Two cultures department (Goethe)
The template design for American electrochemical engineer Libb Thims' 2010 conceived C.P. Snow-themed Two Cultures Department, teaching the subject matter structured about the interdisciplinary relationship between second law (Clausius) and the various branches of the humanities (Shakespeare), bridging the gap between the famously left-brain right-brain divided "two cultures"; the synthesis of which being first captured in the mind of Goethe (see: Goethe timeline), and tested in the coursework of Leon Winiarski at the University of Geneva (1894-1900), in his thermodynamics based socio-political economics course (see: social mechanics), similar to Jurgen Mimkes (modern); being the embodiment of Henry Adams' famous 1910 call to American teachers of history (see: letter) to being teaching chemistry and thermodynamics in history class. [9]
In hmolscience, a two cultures department is a multidisciplinary university department that cross-bridges the humanities departments with the physical science departments, focused on the teaching and research, pure and applied, of the subject of "physicochemical humanities" (Henry Adams, 1908).

“Every university should have a Department of Applied Greek and a complementary Department of Humanized Physics, and the benefits of these departments also should be extended as freely as is practicable to those who need them most, that is, to those whose main work is in another field.”
Edwin Slosson (1910), Great American Universities [32]

Historically, although a few two cultures synergy attempts at establishing departments or teaching programs have been attempted, e.g. University of Lausanne (1890-1912), University of Geneva (1896-1900), Princeton University (1945-1955), Western Washington University (1977-1995), and University of Pitesti (2007-present), in draft stage, no modern university to date has an established two cultures department, though there have been no shortage of calls.

Two cultures inquires
See main: Two cultures inquires
In 1874, Italian-born English social theorist Florence Nightingale proposed, following the passing Belgian social physics pioneer Adolphe Quetelet, that social physics be taught at Oxford University, and thereafter lobbied to have a chair of social physics (see: Nightingale chair of social physics) established there for nearly three decades.

In 2010, American electrochemical engineer Libb Thims entered into dialogue with university heads and professors on the goal to get a "physicochemical humanities" department working and established at one of the world's leading universities; such as by visiting and studying in 2013 the Romanian school of physical socioeconomics. [33]

A two cultures department is an attempt to bridge the gap between the "two cultures", namely those who read Clausius (chemists, physicists, and engineers, etc.), i.e. the works thematic to the second law (left-brained thinkers), and those who read Shakespeare (sociologists, economists, historians, philosophers, literature scholars, anthropologists, etc.), i.e. works thematic to the humanities or social sciences (right-brained thinkers), in the famous 1959 words of English physicist C.P. Snow. The nature of the two cultures department mindset was speculated on by American physical chemist Gilbert Lewis, in his 1925 Anatomy of Science lecture, as follows:

“Perhaps our genius for unity will some time produce a science so broad as to include the behavior of a group of electrons and the behavior of a university faculty, but such a possibility seems now so remote that I for one would hesitate to guess whether this wonderful science would be more like mechanics or like a psychology.”

This ripe statement, about a wonderful science somewhere between mechanics and psychology, brings to mind German polymath Johann Goethe—the epitome of the two cultures genius—and his famous anonymous 1809 defense “advertisement”, to his newly-published physical chemistry based romance novella Elective Affinities, wherein he stated to the effect that: “there is after all only one nature”, which is the focus that needs to be adopted by a future unified "one culture" focused department.

Need | Historical calls
See main: Two cultures calls
The following are a collection of representative calls for the need and or inception of a two-cultures department:

“How I look forward to the effect that this [physical chemistry-based] novel will have in a few years on many people upon rereading it.”
Johann Goethe (1809), comment (see: timeline) to Karl Reinhard

“Now that the human mind has grasped celestial and terrestrial physics, mechanical and chemical, organic physics, both vegetable and animal, there remains one science, to fill up the series of sciences or observation—social physics. This is what men have now most need of; and this it is the principal aim of the present work to establish.”
Auguste Comte (1842), Positive Philosophy

“What is man the wiser or the happier for knowing how the air-plants feed, or how my centuries the flint-stone was in forming, unless the knowledge of them can be linked on to humanity, and elucidate for us some of our hard moral mysteries?”
James Froude (1849), The Nemesis of Faith, first English (anonymous) translator (1854) of Elective Affinities

Social chemistry—the mutual attraction of equivalent human molecules—is a science yet to be created, for the fact is my daily study and only satisfaction in life.”
Henry Adams (1885), letter to wife

“There are men who would be better off in a small village than in a large town, if you had some sort of human chemical reaction to determine in advance which man's nature was suited to the smaller place and which to the larger.”
Henry Pritchett (1906), on “Large vs. Small Colleges”

The time may come when human affairs may be described no longer by words and sentences, but by a system of symbols or notation similar to those used in algebra or chemistry … then it may be possible, as Adams suggests, to invent a common formula for thermodynamics and history.”
William Thayer (1918), Annual Report of the American Historical Association

