In hmolscience, two cultures calls refers to historical and or modern calls for the world’s leading universities and educational systems to implement a two cultures namesake course, readership, chair and or university department, seen as a growing and pressing need, that teaches students—natural science and social science students combined—the basics of social physics, pure and applied (Florence Nightingale, 1874), what the Clausius inequality and Romeo and Juliet have to do with each other (C.P. Snow, 1959), themed around a sociology based on chemistry (Werner Stark, 1962) or physicochemical sociology (Mirza Beg, 1987) as modern physical science defines things.

List | Classical
The following is a work-in-progress chronological listing of some of these calls, statements of pressing need, and desires to study and or complete degrees and do research the general field of the physicochemical humanities:


1.Auguste Comte 75Auguste Comte
French sociologist and philosopher
1842In his his Positive Philosophy, stated following pressing "need":

“Now that the human mind has grasped celestial and terrestrial physics, mechanical and chemical, organic physics, both vegetable and animal, there remains one science, to fill up the series of sciences or observation—social physics. This is what men have now most need of; and this it is the principal aim of the present work to establish.”

Namely that we need to establish a branch of physics and chemistry that grasps sociological phenomena the same way we have mastered: celestial mechanics, terrestrial physics, analytical mechanics, chemical physics, and organic physics.
2.James Froude 75James Froude (1818-1894)
English clergyman-abnegator turned historian, novelist, biographer, and editor
1849 In his Christian faith-relinquishing semi-autobiographical book Nemesis of Faith (1849), during which time, that year, his book was publicly burned—specifically by Exeter College, Oxford, moral philosophy professor William Sewell, who denounced the wickedness of the book to his class, and, when one of his pupils confessed to the possession of a copy, seized it, tore it to pieces, and threw it in the fire—he states the following very pressing and trenchant logic:

“What is man the wiser or the happier for knowing how the air-plants feed, or how my centuries the flint-stone was in forming, unless the knowledge of them can be linked on to humanity, and elucidate for us some of our hard moral mysteries?”

a publication, which, ironically—in that two decades later Florence Nightingale would propose to initiate such a chair (see below, 1874)—lost him his fellowship at Exeter College, Oxford, after which he would go in, in 1854, to do the first “anonymous” first English translation (see: translations) of Goethe’s physical chemistry based book Elective Affinities (1809), which would go on in the three centuries to follow to form the basis and any and all type of physicochemical humanities courses.

3.Florence Nightingale 75Florence Nightingale
Italian-born English social reformer
1874 Proposal for chair in social physics (2003)On the passing of Belgian statistical mathematician and astronomer Adolphe Quetelet (1796-1874), author of Essay on Social Physics (1835), her social theory mentor since circa 1859, proposed that a readership or chair in social physics be established at Oxford University and lobbied up until 1891 to get such a chair established, offering to put forward $100,000 USD, in modern terms, of her own money.

“The only fitting memorial to Quetelet would be to introduce his science [social physics] in the studies of Oxford, upon which alone social and political philosophy can be founded, which as he said himself ought no means to be limited to the administrative or legislative domain but should be the interpreter of all theodike, all the government and its laws embracing the smallest and the most accidental to the greatest and most universal actions and phenomena of our moral physical life.”
— Florence Nightingale (1874), “In Memoriam”, Feb 21

“I think the [following] needs doing: [we need] a scheme from someone of high authority as to what should be the work and subjects in teaching ‘social physics’ and their practical application, in the event of our being able to obtain a statistical professorship or readership at the University of Oxford.”
Florence Nightingale (1891), “Letter to Francis Galton”, Feb 7

