fisherman would catch 153 fish in their net.
Social network number200
The number of people said to exist in a typical person's social network.
Name memory number300-5,000
The number of people the average person knows by name.
Energy signature number
(human bond number)
The number of total defining "bonds" (human bonds, sexual bonds, relationship bonds, social bonds, weak ties, strong ties, human chemical bonds, continuity bonds, etc.) that one person has; whereby it is assumed that each bond has a quantifiable amount of bond energy, as do all chemical bonds.


Laszlo number
?The the tentative name to be assigned to a future number of the "hmol", or human mole, the basic unit to human chemical thermodynamic calculations, e.g. entropy (J/Khmol), in honor of the first person to make an attempt at calculating a molar human unit (Babics Laszlo, 2003).
Population number7 billion
The current human population. [5]
Soul number
(IQ number)
81 billion2005Number of humans, come and gone, since the migration of humanoids out of the East African Rift Valley, some 200,000 years ago (as of 2005). The number crops up in theories and discussions on whether or not a human has a conserved moral essence or "soul" in the sense of the Ra theology after death theory of the weighing of the soul. [4] The number also crops up in discussions of ceiling IQs, in the 200+ range.

105 billion
See: number of people who have existed.

Number of atoms in
See main: Number of atoms in
In science, number of atoms in (something), such as 'one human', 'the earth', 'the sun', 'the galaxy', 'the universe', among other varieties, is a popular search query. The following table lists some of these atomic counts. [1] The third column, Exp, shows the old-fashioned calculator shorthand symbol for large numbers, in which E is short for exponent, in the sense that, for instance, E9 is short for 10E9 which is short for  10^9 \,.

#NameNumber written out
ExpNumber of atoms in

 H \,
 H_2 \,
 H_2 O \,
 10^2 \,hundred100E2
 10^3 \,thousand1,000E3
 10^6 \,million1,000,000E6
 10^9 \,billion1,000,000,000E9(ten) bacteria molecules
 10^{12} \,trillion1,000,000,000,000E12
 10^{15} \,quadrillion1,000,000,000,000,000E15(ten) pre-aquatic worms
 10^{18} \,quintillion1,000,000,000,000,000,000E18
 10^{21} \,sextillion1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000E21(one) small fish
 10^{24} \,septillion1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000E24Avogadro's number
 10^{27} \,octillion1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000E27(one) human molecule (person)
 10^{30} \,nonillion1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000E30
 10^{33} \,decillion1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000E33
 10^{36} \,undecillion1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000E36
 10^{39} \,duodecillion1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000E39
 10^{42} \,tredecillion1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000E42
 10^{45} \,quattuordecillion1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000E45
 10^{48} \,quindecillion1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000E48
 10^{51} \,sexdecillion1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000E51(one) earth molecule (the earth)
  10^{54} \,septendecillion1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000E54
 10^{57} \,octodecillion1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000E57(one) sun molecule (the sun)
 10^{60} \,novemdecillion1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000E60
 10^{63} \,vigintillion1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,
 10^{66} \,unvigintillion1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,
E66the milky way galaxy
 10^{69} \,duovigintillion1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,
 10^{72} \,tresvigintillion1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,
 10^{75} \,quattuorvigintillion1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,
 10^{78} \,quinquavigintillion1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,
 10^{81} \,sesvigintillion1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,
E81the observable universe
 10^{84} \,septemvigintillion1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,

1. (a) Gladwell, Malcolm. (2002). The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference. Little, Brown, and Co.
(b) Thims, Libb. (2005). Cessation Thermodynamics. 100-pgs. (un-finished) Chicago: IoHT.
(c) Klass, Dennis, Silverman, Phyllis R., and Nickman, Steven L. (1996). Continuing Bonds: New Understanding of Grief. Taylor & Francis.
2. Dunbar, Robin. (1992). "Neocortex Size as a Constraint on Group Size in Primates", Journal of Human Evolution, 22: 469-93.
3. Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo. (2003). Linked: How Everything is Connected to Everything Else: Business, Science, and Everyday Life. Plume.
3. (a) Laszlo, Babics. (2003). “A Tomegtarsadalmak Mechanikajaes Termodinamikaja”, 92-page manuscript. Feb 10.
(b) Laszlo, Babics. (2003). "The Mechanics and Thermodynamics of Mass Societies", English trans. by Vera Tanczos, 85-pages.
(c) Laszlo, Babics. (2010). “The Mechanics and Thermodynamics of Mass Societies”, Journal of Human Thermodynamics, Vol. 6, pgs. 39-46, Aug.
4. (a) Thims, Libb. (2005). Cessation Thermodynamics (section: A Riddle of Numbers, pg. 79). 100-pgs. (un-finished) Chicago: IoHT.
(b) Olson, Steve. (2003). Mapping Human History: Genes, Race, and Our Common Origins. Mariner Books.
5. Population clock –
6. Fletcher, Audre (1999). “Osiris Legend and Precession: Ancient Egyptians and the Constellations, Part 4” (Ѻ),
7. Murdock, Dorothy M. (2008). Christ in Egypt: the Horus-Jesus Connection (§:Horus at Ages of 12 and 30, pgs. 210-). Stellar House Publishing.

See also
Floating magnets experiment

External links
Number – Wikipedia.

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