“The most familiar attempts to explain how evolution takes place are restricted to special aspects of evolution, and are often epitomized in personal names, such as Darwinism, Lamarkism, Weismannism, Mendelism. Among us there are naturalists, morphologists, physiologists, and psychologists; breeders, experimentalists, and bio-chemists. And surrounding us on all sides are the physicists, chemists, geologists, and astronomers, with whom we must reckon, for their domains and their subject matter overlap ours in countless ways. But unfortunately between all these workers there is little common understanding and much petty criticism. ... We shall use the terms morality, behavior, conduct, or constructive action in the same broad way. It may sound strange to speak of the morals of an atom, or of the way in which a molecule conducts itself. But in the last analysis, science can draw no fundamental distinction between the conduct of an animal, a bullet, or a freshman, although there may be more unknown factors involved in one case than in the other.”
William Patten (1920), AAAS address “The Message of the Biologist” + The Grand Strategy of Evolution: the Social Philosophy of a Biologist

Why should no social chemistry ever been developed?” He states that “nobody would suggest that the social scientists should imitate meteorology, for this discipline does not appear to have got very far … but what about chemistry? A sociology based on chemistry [has] in fact been called for, but, significantly, [this call has] found no echo. It would have been easy to take up this suggestion and develop it further. An intending social chemist would have found it one whit more difficult to manufacture a sociological parallel to the Boyle-Charles law than Haret did to the Newtonian propositions. But the experiment appears never to have been tried. Why?”
Werner Stark (1962), commentary on Thomas Huxley’s 1871 call for the development of the field of social chemistry

“Adapting thermodynamic ideas to the study of culture is limited by a very simple fact: nobody has yet figured out what might be the cultural equivalent of heat or energy … nobody has yet found the ‘heat’ or the ‘energy’ in cultural matters … the concepts of ‘cultural temperature’ (see: social temperature) to refine our understanding of ‘cultural heat’ (see: social heat) have not yet appeared. This is one of the most pressing problems for the next generation of anthropologists, and the difficulties are profound.”
Paul Bohannan (1995), How Culture Works

“There seem to be ‘laws’ [of] social systems that have at least something of the character of natural physical laws, in that they do not yield easily to planned and arbitrary interventions. Over the past several decades, social, economic and political scientists have begun a dialogue with physical and biological scientists to try to discover whether there is truly a ‘physics of society, and if so, what its laws and principles are. In particular, they have begun to regard complex modes of human activity as collections of many interacting ‘agents’—somewhat analogous to a fluid of interacting atoms or molecules, but within which there is scope for decision-making, learning and adaptation.”
Philip Ball (2003), “The Physics of Society”, talk delivered at the London School of Economics

Sociophysics (2012)
Gheorghe Savoiu 75 Ion Siman 75

Pitesti logo Romanians economist and econophysicist Gheorghe Savoiu and physicist and sociophysicist Ion Iorga Siman’s 2012 chapter “Sociophysics: A New Science or a New Domain for Physicists in a Modern University”, from their multi-collaborator book Econophysics: Background and Applications in Economics, Finance, and Sociophysics, in which the call for the inception of “sociophysics” in a multidisciplinary teaching approach in universities, centered on core concepts such as the teaching of entropy in sociology, and teaching the history of the subject, which they date back to Italian physicist Ettore Majorana and his 1936 human quantum mechanics theories, an interdisciplinary method of teaching they have been implementing at the University of Pitesti, Pitesti, Romania, since circa 2007. [36]
NIU logoAmerican electrochemical engineer Libb Thims in his 16 Apr 2013: talk “Human Chemical Thermodynamics: Goethe's Elective Affinities to Human Free Energies” (see: lectures), at segment 48:30-50:39 (see: videoExternal link icon (c)), at Northern Illinois University College of Engineering, doing the famous 18th century Leiden University volume expansion "ball and ring experiment" to explain "social expansion" (day) and "social contraction" (night), in Carnot cycle terms, in respect to hot body (sun) / cold body (night sky) alternating daily contact of earth-bound social systems (working body), Boerhaave's law, entropy (transformation content) increase, and irreversible changes in Gibbs free energy states of human existence and experience; the human molecule view lecture notes page in the background; illuminated rotating globe to the right.

ChBE (Ferri)
American Lafayette College, Pennsylvania, chemical and biomolecular engineering department head James Ferri's 2011 student-produced video “Thermodynamics of Life: Occupy Wall Street Edition”, made by chemical and biomolecular engineering students Angela Wnek (ChBE, 2013), Isaac Lavine (ChBe, 2014), Ashley Kaminski (ChBE, 2013), wherein they apply a number of different molecular, physical chemistry, and chemical engineering principles to the ongoing “Occupy Wall Street” debate/protests, namely what thermodynamics has to say about the fact that about 80 percent of a country’s wealth tends to be held in about 20 percent of the population (Pareto principle). [20]
Chemical engineering centric
See main: Chemical engineering; See also: Lewis school
The nature of the two cultures department would ideally be structured with the chemical engineering department as the central department, within which chemical engineering thermodynamics, centered on the second law, is the core course, with the various humanities departments (economics, sociology, history, philosophy, psychology, government, anthropology, politics, literature, business, law, finance, architecture, etc.) among others (e.g. ecology, biology (chnopsology)) embedded in an integrated manner. The reasoning behind this logic is that the chemical engineer tends to be the person who knows the fundamentals of the language, which in this case are the partial differential equations of thermodynamics. German physicist and thermodynamicist Ingo Muller, in his 2007 A History of Thermodynamics, puts it like this: [21]