See the: Nightingale Chair of Social Physics for elaboration on this project. Section shown above (right) is Canadian social science historian Lynn McDonald’s 2003 chapter section header on Florence Nightingale’s 1874-1891 Oxford social physics chair initiation project. [1]
4.Nietzsche 75Friedrich Nietzsche
German philosopher
1878“There is, strictly speaking, neither unselfish conduct, nor a wholly disinterested point of view. Both are simply sublimations in which the basic element seems almost evaporated and betrays its presence only to the keenest observation. All that we need and that could possibly be given us in the present state of development of the sciences, is a chemistry of the ‘moral’, ‘religious’, ‘aesthetic’ conceptions and ‘feeling’, as well as of those ‘emotions’ which we experience in the affairs, great and small, of society and civilization, and which we are sensible of even in solitude. But what if this chemistry established the fact that, even in its domain, the most magnificent results were attained with the basest and most despised ingredients? Would many feel disposed to continue such investigations? Mankind loves to put by the questions of its origin and beginning: must one not be almost inhuman in order to follow the opposite course?”
— Friedrich Nietzsche (1878), Human, All Too Human; first use of ‘sublimation’ in psychology
5. Henry Adams 75Henry Adams
American historian and physico-chemical social dynamics pioneer
1885 Spent some 50+ years aiming to ferret out a general theory of a universal operation underlying the humanities and the course of human history, based on the growing physicochemical sciences of his time, namely: Goethean human chemical theory based philosophy (Arthur Schopenhauer, 1818), thermodynamics (William Thomson, 1849), chemical thermodynamics (Willard Gibbs, 1876), anthropic physics (Wilhelm Ostwald, 1910), etc., culminating in his A Letter to American Teachers of History (1910), wherein he advocated the teaching of an atomic-thermodynamics based history course, some statements of which are shown below:

Social chemistry—the mutual attraction of equivalent human molecules—is a science yet to be created, for the fact is my daily study and only satisfaction in life.”
— Henry Adams (1885), “Letter to Clover Adams”, Apr 12

“I’m looking for a young and innocent physico-chemist [see: Henry Bumstead] who wants to earn a few dollars by teaching an [historian] idiot what is the first element of theory and expression in physics.”
— Henry Adams (1908), “Note to John Jameson”, Dec

“My Letter to Teachers was meant simply to ‘teach teachers how to teach’. Schopenhauer prophecied it nearly a hundred years ago. Nothing is to be gained by preaching this lesson as a form of energy. It would act as a dissipator of energy. Therefore I have taught it, or tried teaching it, only to the few men who could profit by it to economise their scholar’s energies,—to save them from wasting it on past processes. Economy is all I can see now, as true scientific object for education to pursue. Certain branches of education may soon be lopped off, to advantage.”
— Henry Adams (1910), “Letter to Barrett Wendell”, May 18

Adams, in his most-famous The Education of Henry Adams, summarized how the majority of modern education, such as his own at Harvard, is time wasted, and how the modern mind needs education in “physico-chemical social dynamics”, as he referred to the subject he had in mind.
6. Hauriou 75Maurice Hauriou
French social-philosopher and law professor
1899 The following is a truncated summary of Hauriou’s proposal:

There is need to establish a new science … one that compares the mechanics of social science and social movement with thermodynamics. In doing so, the human mind obeys the feeling that he has the web link and continuity of natural phenomena. It will be then possible to determine more accurately the specific content of this new science and to classify the essential elements, which will then serve as a touchstone of human theories.”
— Maurice Hauriou (1899), Lessons on Social Movement
7. Edwin Slosson 75Edwin Slosson
American chemist and religion-science reconciler
1910 The following is Slosson’s proposal:

Every university should have a Department of Applied Greek and a complementary Department of Humanized Physics, and the benefits of these departments also should be extended as freely as is practicable to those who need them most, that is, to those whose main work is in another field.”
— Edwin Slosson (1910), Great American Universities

In his Sermons of a Chemist (1925), he would go on to attempt to integrate atomic theory and relativity with the Bible and ideas on God; comments how his ideas are similar to Albert Mathews; in 1935, American philosopher Oliver Reiser, a correspondent of Slosson, commented in a footnote in his book Philosophy and Concepts of Modern Science, in his discussion section on the social energetics theorists, who brought physical chemistry methods to bear on social problems, such as Wilhelm Ostwald, Henry Adams, and Thomas Carver, that “I shall do my best to carry this view a step forward”; meaning that Reiser's aim was to continue the work on the thermodynamic application to history started by Slosson. This, however, did not seem to actualize into much further.
8. Photo needed 75Werner Stark
Czechoslovakian-born English sociologist
1969 The following, in commentary on Thomas Huxley’s 1871 call for the development of the field of social chemistry, are Starks suggestions:

Why should no social chemistry ever been developed? Nobody would suggest that the social scientists should imitate meteorology, for this discipline does not appear to have got very far, but what about chemistry? A sociology based on chemistry has in fact been called for, but this call has found no echo. It would have been easy to take up this suggestion and develop it further. An intending social chemist would have found it one whit more difficult to manufacture a sociological parallel to the Boyle-Charles law than Haret did to the Newtonian propositions. But the experiment appears never to have been tried. Why?
— Werner Stark (1962), The Fundamental Forms of Social Thought
9.Ernest Samuels 75Ernest Samuels
American lawyer and English professor
1989Stated following:

“Man must jump, as Adams liked to say, if he would save himself; a moral and intellectual elite must be recruited. If nothing else would serve to make moral philosophers out of historians, the fear of imminent annihilation might. University education must be revolutionized by the physicist-historian.”
Ernest Samuels (1989), Henry Adams
10. Paul Bohannan 75Paul Bohannan
American anthropologist
1995 The following are Bohannan’s summary of the issue at hand, as far as anthropology goes:

“Adapting thermodynamic ideas to the study of culture is limited by a very simple fact: nobody has yet figured out what might be the cultural equivalent of heat or energy … nobody has yet found the ‘heat’ or the ‘energy’ in cultural matters … the concepts of ‘cultural temperature’ (see: social temperature) to refine our understanding of ‘cultural heat’ (see: social heat) have not yet appeared. This is one of the most pressing problems for the next generation of anthropologists, and the difficulties are profound.”
— Paul Bohannan (1995), How Culture Works

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Two cultures | Movement
See also: Libb Thims (prospectus)
The following is a work-in-progress chronological listing of recent two cultures calls turned two cultures movements (see: two cultures inquires), two cultures implementations (see: two cultures synergies), or two cultures establishments, namely to either establish a two cultures department and or complete a degree in such a department:


1.Jurgen Mimkes 75Jurgen Mimkes (1939-)
German solid state thermodynamicist and socio-economic physicist
1992Mimkes physical socio-economics departmentIn 1992, Mimkes, as head of physics department of Paderborn University, German, assembled his department together to figure out, from a physics point of view, if anything could be done to remedy, recent student shooting incidents, arising between two cultural groups; thereafter he launched the world's first graduate department of thermodynamics based physical socio-economics; which produced several masters degree students.

2. Gheorghe Savoiu 75Gheorghe Savoiu
Romanian economist and econophysicist

Ion Siman 75Ion Siman
Romanian physicist, biophysicist, and sociophysicist
2007 Sociophysics (2012)Began working, in 2007, with physicist Ion Siman on how to go about teaching econophysics and sociophysics, and thereafter founded the Romanian school of physical socioeconomics, centered at the University of Pitesti, Romania; the following is an example quote:

“The apparently common field of sociology has the potential of producing and proving that the laws of physics can be reproduced as laws in human interaction, in social constructions, and even in relationships. In sociophysics, the first objective is the treatment of individuals, somewhat analogously to particles, or to atoms in a gas, and this allows for the application of statistical physics methodologies. Why [is] sociophysics necessary in a modern university? [Because] entropy and syntropy realities prove that econophysics is virtually the most necessary science discipline in a modern university.”
— Gheorghe Savoiu and Ion Siman (2012), “Why Sociophysics is Necessary in a Modern University”

The section shown (above right) is from their 2012 multi-contributor book Econophysics: Background and Applications in Economics, Finance, and Sociophysics. Savoiu and Siman, also, in 2011, launched University of Pitesti’s new academic publication Econophysics, Sociophysics and other Multidisciplinary Sciences Journal, acronym ESMSJ, which has produced articles on two cultures namesake themed multidisciplinary topics; since 2008 they have hosted the annual University of Pitesti Econophysics and Sociophysics Workshop (UPESW) conferences; UPESW 2013 being attended by Libb Thims to study their operation.
3.Photo needed 75MrDNA
Anon PhD student
2008Posted the following query in (Ѻ)

“I'm currently in a psychology PhD program studying ways the structure of human social networks facilitates information transmission. I find the dominant psychology methodology extremely informal and would like to switch to a department where such things are studied using statistical mechanics (which is essentially the approach I'm taking now but without any faculty support).

