In thought experiments, a scientific demon is an imagined being, a scientific metaphor of sorts, tending to be in possession of an extremely heightened intellect, that is able to do super-human calculations, of different varieties, often able to predict the future and or the past. Some have categorized the study of these types of "scientific demons", namely: Maxwell’s demon, Smoluchowski’s demon, Godel’s demon, Ehrenfest’s demon, etc., as “endophysics”. [1] The following chronology table outlines the history of scientific demons:



c.1700 Leibniz’s prophet
Gottfried Leibniz
(see: Euler genealogy)
A proto-precursor to Laplace’s demon. [3]
1770Holbach's geometrician
Baron d'HolbachThe exact forerunner to Laplace, who studied under Holbach, and his later 1814 demon
c.1770Boscovich’s finite mind
Roger Boscovich A proto-precursor to Laplace’s demon. [3]
1814Laplace’s demonLaplace's demon (fuller)Pierre LaplaceAn intellect if it knew the precise location an momentum of every atom in the universe, then, using Newton’ laws of motion, could reveal the entire course of cosmic events, past and future. [5]Laplacian determinism
(see: determinism)
1867 Maxwell’s demon Maxwell's demon (small)James MaxwellAn intelligent being that is able to "see" the speeds of atoms and molecules (in a gas), and thus separate them into slow (cold) and fast (hot) groupings, and thus circumvent the governing regulation of the second law.Irreversibility
c.1869Huxley's demonnebular hypothesisThomas Huxley A sufficient intellect, with knowledge of the properties of the molecules and forces possessed by the molecules of the primitive nebulosity (see: nebular hypothesis) could predict the state of fauna of Great Britain with as much certainty as one could predict the vapor of one’s breath on a cold winter day. [9]Evolution
(nebular hypothesis)
c.1898Filon-Pearson demon
(superluminal relativistic Maxwell demon)
Filon-Pearson demonLouis Filon
(and Karl Pearson)

1900 version
Relativity (1900)
1912Smoluchowski’s demonSmoluchowski demonMarian SmoluchowskiA type of conceptualized type of Maxwell demon trap door that "vibrates" owing to Brownian motion energy impacts. [7]
1927Ehrenfest’s demon
Paul Ehrenfest[2]
1929 Szilard’s demon Szilard's demonLeo SzilardA Maxwell demon that requires or utilizes energy to "see" the movements of the particles.Is argued (by many) to connect "information", and hence information theory, with thermodynamics.
1931Godel’s demon
Kurt Godel[4]
1999Protein demon
Werner Loewenstein [8]
2007Advanced intelligence
(Gibbsian demon)
Advanced intelligence (2)Libb Thims A type of advanced “intellect”, possibly a 30-40 element molecule (in the sense that a human is a less-intelligent 26-element molecule), that would be able to look down at us and measure and calculate our reactions to each other (in terms of thermodynamic variables) the way we do in calculating statevariables in thermodynamic tables. [6] Thermodynamic determinism: An entity that is able "predict" human chemical reactions, in the same way we predict chemical reactions by measuring free energy.

1. (a) Casti, J.L. and Karlqvist, Anders. (1987). Real Brains, Artificial Minds (pg. 44). North-Holland.
(b) Rossler, Otto E. (1998). Endophysics: the World as an Interface (pg. 31). World Scientific.
2. Rossler, Otto E. (1998). Endophysics: the World as an Interface (pg. 31). World Scientific.
3. Laplace’s demon (by Robert Doyle) –
4. (a) Casti, J.L. and Karlqvist, Anders. (1987). Real Brains, Artificial Minds (pg. 44). North-Holland.
(b) Kontopoulos, Kyriakos M. (2006). The Logics of Social Structure (pg. 17). Cambridge University Press.
5. Ulanowicz, Robert E. (1986). Growth and Development - Ecosystems Phenomenology (pg. 2-3). New York: toExcell Press.
6. (a) Thims, Libb. (2007). Human Chemistry (Volume One) (pg. 16-18). Morrisville, NC: LuLu.
(b) Thims, Libb. (2008). The Human Molecule (ch. Advanced Intelligence Perspective, pgs. 39-42)(issuu) (preview) (Google Books) (docstoc). LuLu.
7. Norton, John D. (2010). “When a Good Theory meets a Bad Idealization: the Failure of the Thermodynamics of Computation”, Pitt University.
8. Loewenstein, Werner R. (1999). The Touchstone of Life: Molecular Information, Cell Communication, and (§: The Recharging of Protein Demons, pgs. 77-). Oxford University Press.
9. Bergson, Henri. (1911). Creative Evolution (pg. 44). H. Holt and Co.
10. (a) Pearson, Karl. (1900). The Grammar of Science (§:Note VII: On the Reversibility of Natural Processes, pg. 540). Publisher.
(b) The Grammar of Science – Wikipedia.

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