“It is interesting to note that socio-thermodynamics is only accessible to chemical engineers and metallurgists. These are the only people who know phase diagrams and their usefulness. It cannot be expected, in our society, that sociologists will appreciate the potential of these ideas.”

This logic is further exemplified by the following grouping of "chemical engineers" who, in the last century, have attempted to extend and promote aspects of hmolscience in their own directions and spheres:

William Fairburn (1914)
His Human Chemistry attempted to apply an entropy-based version of human chemistry to business practice.
John Neumann (1934)
Reviewed Georges Guillaume's 1932 economic thermodynamics dissertation; which he followed up by his own 1938 article “A Model of General Economic Equilibrium” based on the model of thermodynamic potentials.
Benjamin Kyle (1988)
Chemical Engineering Education “The Mystique of Entropy” human thermodynamics-themed article turned 1999 CD-ROM to his Chemical and Process Thermodynamics. [11]
Erich Muller (1998)
Chemical Engineering Education Human Societies: a Curious Application of Thermodynamics”human thermodynamics-themed article. [16]
Gerard Nahum (1998)
Promoted an investigative study on the thermodynamics of consciousness.
Edison Bittencourt (1999)
His engineering conference presentation “Teaching of Thermodynamics in Chemical Engineering” advocating the teaching of the thermodynamic imperative to chemical engineering students.
The Second Law of Economics

Reiner Kummel 75

University of Wurzburg
German physicist Reiner Kummel's 2011 The Second Law of Economics, the result of lecture notes on a course on "economics and thermodynamics" (economic thermodynamics) taught since 2005 at the University of Wurzburg, Germany.
Alfredo Infante (2001)
His “Social Entropy: A Paradigmatic Approach of the Second Law of Thermodynamics to an Unusual Domain” uses the advanced perspective to teach aspects of the understanding of the Gibbs free energy of a social system.
Tominaga Keii (2004)
Devoted a chapter subsection to the chemical thermodynamics of Goethe's Elective Affinities.
Mark Janes (2006)
Developed a thermodynamics-based carbon entromorphology theory of human existence.
Alec Groysman (2011)
Symposium suggestion of teaching of “human chemistry” in engineering. [12]
James Ferri (2011)
Assigned a “Thermodynamics of Wall street” ChE group video project. [13]
University of Geneva (social mechanics)
image icon (Winiarski)Polish physical social economist Leon Winiarski, who for at least six years (1894-1900), at the University of Geneva, Switzerland, taught a course on political economics and social mechanics, based on the thermodynamics of Rudolf Clausius and the physics of Joseph Lagrange, was the first to pioneer the "two cultures" teaching method, as he explains (adjacent) at the 1900 Paris Expo on Social Science Education.
Mohsen Mohsen-Nia (2011)
Completed a friendships relations thermodynamic “stability” study. [14]
Vamshi Regalla (2012)
Did a “A Strange Thing Called Love: in View of Chemical Thermodynamics” video-turned-article. [17]
Jose Aguilera (2012)
Wrote a “Molecular Sociology” chapter section promoting the teaching of modern Empedocles-style aphorisms in a Goethe/Thims context. [15]

Template courses
The following is a partial listing of current or past college and or graduate school courses precursory and or template-like in structure to a future "Two Cultures Department", presently working to be established for the first time at a leading American university, by American electrochemical engineer Libb Thims, the grouping themselves semi-indicative of the various 36 plus branches of human thermodynamics:

Social Mechanics | Leon Winiarski | University of Geneva | 1894-1900

Turning to the dynamic part of the problem, we gave a definition of social-biological energy in two forms: potential (hunger and love) and kinetic (economic, political, legal, moral, aesthetic, religious, and scientific). This led us to the principles of thermodynamics, including the third, the Clausius same time explains the progressive spiritualization any closed social aggregate to show a decrease in potential. This dissipation of entropy that occurs is the same in the social world as in the physical world.All this forms the subject of a course on social mechanics that we are giving under the title, ‘Economic Bases of Social Science,’ parallel with our course on pure political economy. In fact, the point of departure of our researches was, as we have shown, pure political economy, to which we refer all social science, and bring it all back to mechanics.”
— Leon Winiarski (1900), Report: "The teaching of pure economics and politics of social mechanisms in Switzerland"

