Religio-mythology scholars 3
A generalized depiction (Ѻ) of religio-mythology, in the context of scholars, i.e. thinkers who have studied the mythical roots of modern religions, such as how Christianity (e.g. Jesus) derives, in part from Greek mythology (e.g. Zeus) and Egyptian mythology (e.g. Horus) via syncretism; the Rosetta stone being the key to the Egyptian origins to almost all modern religions.
In categories, religio-mythology scholars refers to the 168+ thinkers, over the ages, and related, e.g. Egyptologists, who have ventured into the subject of mythology, comparative religion and mythology, religio-mythology, astro-theology, among other names, in the quest to decode the underlying mythologies, namely: Egyptian mythology, Mesopotamian mythology (Sumerian mythology, Akkadian mythology, Babylonian mythology, Assyrian mythology) (Ѻ), Greek mythology, Hebrew mythology (Jewish mythology), Christian mythology, e.g. Christ myth theory, Christ fable, etc., Islamic mythology, among others, to modern religions, in respect to their recensions, redactions, "reissuings" (Harpur, 2004), and or rescripts over time. [N1]


Scholars | per century
The following is a listing of religio-mythology scholars, and related, ordered per century, dated by first and last publication contribution; names bolded signify deeper anchor-point thinkers; the [E] notation signifies an Egyptologist; [A] signifies the person was an atheist and or generally classified in the famous atheists category; [A/S] signifies the person was selling spirituality in place of god theory (see: god replacement) and or became atheist [S/A] in later year; the red AR rows signify the person is an "anti religio-mythology scholar", most of which are of the "Christian apologeticist" [CA] variety:

Early Centuries
Publication[s] / Notes



Supposedly based his Theogony (c.675BC), meaning “The Creation of the Gods”, via a transliteration of the Egyptian creation myths, the Heliopolis creation myth, specifically.
After travelling to Egypt, and learning their theology, according to Plato (Ѻ), he substituted Greek names for Egyptian ones, in writing about the Greek deities, according to which Amen-Ra became Zeus, Set became Typhon, Osiris became Dionysus, Horus became Hercules, Shu became Atlas, etc.
3.Anaxagorasc.450BCAtheism | LabeledClaimed that the sun was not driven by Apollo, mounted on a chariot, but rather, based on the "evidence" of examined fallen meteors, and the reasoned postulate that moon light was reflected sunlight, that it was a hot or fiery stone, moving in a fifth element, in addition to the standard four elements, he called “aether”, which he conceived of as being in constant rotation and carried with it the celestial bodies
Devoted much of the second volume of his Histories, to Egyptian religion.
Book: On Isis and Osiris.
6.St. Ireneaus125AD
Stated that there were a multitude of "gospels" in his time (Graham, 1975).
In his heretical “Acts of John”, Christ is described as encountering his followers in “many different guises, not especially a human one”.
8.Justin Martyrc.150AD

Gave one of the first secular accounts of Christians as a deluded creatures, who worship a crucified sage or man, who deny the Greek gods, who believe in immortality, and that the religion was but a get rich quick scheme played by someone by "tricking simple souls".


12. Abraham Ezra
Discerned, according to Spinoza (Ѻ), that “Moses did not write all of the Pentateuch”.
13.[A] Frederick II c.1235
Attributed: Treatise on the Three Imposters (Dubbed: Atheist’s Bible)
14.Meister Eckhart c.1310

His epic poem Africa (Ѻ), equated Apollo, son of Zeus and slayer of Python, to Christ, son of god and slayer of Satan.
1#.Desiderius Erasmus c.1490

16.Leonardo da Vincic.1500
Rejected Biblical flood theory as being responsible for depositing fossils many miles from their origin. (Ѻ)
17.Pope Leo X 1514
Described the “fable of Christ” as a “profitable superstition”.
18.Noel Journet 1582Atheism | New religion Asked the obvious question of how the Pentateuch, aka the Five Books of Moses (Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy), could have been written by Moses, as we are told they were, if the fifth book, of the series, specifically Deuteronomy 34 (Ѻ), describes Moses' own death?
19.[A] Giordano Bruno c.1590

