Philosophical thermodynamics 2
A rendition of Gustave Hirn in 1868 ruminating on philosophical thermodynamics, namely on implications of thermodynamics on philosophy and metaphysics. [7]
In human thermodynamics, philosophical thermodynamics is the study of the thermodynamic questions of how one should live (ethics); what sorts of things exist and what are their essential natures (metaphysics); what counts as genuine knowledge (epistemology); and what are the correct principles of reasoning (logic). [1]

In 1869, French physicist Gustave Hirn published Philosophical Implications of Thermodynamics, on what thermodynamics has to say about philosophical and metaphysical questions.

In 1955, French anthropologist and philosopher Claude Lévi-Strauss, in his Tristes tropiques (Sad Tropics), coined the term entropology, as the name sometimes given to thermodynamics without differential equations. [4]

In 1987, American writer Elizabeth Porteus situated her Twentieth Century Philosophy of life, happiness, child rearing, and integrated work around the second law of thermodynamics. [5]

In 2002, American physicist Jack Hokikian state the following relation between philosophy and thermodynamics: [6]

“[Long ago] science and philosophy were unified in their goal: to discover the truth about how nature works, [in recent years, however] science has been taken over by technology—applied science—but technology does not provide us with any principles of nature, principles needed to derive a practical philosophy of life—for this we have to turn to the laws of thermodynamics.”

In a sense, philosophical thermodynamics is human thermodynamic analysis of the grounds of and concepts expressing fundamental beliefs as well as search for a general thermodynamic understanding of values and reality by chiefly quantitative means. [2]

Core concepts in philosophical thermodynamics include: time, meaning, purpose, eschatology (e.g. heat death), among others. Of the laws of thermodynamics, according to thermodynamicist Myron Kaufman, the second law has important philosophical implications. [3]

1. Quinton, Anthony; ed. Ted Honderich (1996). "Philosophy". The Oxford Companion to Philosophy.
2. Philosophy (definition, with thermodynamic modification) – Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, CD-ROM, Version 2.5, 2000.
3. Kaufman, Myron. (2002). Principles of Thermodynamics, (pg. 78). CRC Press.
4. Perrot, Pierre. (1998). A to Z of Thermodynamics, (pg. 98). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
5. (a) Porteus, Elizabeth, D. (1987). My Twentieth Century Philosophy. New York: Carlton Press, Inc.
(b) Dole, Elizabeth P. (2005). “Life, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, and Happiness, Journal of Human Thermodynamics, Vol. 1, Issue 3. (pg. 21-26). October. Chicago: Institute of Human Thermodynamics.
(c) Porteus, Elizabeth P. (1999). "The Porteus Philosophy of Life: The Secret of Happiness" (Nov. 14). Hawaii: Porteus Family Publishing.
(d) Thims, Libb. (2007). Human Chemistry (Volume Two) (pgs. 518, 664). Morrisville, NC: LuLu.
6. Hokikian, Jack. (2002). The Science of Disorder: Understanding the Complexity, Uncertainty, and Pollution in Our World (pg. xiv). Los Feliz Publishing.
7. Hirn, Gustave. (1868).Metaphysical and Philosophical Implications of Thermodynamics: A Fundamental Analysis of the Universe (Métaphysique et conséquences philosophiques de la thermodynamique: l'analyse fondamentale de l'univers). Paris: Gauthier-Villars.

Further reading
● Ropolyi, L. & Martinas, K. (1991). Thermodynamics: History and Philosophy - Facts, Trends, Debates Veszprem, Hungary 23-28 July 1990. World Scientific Pub. Co. Inc.
● Ernst, Gerhard and Huttemann, Andreas. (2010). Time, Chance, and Reduction: Philosophical Aspects of Statistical Mechanics. Cambridge University Press.

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