Entropy and Human Activity (2006) new
Richard Piccard nsAmerican physicist Richard Piccard's "Entropy and Human Activity" course taught as a senior level class at Ohio University, on and off, from 1998 up to the present, on entropy applied to human society as a whole, albeit using the weaker material entropy theories of Jeremy Rifkin. [19]

● Entropy Ethics | Robert Lindsay | Brown University | 1930s
● Entropy Ethics | Dick Hammond | University of Texas | 1980s
● Entropy and Society | Richard Piccard | Ohio University | 1997-2006
Econophysics | Victor Yakoveno | University of Maryland | 2005-present
● Econophysics | Joseph McCauley | University of Houston | 2006-present
● Politics, Government, and Thermodynamics | Richard Hughes | California State University, Sacramento | 2008
● Literature and Narrative Theory | Bruce Clarke | Texas Tech University | 2009
Human Thermodynamics | Libb Thims | University of Illinois, Chicago | 2010-2012
● Seminar on Social Thermodynamics | Instructor[s] | Korea University | 2011
Air in Motion / Thermodynamic Materialism | Inaki Abalos, Mathias Schuler | Harvard University | 2013
Princeton university (social physics)John Q. Stewart ns
From circa 1945 to 1955, American astrophysicist and engineer John Q. Stewart, ran a Princeton University Department of Social Physics, with grant-funding from the Rockefeller Foundation, a group which included no other than Percy Bridgman, one the the top thermodynamicists of the 20th century. [25]

Two cultures department | Outline
See also: Human thermodynamics education
The first to establish a "two cultures" prototype university department in America was American astrophysicist John Q. Stewart, who from circa 1945 to 1955, at the Princeton University, with grant funding from the Rockefeller Foundation, headed a research team project on the development of social physics or social mechanics, depending on namesake, in aims to facilitate physical science based education in global policy and government decision making, in his own words:

“Statesmen of this and other nations … have embarked upon grandiose undertakings where on physical grounds failure was predictable, and … failure meant that … people perished in vain.”

In 2010, American electrochemical engineer Libb Thims, initially tentatively and actively as of 2012, began to enter into discussions with various American university departments in an effort to launch the world's first cross-disciplinary two-cultures university teaching department. The outline for the proposed two cultures department, envisioned by Thims, would cover the following three overlapping subject matters, which are similar to like-themed departments sprouting in various European countries:

(a) Human thermodynamics | 500+ theorists | similar to:

Leon Winiarski’s 1894 social mechanics course, University of Geneva; Switzerland; as outlined in his 1900 sociology symposium article "The Teaching of Pure Political Economics and Social Mechanics in Switzerland".
Henry Adams’ 1910 proposal (A Letter to American Teachers of History) to begin teaching history thermodynamics in America.
Mechanistic school (1928)Pitirim Sorokin ns
Russian-born American Harvard sociology department founder Pitirim Sorokin’s 1928 classification of the first main branch (of eleven) of "contemporary sociology", that of the “mechanistic school of social thermodynamics”, all based on the thermodynamics of Rudolf Clausius. [17]
Pitirim Sorokin’s 1928 “mechanistic school of social thermodynamics”, which he subdivides as follows:
1. Social mechanics
Representatives: A.P. Barcelo, Spiru Haret, Alfred Lotka
2. Social physics
Representatives: Henry Carey
3. Social energetics (or social thermodynamics)
Representatives: Ernest Solvay, W. Bechtereff, Wilhelm Ostwald, T.N. Carver, and Leon Winiarski
4. Mathematical sociology
Representatives: Vilfredo Pareto and F. Carli
Richard Hughes' 2008 political thermodynamics and government thermodynamics course, Texas Tech University, US;
● Korea University's 2011 social thermodynamics graduate school course;
Seminar on Social Thermodynamics
Korea University sealKorea University's 2011 three credit graduate course “Seminar on Social Thermodynamics” SOS 623 (SOS short for Sociology of Science), as described above, a type of human thermodynamics education course, divided into two parts: firstly, general systems theory, a discussion of its basic outline, along with its drawbacks; and, second, with what they referred to as the “theory of social thermodynamics and its applications”, supposedly on some variant of social thermodynamics, at the introductory level, and discussion of its applications, either theoretical or possibly in the area of applied human thermodynamics; the program, as indicative of its "two cultures approach", employs a "two-supervisors system": one is based on human or social science, the other is based on natural science or engineering, similar to the American university department Thims is looking to launch. [1]

(b) Human chemistry | 55+ theorists | similar to:

Johann Goethe's 1796 human chemical theory (see: EA:IAD project); the forerunner to modern human chemical thermodynamics.
Thomas Huxley’s 1871 call for the development of the field of social chemistry;
Henry Adams’ 1885 definition of “social chemistry—the mutual attraction of equivalent human molecules—[as] a science yet to be created.”
Albion Small's 1899 argument that ‘general sociology’ might be able to be defined in the future as ‘the science of human atoms and their behavior’.
Frank Carlton's 1912 call for the inception of the sciences of social mechanics, social physics and social chemistry.
Werner Stark's 1962 followup to Huxley's call for the development of the social chemistry;
Jeremy Adler's 1977 human chemistry PhD, under the supervision of Claus Bock, on the chemists and human chemical reactions of Goethe's 1809 Elective Affinities.
● University of Bergen’s 2011 “Literature and Chemistry: Elective Affinities” symposium on literature chemistry centered on Goethe's 1809 Elective Affinities.
Alec Groysman’s 2011 symposium call for the use of human chemistry in the chemical engineering curriculum, to facilitate an interaction of the “three cultures” (art, science, and technology) as he sees things.
Smith College EGR 205Engineering Thermodynamics and 21st Century Energy ProblemsDonna Riley
American Smith College chemical engineering professor Donna Riley’s 2011 EGR 205 course, and accompanying book Engineering Thermodynamics and 21st Century Energy Problems, targets what she calls "five often-neglected ABET outcomes", a course through which she seeks "revise engineering curricula to be relevant to a fuller range of student experiences and career destinations", inclusive of topics such as: entropy's philosophical implications, ethics, social constructs, arrow of time, etc. [29]

(c) Human physics | 45+ theorists | similar to:

John Q. Stewart's 1945-1955 "social physics"/"social mechanics" research group at the Princeton University physics department.
Serge Galam's 1980s social atoms based sociophysics teaching program in France, French National Center for Scientific Research.
Arthur Iberall's 1985 UCLA graduate school course in social physics.
Jurgen Mimkes’ 1992-present physical socio-economics department (and PhD students), University of Paderborn, Germany;
Joseph McCauley’s 2005 econophysics department (and PhD students), University of Houston;
Curtis Blakely's 2010 call for the development of sociophysics, treating people as particles, for application in the field of penology.

Which, in sum, would constitute a cross-culture department of study uniting the engineering, humanities, and physical science departments into one unified teaching framework, similar in structure to the Lewis school of thermodynamics, albeit inclusive of the humanities, at a leading American university.
Rutledge economics thermodynamics classJohn Rutledge
In 2012, American investor and economics consultant John Rutledge began teaching ECON 339 "Topics in Far from Equilibrium Economics: Evolutionary Economics and Finance", an economics thermodynamics graduate school course, at Claremont Graduate University, Claremont, California.

Graduate student requests
Online forums indicate, as of 2008, indicate that graduate students are looking to know where they can go to study sociophysics in America, but no department as such currently exists. [2]

In the late 2000s, undergraduate and graduate students began contacting Libb Thims, e.g. via email, online communications, or during guest lectures, regarding the question of where one can go to complete a graduate school degree in human thermodynamics and or human physics related fields. In 2009, to exemplify, a Turkish third-year undergraduate mechanical engineering student (Hmolpedia member: Turnkey13) commented to Thims that he desired to come to America to complete a master’s degree in on a topic related to thermodynamic of human life, having been inspired by passages in the 2006 Thermodynamics textbook by Yunus Cengel and Michael Boles, such as: [7]
A 2013 graduate seminar architectural thermodynamics course entitled "Air in Motion / Thermodynamic Materialism" taught at the Harvard University Graduate School of Design, wherein air and or space (see: nature abhors a vacuum) are treated "thermodynamically"; the second half of which is devoted to a study of thermodynamic materialism, taught in coordination with a research project at ETH Zurich titled "Thermodynamic Materialism". [10]

“The arguments presented here are exploratory in nature, and they are hoped to initiate some interesting discussion and research that may lead into better understanding of performance in various aspects of daily life. The second law may eventually be used to determine quantitatively the most effective way to improve the quality of life and performance in daily life, as it is presently used to improve the performance of engineering systems.”

Human thermodynamics lectures | Bioengineering
See main: Libb Thims (lectures)
In 2010, American electrochemical engineer Libb Thims, depicted adjacent, began giving invited guest lectures to undergraduate bioengineering thermodynamics students of the University of Illinois, Chicago, on an introduction to human thermodynamics. Thims lectured in 2011 and 2012.

One student, in 2012, to give some insight into the unknown overlap between the humanities and thermodynamics, queried Thims about how he could go about cultivating an overlap between "engineering" (or thermodynamics) and his other passion of "sociology and economics" following graduation, possibly in graduate school?