20.Gerardus Vossius c.1630

21.Samuel Bochartc.1650Apologetics Student of Thomas Erpenius (1599-1667) (Ѻ), teacher of Pierre Huet, noted for doing work on the Bacchus-Moses connection (see: Osiris, Dionysus-Bacchus, and Moses), e.g. pointing out that they were both buried in unknown tombs (see: Moses pens his own death problem).
22.Thomas Hobbesc.1651Crypto-atheismFirst to argue that Moses was NOT the author of the Pentateuch.
23.Isaac Peyrerec.1655
Argued that there were men BEFORE Adam and that Moses was NOT the author of the Pentateuch.
24.Benedict Spinoza 1670
Denied, citing Abraham Ezra (c.1150), that Moses wrote the Pentateuch.
25.Pierre Huet 1679

26.John Toland 1696/1722

18th centuryDate
Publication[s] / Notes

27.Bernard Fontenelle 1724
Supposedly, did some of the first work on Bible as myth discussion.
29.Marquis of Argens1736
Argued, via geological reasons, that Noah’s flood is impossible.
30.Jonathan Edwards (1703-1753)c.1750Apologetics Building on, supposedly, Samuel Bochart, did work on the Bacchus-Moses connection. (Ѻ)
31.Nicolas Boulanger1761

32.Immanuel Kant c.1764
Compared Adam and Abraham with Adimo and Brahma, and argued that Joseph was equivalent to Ganesha.
33.Baron d’Holbach 1770[A] MaterialismThe System of Nature: Laws of the Moral and Physical World [Atheist’s Bible]
34.Charles Dupuis1771/1806

35.Constantin Volney1771

36.Ethan Allen1784Reason/AtheismHis Reason: the Only Oracle of Man, a harsh denunciation of Christianity, touched on the Moses pens his own death problem.
37.[A] Thomas Paine1794Reason/AtheismThe Age of Reason [Atheist’s Bible]

19th centuryDate
Publication[s] / Notes

38.Joseph Hager1801

39.William Hort1802
Worked on the Bacchus-Moses connection. (Ѻ)
40.Charles Lebrun 1803

41.Thomas Jefferson 1804/1823Epicurean materialism Jefferson’s Bible
42.Sergey Uvarov1812
Connected Osiris with: Tammuz, Dionysus, Bacchus, Liber, and Adonis.
42.[E] Thomas Young 1814/1818
Initiated: decipherment of hieroglyphics.
43.[A] Napoleon Bonaparte 1817

44.Edward Stillingfleet1817
Worked on the Bacchus-Moses connection. (Ѻ)
45.[E] Jean Champollion c.1820/1822
Completed: decipherment of hieroglyphics.
46.Heinrich Ritter 1829/1853

47.Robert Taylor1828/1833 AtheismWas jailed for 3 years for publishing works arguing that "Jesus never existed".
48.Charles Coleman1832
Connects Egyptian, Hindu, and Roman mythologies. (Ѻ)
49.Godfrey Higgins 1833

50.David Strauss1835

51.Bruno Bauer1840Hegelian atheismArgued that Jesus was myth per silent historians problem logic
52.Franz Movers1841

53.[E] Samuel Birch1841/1880

54.Anon [German Jew] (Ѻ) 1841

55.[E] Richard Lepsius1842
Translation: Egyptian Book of the Dead (English).

Modern Religio-Mythology

56.Logan Mitchell1842/1881

57.Jean-Marie Ragon (Ѻ) 1843

58.Romualdo Gentilucci 1848

59.Alexander Hislop1853

60.Samuel Dunlap 1858/1894
First to state the god-to-prophet technique, explicitly.
61.[E] Peter Renouf (Ѻ)c.1861

62.Samuel Sharpe 1863

63.Ernest Renan1864
Chief of the German “higher criticism” school, which systematically studied the origins and sources of the Bible; his Life of Jesus (1864) established conclusively that the Bible was written over a long period of time, spanning perhaps as much as a millennium, finally assembled in a haphazard manner. [6]
64.Charles King1864/1887

65.[E] Heinrich Brugsch 1864/1888

66.William Cooper 1870/1876

67.James Peebles (Ѻ)1870

68. Archibald Sayce 1872/1913

69.Auguste Mariette 1873

70.Kersey Graves 1875 Atheism / SecularismThe World's Sixteen Crucified Saviors
71.Helena Blavatsky1877