This puts me in a weird place because while I've learned the necessary math, none of it is on my transcript. (In fact, many professors in our psychology department literally forbid students to take graduate math courses).

Is anyone sufficiently familiar with sociophysics to know whether there are ways for people like me to prove I have sufficient math background to switch programs? If I want to work with a professor in a physics department solely on applications of statistical mechanics to questions in social sciences, do I need to prove that I understand topics in physics that are not directly relevant to such questions just to get into a department?”
4. Simone Loreti 75Simone Loreti
Italian theoretical physicist
2012 After completed his master’s degree in theoretical physics, Loreti began probing around looking for somewhere where he can completed his PhD in sociophysics, socioeconomic physics, and or human thermodynamics; the following are a few queries, the latter to Libb Thims:

“Dear Sirs, I am looking for a PhD in SocioPhysics (or at most Socio-Econo-Physics), and/or funds for it. Do you know something about it? Any advice is welcome.”
— Simon Loreti (2012), “Forum blog post”, EconoPhysics Forum, Apr 14

“In March 2011, I graduated with a master's degree in theoretical physics at the University of Bologna (Italy). I am strongly interested in sociophysics or in general in physics applied to human behavior: in my thesis I solved a sociological problem using statistical mechanics, and machine learning methods. I am looking for a PhD in socio-physics or human thermodynamics and/or funds for it. Do you know something about it? Any advice is welcome.”
— Simon Loreti (2012), “Email to Institute of Human Thermodynamics”, Apr 15
5. Libb Thims (2013) 75Libb Thims
American electrochemical engineer
2012 After giving five different hmolscience-centric and or human chemical thermodynamics based university lectures, at three different universities worldwide (UIC, NIU, PU), during the period 2010 to 2013, and after mentoring and advising one graduate student (Jeff Tuhtan) through his PhD dissertation, via Hmolpedia articles, threads, site messaging, email communications, and video uploads, during the period 2010 to 2012, officially starting probing around (see: two cultures inquiries) at various leading university heads, in aims to found a two cultures department, thematically conceived as a combination and modern upgraded synthesis of the: Lausanne school (1890-1923), Harvard Pareto circle (1932-1943), the Princeton social physics department (1945-1955), and the Romanian school (2007-present), or at least to initiate a Nightingale-like chair, readership, and or professorship teaching physicochemical humanities, for undergraduates and graduates; a project ongoing, but not, as of yet (2014), able to find realization, but one moving in that direction.
6.Behrouz SadeghiBehrouz Sadeghi
Iranian economist
2014 On 10 Nov 2014, emailed the following query to Libb Thims:

“I am Behruz Sadeghi Amroabadi, PhD Candidate (in last year) of economics at University of Isfahan, Iran and now as a visiting student in Towson University in USA. I have passed PhD comprehensive examination in my faculty successfully and have published several research papers about the environment, government, social capital, poverty, etc., in Iranian and international journals. The subject of my thesis is ‘Economic Entropy as a New Index of Cost in Economics.’ Now, I am searching for Post-Doc position and know you have some research in this regard. Do you or your faculty have any Position for Post Doctoral in related to entropy? I really interest in this subject and want to continue my knowledge for this important.”

Thims told Sadeghi that he was working to get an undergraduate and graduate department of “physicochemical humanities” established here in America, but was facing resistance, and in mean time suggesting that he might contact the Romanian school of physical socioeconomics, Yakovenko of the American school, as well as John Rutledge.

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Poudel-Galem-Thims | Discussion
On 30 Jun 2016, amid lunch discussion, between Ram Poudel, Serge Galam, and Libb Thims, on the outside patio of Italian Pizza Kitchen, across from Days Inn (conference hotel), following the end of the three-day BPE 2016 conference:

Thims, Mimkes, Poudel, Galam (labeled)

Poudel, with an MS in mechanical engineering, who for the last ten years, at Pulchowk Campus, Institute of Engineering, Tribhuvan University, Nepal, has been teaching thermodynamics, and since 2014 has been jointly working, at University of Massachusetts, Amherst, towards completion of his PhD on a social field theory and or thermodynamics based poverty-focused economics dissertation, asking Galam and Thims about potential PhD supervisors and or committee members possibilities.