Theses / dissertations
See main: Human thermodynamics dissertations
In 1991, Swiss electrical engineer Francois Cellier, his 1991 chapter Modelling in Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics, voiced his opinion that PhD dissertation on the thermodynamics of macroeconomics (economic thermodynamics) would be a very worthwhile topic: [23]

“We have discussed thermodynamics from a systemic rather than a phenomenological viewpoint. We have seen that bond graphs present us with a tool to ensure adherence to physicality in modeling thermodynamic systems … bond graphs [however] are quite meaningless when applied to the description of mathematical equations bare of their physical interpretation. It is therefore not currently feasible to apply bond graphs to the description of a macroeconomic model, for example, since we don’t know what energy conservation means in such a model. What does economic power mean in a system theoretical rather than in a political sense? We don’t know? Consequently, we cannot define a set of adjugate variables that describe the behavior of a macroeconomy. However, I would like to go one step further. While I cannot prove this to be correct, I am personally convinced that any real system that can meaningfully be describe by a differential equation model—and macroeconomic systems are among those without any question—possesses some sort of ‘energy’ that obeys the law of conservation of energy. It is just that, to my knowledge, nobody has ever looked into systems, such as macroeconomies, from quite that perspective and tried to formulate a meaningful and consistent definition of the the terms ‘energy’ and ‘power’, and from there derived a set of adjugate variables, the product of which is ‘power’. This would be a very worthwhile topic for a PhD dissertation.”
A Modeling Approach for Alpine Rivers Impacted by Hydropeaking Including the Second Law Inequality (2011)Simone Loreti (HT email)
Jeff Tuhtan (2010)Above left: The 2011 ecological engineering PhD dissertation: "A Modeling Approach for Alpine Rivers Impacted by Hydropeaking Including the Second Law Inequality", by American civil-ecological engineer Jeff Tuhtan (right), done using the online two-cultures Hmolpedia articles and discussion forum as a central resource hub, and the thermodynamics of human molecules (The Human Molecule, 2008) approach as a guiding framework for his fish modelling theories (see: fish molecule). [18] Above right: A 2012 PhD email query by Italian theoretical physicist Simone Loreti, to American electrochemical engineer Libb Thims, regarding what universities are offering PhDs in sociophysics or human thermodynamics and a desire to obtain such a degree.

This keen foresight, in recent years, with the 2007-launching of Hmolpedia, has been coming into fruition. The following, to exemplify, are recent master’s theses that use and or cite Hmolpedia articles:

● Bjorke, Lisa. (2010). “To Create with Imagination: In Search of Flow” (abs) (articles: flow, psychic entropy, Csíkszentmihályi flow), MA thesis, Konstfack, University of Arts, Crafts and Design, Stockhom, Sweden.
● Hyslop, Megan. (2011). “When We Grow a Garden Together: A Love Story Social Ecological Reflection of a Community Garden Project” (article: chaos), MA thesis, Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

In 2010, Hmolpedia member DeeM1, an American business executive, with background is business, marketing, management consulting, and leadership development, and co-owner of several companies, one of which is a post-graduate school of managerial leadership, was in the middle of embarking on doctoral studies research op the subject of entropy on human behaviors and energy within organizations, using Hmolpedia as a resource. [24]

In 2010 and 2011, Thims, using email communication and Hmolpedia forums and messaging, began mentoring American civil-ecological engineer Jeff Tuhtan through the application of animate thermodynamics techniques to development of aquatic system thermodynamics model portions of his working PhD dissertation, which was completed the following year: [8]

● Tuhtan, Jeff. (2012). “A Modeling Approach for Alpine Rivers Impacted by Hydropeaking Including the Second Law Inequality” (pdf) (articles: human molecule, cell-as-molecule, fish molecule, Georgi Gladyshev, animate thermodynamics, Erwin Bauer, etc.), PhD dissertation, Stuttgart University, Germany.

In 2012, Italian theoretical physicist Simone Loreti, who recently completed his MS on statistical mechanics and machine learning applied to sociological problems, queried Thims (shown adjacent), via email of the Institute of Human Thermodynamics, regarding what universities are offering PhDs in sociophysics or human thermodynamics. [6]

“In March 2011, I graduated with a master's degree in theoretical physics at the University of Bologna (Italy). I am strongly interested in sociophysics or in general in physics applied to human behavior: in my thesis I solved a sociological problem using statistical mechanics, and machine learning methods. I am looking for a PhD in socio-physics or human thermodynamics and/or funds for it. Do you know something about it? Any advice is welcome.”
Tree of Knowledge (1874)
Henry Carey nsAmerican "physical science applied" sociologist Henry Carey, one of the founders of the social mechanics school, and his 1858 depiction of the "tree of knowledge", annotated to show a post 1959 "two cultures" perspective, wherein the branch of social science is intentionally shown located in close proximity to the the physical science branch of knowledge, with two-way arrows indicating "exchanges" of ideas talking place, to create a unified branch of social mechanics or social physics, as Carey worked at developing. [28]

Thims informed Loreti that he was presently working to establish such a university department here in the United States, potentially at the University of California, Berkeley, but that in the mean time he might like to look into Jürgen Mimkes’ socioeconomic physics department (in Germany) or Serge Galam’s sociophysics department (in France). [6]

Thims | Department head discussions
Thims first proposed his department founding goal to University of Illinois thermodynamics professor Ali Mansoori, during lunch, in 2010, who suggested that he should enter the UIC engineering department, via a thermodynamics PhD, and go from there. Thims' told Mansoori, however, that his aim was to found the school most likely at the University of California, Berkeley (a top 3 chemical engineering school), home to the Lewis school of thermodynamics, as he had previously planed planned (and been accepted) to complete his undergraduate work there, and had made a promise to himself that he would return there again in the future, or that he would need to found the new university department at a top 10 chemical engineering thermodynamics / chemical thermodynamics rank, such as at Stanford, the MIT school of thermodynamics, Yale (Willard Gibbs' alma mater), among other possibilities, the key feature needed being heightened student academic ability, being that the subject in its very nature is polymathic in structure, multidisciplinary in width, and partial differential equation rooted in depth, something few modern study and go students have the taste for.