72.John Stuart-Glennie1878

73.DeRobigne Bennett1881Atheism
74.Gaston Maspero1881/1899

75.[E] Gerald Massey 1881/1907Evolution / Spiritualism [?]
76.Thomas Doane1882

77.Herbert Hardwicke 1884/1887

78.Edouard Naville 1886

79.Iosif Kryvelev (Ѻ) 1887

80.[A] Friedrich Nietzsche 1888

81.James Frazer1890/1915
The Golden Bough
82.[E] Wallis Budge1890/1929

83.Watson Heston1892/1900

84.William Smith (Ѻ)1894

85.George St. Clair1898

20th centuryDate
Publication[s] / Notes

86.John Robertson1900
In his Christianity and Mythology (Ѻ), he devotes chapters and sections to: “Christ and Krishna”, “Hebrew mythology”, Virgin and Child derived from Isis and Horus, Horus born on Christmas, etc.
87.Albert Kalthoff (Ѻ) 1902/06

88.Constantine Grethenbach1902/1903

89.Robert Shaw1904
Connected Anubis with John the Baptist
90.[E] Flinders Petrie (Ѻ) 1905

91.Alice Grenfell1906

92.Arthur Drews (Ѻ) 1907

93.Thomas Cheyne1907

94.Albert Churchward (Ѻ)(Ѻ) 1910/1921
The Christ Myth
95. Singleton Davis 1910/1911
Editor of the Scientific Rationalism, Psychology, Biology, Sociology, Comparative Religion and Mythology, Freethought, Ethical Culture (Ѻ) magazine, wherein he (Ѻ) decodes (1910) things such as the Is-ra-el puzzle; which is host to articles such as: “What was Jesus: Man, Myth, or God?” by T.S Givan, among others.
96.Wakeman Ryno 1912

97.Hugo Gressman (Ѻ) 1913

98.George Gurdjieff1915

99.Alan Gardiner1916

100.Ernst Sellin 1922

101.Thomas Spivey (Ѻ) 1927/1935

102.Henry Mencken 1930
In his Treatise on the Gods (Ѻ), citing Archibald Sayce [RMS:48], attempted to reconstruct Genesis as but a borrowed of ideas from the Babylonians.
103.Joseph Wheless (Ѻ) 1930

104.Alvin Kuhn 1930-1960

105.Edward Ulback (Ѻ) 1936

106.Sigmund Freud1939

107.Archibald Robertson (Ѻ) 1946

108.Karel Hujer1946Universal consciousness
109. Robert Graves 1948
His The White Goddess (Ѻ) was influential to Gary Greenberg.
110.Joseph Campbell 1949/1960
Asserted, in his The Hero with a Thousand Faces (1949), the theory that a single myth stood behind the stories of Krishna, Buddha, Apollonius of Tyana, Jesus and other hero stories; in his The Masks of God: Occidental Mythology, Volume Three (1960), stated “it is clear that, whether accurate or not as to biographical detail, the moving legend of the crucified and risen Christ was fit to bring a new warmth, immediacy, and humanity, to the old motifs of the beloved Tammuz, Adonis, and Osiris cycles.” (Ѻ)
111.[E] Rene Lubicz1949

112.Herbert Cutner (Ѻ) 1950

113.Alexander Badawy (Ѻ) 1954

114.Hilton Hotema1956/1963

115.Andrija Puharich (Ѻ) 1959

116.Raymond Faulkner1968
Published Spell 148 of the Coffin Texts, which gives the original account of the “virgin birth” and the “holy spirit”; also translated Egyptian Book of the Dead (1972).
117.John Allegro (Ѻ) 1970/1971

118.Jordan Maxwell1970/2010

119.George Wells (Ѻ) 1971/2004

120.Othmar Keel (Ѻ) 1972

121.Lloyd Graham1975Astrology, new age, gnosticism, evolutionDeceptions and Myths of the Bible
122.Robert Temple1976
In his The Sirius Mystery, based on the findings of Griaule and Dieterlen (1950), asserted the highly speculative view that the Dogon people, of Mali, West Africa, knew that Sirius was a binary star (Sirius A and Sirius B).
123.James Arthur 1976/2000

124.John Griffiths (Ѻ) 1980

125.[E] Erik Hornung1982/2001

126.John Jackson1985

127.Richard Friedman1987
Who Wrote the Bible
128.Robert Bauval1983
Figured out that the thee stars of Orion's belt are the basis of the three pyramids at Giza.
129.Ahmed Osman (Ѻ)1990