Galam sociophysics seminar (2015)
A news flyer (Ѻ) for Serge Galam’s 2015 12-part seminar on sociophysics based politics, aka physical politics, given at the graduate department of Paris Institute of Political Studies (Sciences Po).
Galem explained that last year he had began teaching a sociophysics-based politics class (of 120-students), at the Paris Institute of Political Studies (Sciences Po (Ѻ)), e.g. see his: 2015 “Doctoral Seminar: Do Humans Behave Like Atoms? An Unfortunate Answer from Sociophysics” (Ѻ) (adjacent) — if he was in need of an assistant, or would be willing to supervise, sign off, and or be a committee advisor for his PhD dissertation, or something to this effect. Galem, however, explained that either he, his department, or something to this effect, is not in the position to facilitate PhDs of this sort, or something to this effect; as he only started teaching his physics-based politics is a course only started last year, and it is still a relatively new field of inquiry.

Thims, to note, pointed out to Galam that the US constitution, via the Princeton School of Social Physics, in particular the mind of James Madison, was conceptualized in terms of Newtonian physics-based politics; Thims directed Galam to the appropriate reading material advisable for his students to read, to get historical framework for a course in physical politics.

Poudel, Galem, and Thims then began ruminating on the matter. Thims, e.g., told Poudel that he could have done the PhD under Jurgen Mimkes, who ferried two masters degrees in physical-thermodynamical socioeconomics at the University of Paderborn, German, but that he is retired now. Poudel stated that he wanted to complete his PhD in the US, but that he was not for sure that he could complete his PhD at his present research position at University of Massachusetts, Amherst, as his supervisors were not academically equipped (thermodynamically) to sign off on such a PhD, or something to this effect.

Thims suggested the following potential PhD supervisors for Ram Poudel to finalize his 2014 to present work on a thermodynamics based social field theory dissertation:

1. Erich Muller | Imperial College, London, chemical engineering department | Poudel told Thims (at BPE 2016) that he read Muller’s “Human Societies” 10 times, after being sent it as reading material by Thims, following feedback on Poudel's draft BPE 2016 talk on thermodynamics based social field theory presentation.

2. James Ferri | Lafayette College, Pennsylvania, chemical and biomolecular engineering department | Thims’ proposed Ferri as a candidate, being that (a) he had already supervised undergraduates in this area (“Thermodynamics of Wall Street”, 2011), and (b) as head of the chemical engineering department, at Lafayette College, Pa, he would be able to guide Poudel through equation 133.

3. Kalyan Annamalai | Texas A&M, mechanical engineering department | Thims suggested Annamalai as potential PhD supervisor, being that Annamalai was already citing Thims human molecular formula (2002) in his 2011 Advanced Thermodynamics Engineering textbook, as the new definition of a human, as pointed out in slide #8 (Ѻ) of Thims’ BPE 2016 talk, and that Annamalai is a JHT review board member. Thims pointed out, however, that Annamalai may not be technically proficient enough to steer him correctly, along the lines of equation 133, such as taught to Paul Samuelson by Edwin Wilson in his Harvard University “mathematical economics” course.

4. Two advisor system | Korea University | Since 2011 (Ѻ) in the “Sociology of Science” section of their Science and Technology graduate program, they have been offering (Ѻ) a general systems theory based social thermodynamics seminar (SOS 623) course); the PhD student has to have one humanities and one physical science advisor.

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See also
Human thermodynamics education

1. Nightingale, Florence. (2003). Florence Nightingale on Society and Politics, Philosophy, Science, Education and Literature: Collected Works of Florence Nightingale (editor: Lynn McDonald) (§: Proposal for a Chair in Social Physics, pgs. 105-28; see also: pg. 11). Wilfrid Laurier University Press.

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