In 2011, American chemical engineer James Ferri, head of the chemical and biomolecular engineering department of Lafayette College, Pennsylvania, began doing something similar, with his student produced video projects, e.g. “Thermodynamics of Life: Occupy Wall Street Edition” (2011), but their seems to be no involvement with the university finance, business, and economics departments, which creates an education disjunct. [3] Thims mentioned this plan to Ferri, who seemed to indicated that his student supervised projects in financial thermodynamics was a fairly new venture that he was water-testing.

In 2012, Thims discussed the department founding project with Indian-born American mechanical engineer Satish Boregowda—who, in 2008, of relevance, was on the faculty at Purdue University, but at the time was forced to withdraw a publication submission to the Journal of Human Thermodynamics, because as he commented in retrospect some of his “colleagues and tenure reviewers were not in favor of my work in ‘human thermodynamics’.” Boregowda, eventually, left Purdue University, in favor of professional work, but commented to Thims in retrospect that the objection was not personal but that objection was that teaching human thermodynamics was not a topic found in professional engineers board exam questions, or something along these lines (Jan 24).

In 2012, in email conversation with American sociologist Mario Small, the head of the University of Chicago’s sociology department, Thims proposed the goal of founding a joint two-department sociophysics-sociothermodynamics-sociochemistry department, strung between the physics and the sociology department, pointing out to Small that the original 1882 founder of the University of Chicago's sociology department Albion Small, who also founded the American Journal of Sociology (1895), his 1899 article “A ‘Unit’ in Sociology” argued that ‘general sociology’ might be able to be defined in the future as ‘the science of human atoms and their behavior’, on the model of ‘general chemistry’, which is defined as the science of atoms and their behavior; also pointing out that many at the University of Chicago have worked in the path of the hmolsciences: Frank Carlton, Paul Samuelson, Elihu Fein, Harold Nieburg, Stephen Berry, and John Avery, among others. Mario Small commented on this proposal, following several email exchanges, that: “this seems like a tall order at the moment” (Apr 18). [4]

In sum, Thims, in 2011 and 2012, began to interject into preliminary talks about possibly founding a multidisciplinary two cultures teaching department; although as French physicist Serge Galam's reports (2012), such an effort is not without several decade's of resistance and opposition to the premise of a field in which a person is defined as an atom or a molecule, which comes from someone in France, the least religious country in the world. [5]



Culture One+Culture Two
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Libb Thims
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Leon WarshayLeon WarshayJohn Rutledge
John Rutledge
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Curtis Blakely


Two cultures department team | Tentative outlines
In 2013, Thims, after coming across the 1950s "Princeton University Department of Social Physics", an excellent template prototype to the envisioned-to-be "Two Cultures Department", began to construct the outline potential members of a similar upgraded albeit more diverse such department, i.e. not just "social mechanics" (Leon Winiarski, University of Geneva, Switzerland), "social physics" (John Q. Stewart, Princeton University, America), or "socio-economic physics" (Jurgen Mimkes, University of Paderborn, Germany), but also subjects such as "anthropic physics" as Wilhelm Ostwald was promoting in the 1900s, "socio-history physics" as Henry Adams called for in 1910, "human chemistry" as Alec Groysman has been calling for in 2011 in the chemical engineering curriculum, among other subjects such as financial thermodynamics, overlaps with ecological economics, and so on. On 6 Mar 2013, Truman State University justice systems professor Curtis Blakely commented to Thims:

“This sounds like a great opportunity. I am impressed and fully support your efforts. Should I be able to assist you in your efforts, please let me know. I am at your disposal. Again, I am impressed and am more than glad to do anything I can to support your efforts!”

In early March 2013 communication with Thims on the proposed two cultures department, American Wayne State University sociology professor Leon Warshay, noted for his 1983 chapter on the social mechanics school, attempted to explain to Thims why the mechanistic school is not being taught in American sociology (the details of which are listed on his Hmolpedia page), commenting to Thims:

“I fully endorse your efforts to include the mechanical [in sociology] [in your two cultures proposal].”