130.Karl Luckert 1991

131. Anthony Browder1992Amen-stylized unseen force of god model Noted for his Nile Valley Contributions to Civilizations (1992) and for his semi-intelligent video discussions (Ѻ) of the Washington obelisk being the symbol of Osiris or his phallus.
132.Michael Jordan 1993

133.Bart Ehrman 1993/2016

134.[E] Gary Greenberg 1996/2011
101 Myths of the Bible
135.J.S. Gordon (1946-2013)1997
In his Land of the Fallen Star Gods, building on the work of Helena Blavatsky, digresses on stars, gods, and mythology.
136.Moustafa Gadalla (Ѻ) 1997/2007

137.Muata Ashby 1997/2015

138.Dorothy Murdock 1999/2014Spiritualism / AtheismThe Christ Conspiracy: The Greatest Story Ever Sold
139.Timothy Freke 1999/2012

140.Earl Doherty (Ѻ) 1999/2009
The Jesus Puzzle

21st centuryDate
Publication[s] / Notes

141. Richard Cassaro 2000
Jesus and Osiris (labeled)In 2000, he commissioned (Ѻ) a New York City street artist to make the now-famous Jesus and Osiris split image parallelism (adjacent), for book he was drafting, tentatively entitled Osiris: the Egyptian Christ; penned a 2011 rudimentary article (Ѻ) on this connection.
142.Kenneth Humphreys 2001/2014
Inspired (Ѻ) by: Earl Doherty (The Jesus Puzzle, 1999); Dorothy Murdock (The Christ Conspiracy, 1999); Timothy Freke and Peter Gandy (The Jesus Mysteries, 1999); George Wells (The Jesus Myth / The Jesus Legend, 1999); Arthur Drews (The Christ Myth, 1910); Robert M. Price (Deconstructing Jesus, 2000); Hyam Maccoby (The Mythmaker: Paul & the Invention of Christianity, 1987); Burton Mack (Who Wrote the New Testament?, 1995); and Elaine Pagels (The Gnostic Gospels, 1979), launched:, which turned 2014 book. (Ѻ)
143.Patrick Geryl (Ѻ) 2001

144.Gene Matlock c.2002
Worked on the Abraham and Brahma problem.
145.Daniel Lazare (Ѻ) 2002

146.Richard Gabriel (Ѻ) 2002

147. Tim Callahan (Ѻ)(Ѻ) 2002/2005

148.Libb Thims2003

149.Simson Najovits 2003/2009

150.Tom Harpur2004-presentTheism | Christ withinThe Pagan Christ
ARW. Ward Gasque2004
20 leading Egyptologists poll [3]
151.Ralph Ellis (Ѻ)(Ѻ) 2004

152. Bojana Mojsov2005
Was in the documentary “The Hidden Story of Jesus” (Ѻ), discussing the Osiris-Jesus connection; book: Osiris: Death and Afterlife of a God (Ѻ)(Ѻ)
153.Joseph Atwill2005/2012

ARJohn Holdingc.2005/2008
ARStanley Porter &
Stephen Bedard
Unmasking the Pagan Christ: An Evangelical Response to the Cosmic Christ Idea [5]
154.Peter Joseph2007
Film: Zeitgeist
155.Harry Tabony (Ѻ) 2007

156.Fahim A. Knight (Ѻ) 2007

157.Bill Maher2008Atheism | RationalismFilm: Religulous [2]
158. Gordon Johnston 2008
Connects Genesis to Hermopolis creation myth (compare: Gary Greenberg). [8]
158.John Pippy (Ѻ) 2009

160.Eddie Austerlitz (Ѻ) 2010

161.David Fitzgerald2010Atheism
162.Joseph Matlock (Ѻ)(Ѻ) 2010

163.Michael Paulkovich2012
His No Meek Messiah digresses on the silent historians problem and explains how a large number of "spells" of the Book of the Dead became centerpieces of the Bible.
AR Jon Sorenson [CA]2012
“Horus Manure: Debunking the Jesus/Horus Connection” [2]
164.Larry Marshall (Ѻ) 2013

165.Horus Gilgamesh 2013Non-believer
[Non-identifying atheist]

ARMark Foreman [CA]2013
“Challenging the Zeitgeist Movie”
166.John Ostrowick (Ѻ) 2013

167.Pier Tulip 2013
Author of the 2013 Italian published Krst: Gesu un Mito Solare (Ѻ), inspired by Dorothy Murdock, translated in English as Krst: Jesus a Solar Myth (2015) (Ѻ).
168.[A] Richard Carrier2014Atheism | [Type?]


The following are related quotes:

“It would appear almost an act of folly, in pretending to uproot that ancient Upas-tree (Ѻ)(Ѻ) of religious superstition, under the poisonous shade of which mankind has been for [millennial] ages accustomed to repose, and the roots of which are so widespread and profound.”
Charles Dupuis (c.1794), cited as views in agreement with by 1872 English translator [1]

“We think ourselves possessed, or, at least, we boast that we are so, of liberty of conscience on all subjects. Yet, how far are we from these exalted privileges in fact! There exists, I believe, throughout the whole Christian world, a law which makes it blasphemy to deny our doubt the divine inspiration of all the books of the Old and New Testaments, from Genesis to Revelation. Who would run the risk of translating Dupuis?”
John Adams (1825), “Letter to Thomas Jefferson”, Jan 23

“Let me not be called a wicked atheist for seeing the likeness between Brahma and Abraham.”
Godfrey Higgins (1833), Anacalypsis, Volume One (pg. 391)

Birch and Brugsch are the two greatest masters of Egyptology.”
Wallis Budge (1904), The Gods of the Egyptians, V1 (pgs. 63-64)

“The points of contact between Judaism and the religion of Babylonia have frequently been mentioned by numerous writers, but the traces of Egyptian mythology in both Jewish and Christian scriptures have not been so much noticed, nor could they be till quite lately. It is only within the last few decades that students have been sufficiently well provided with mythological texts and commentaries to be in possession of the necessary material, thanks to the labors of Birch [Samuel Birch], von Bergmann, von Bissing, Breasted, Brugsch, Budge, Chabas, Deveria, Grebaut, Guieysse, de Horrack, Jequier, Lanzone, Ledrain, Lefebure, Legrain, Lieblein, Mariette [Auguste Mariette], Maspero, Moret, Piehl, Pierret, Pleyte, Renouf, Sharpe, Spiegelberg, Wiedemann and others. The relationship of Egyptian mythology to Jewish religion is too large a subject to discuss fully; haec peritioribus relinguo [these religious experts]; so I only mention a few traces of Egyptian influence in the Old Testament, but there are many others. I will then point out the more numerous Egyptian touches in the New Testament.”
Alice Grenfell (1906), “Egyptian Mythology and the Bible”; cited by Thomas Cheyne (1907)

See also
Religio-mythology genealogy

N1. this page originated as a “see also” section of the Wallis Budge article; which grew in size, therein mediating the need for a sideways scrolling listing of scholars by century; this side-scrolling listing (13 Feb 2017) was changed into the above table listing, at the 110+ scholar level, so to include the "Selling" column, amid reading of Tom Harpur (2004), and his selling of "internal Christ" model in the course of his Massey-Kuhn-Higgins based Jesus debunking.

1. Dupuis, Charles. (1797). The Origin of All Religious Worship: Universal Religions Abridged (roots, pg. 5; Chenier, pg. 9). C.C.W. Müller, 1872.
2. Sorenson, Jan. (2012). “Horus Manure: Debunking the Jesus/Horus Connection” (Ѻ),
3. Gasque, W. Ward. (2004). “The Leading Religion Writer in Canada: Does he Know What He is Talking About?” (Ѻ),, Aug 17.
4. (a) Holding, John P. (c.2005). “Tom Harpur’s The Pagan Christ: a Critique” (Ѻ),
(b) Holding, John P. (2008). Shattering the Christ Myth: Did Jesus Not Exist? (Amz) Xulon Press.
(c) John Patrick Holding (about) –
5. Porter, Stanley E. and Bedard, Stephen J. (2006). Unmasking the Pagan Christ: An Evangelical Response to the Cosmic Christ Idea. Clements Publishing.
6. Lovecraft, H.P. (2010). Against Religion: the Atheistic Writings of H.P. Lovecraft (editor: S.T. Joshi; foreword: Christopher Hitchens) (abs) (Amz) (pg. xxi). Sporting Gentlemen.
7. Gordon, H. Johnston. (2008). “Genesis 1 and Ancient Egyptian Creation Myths” (Ѻ), Bibliotheca Sacra, 165:178-94, Apr-Jun.

TDics icon ns