The bottom line reason for the fall-off in the teaching of social mechanics in sociology being that in the end, according to Warshay, “bias” results and people end up “being called names”, comments which again brings directly to mind American physicist John Q. Stewart’s 1955 experience in working to establish his short-lived Princeton Social Physics department: “[Stewart] has irritated the social scientists further by criticizing them for immaturity, lack of imagination and ‘doctrinaire departmentalism’. Overspecialization, he feels, is choking modern scholarship and limiting man’s communication with his fellows.” [27]

On 11 Mar 2013, American investor, economics consultant, and economic thermodynamics professor John Rutledge comment the following to Thims on the two cultures department objective:

“I admire the work you are doing very much and wish you well on the two-culture teaching department idea. I convinced the Claremont Graduate University Economics Dept to add a course called "Topics in Far from Equilibrium Economics: Evolutionary Economics and Finance" to their PhD program, which I am teaching. The syllabus for the course is attached. I am also attaching a paper titled "Asia’s Energy Security and the Middle East" that I presented to the BOAO Forum some years ago, in which I describe a non-equilibrium thermodynamics model for economics. My last book Lessons from a Road Warrior (2008) has a more detailed presentation. Where do you hope to locate the teaching department? It sounds like a wonderful idea.”
social physics (uphill climb)Serge Galam (sociophysics)
Left: A rendition of American physicist John Q. Stewart and his forty-year effort (1920-1960) effort at attempting to get the subject of "social physics" introduced into American universities and the "raised eyebrow" and "doctrinaire departmentalism" resistance he faced along the way. [40]Right: Diagram of French physicist Serge Galam’s 2012 retrospect look on his previous 40-year renegade experience of being a physicist having to practice sociophysics as a hobby, alongside his regular physics duties, the way normal physicists play tennis, so as to not disturb the orthodoxy of academia. [37]

On 28 Mar 2013, American chemical engineer John Prausnitz, professor emeritus of the University of California, Berkeley, noted for work in protein thermodynamics and the history of chemical thermodynamics, gave the following opinion to Thims, in query about the potential fit of a two cultures department at UC Berkeley, with the central hub located within the chemical and biomolecular engineering department, and the humanities integrated into this hub, in which the Lewis school, the Rossini debate, and Thims’ upcoming 16 Apr 2013 Northern Illinois University “Human Chemical Thermodynamics” lecture, given to the mechanical engineering thermodynamics students, were mentioned:

“I don't know what the Rossini debate is but I hope to find out. No, your idea for a department for teaching two cultures would not be appreciated at Berkeley. In the social sciences and in some humanities, thermodynamics may be useful as an analogy, as a suggestion for looking at a problem (e.g. information theory) but beyond that, I see little use of thermodynamics outside science.”

This is a very interesting position to take by a chemical engineer, reminiscent of Japanese chemical engineer Tominaga Keii’s 2004 chemical thermodynamics chapter subsection “Chemical Affinity in 1806”, wherein he gave his opinion that Goethe’s “[Elective Affinities] did not add any scientific knowledge” (see: HC pioneers). Prausnitz’s opinion here, however, of “seeing little use of thermodynamics” outside of hard science proper, does not corroborate with the chronological listing of over 500+ HT theorists, over the last two centuries to have used thermodynamics outside of hard science proper, specifically in the humanities.

Interdepartmental tension issues
See main: Two cultures tensions
One issue that seems to stand out is the inter-departmental and in-department “tensional” that seems to arise as a possibly make or break factor in the longevity prospect of a two cultures department. In 1950, to exemplify, American astrophysicist and engineer John Q. Stewart, in his “The Development of Social Physics” article, commented the following, in regards to his early 1920s to 1940s attempt at developing and or introducing social physics into the American university system:

“In the early nineteen-twenties it had become clear that natural science and technology would continue their triumphant advances while the social and humane studies, in order to reduce their tragic lag, would need to be equipped with methods far more effective than archaic types of merely verbal reasoning. With untrammeled enthusiasm of a youthful PhD in physics, I expected to find a general sympathy with this [social physics] program but the case was otherwise. There is a proverb that ‘in the country of the blind the one-eyed man is king’, the falsity of which has been depicted in the story by H.G. Wells. One has to find for himself that in the country of the blind—meaning university faculties and their learned societies—the one-eyed man meets with lifted eyebrows.”

This is exemplified well in the following 1955 comment by Stewert and his experience in the 1949 formation of the Princeton University Department of Social Physics, which lasted till about about a decade: [27]

“Immaturity, lack of imagination, 'doctrinaire departmentalism', and [in particular] overspecialization is choking modern scholarship and limiting man’s communication with his fellows.”

This same sense of multi-decade long uphill can be felt in the recent personal testimonies of French physicist Serge Galam and his reflection on his two-decade long effort to found a sociophysics group in France:

“To suggest that humans could behave like atoms was looked upon as a blasphemy to both hard science and human complexity, a total nonsense, something to be condemned. And it has been indeed condemned during the last fifteen years.”
Serge Galam (2004), “Sociophysics: a Personal Testimony”

The adjacent depiction, for example, is Galam's 2012 retrospect look on his previous 40-year renegade experience of being a physicist having to practice sociophysics as a “hobby”, alongside of his regular physics work, as discussed in his chapter section 3.5 "More About Academic Freedom", being that the subject was considered “unorthodox” by his fellow physicists—which strikingly similar to American electrochemical engineer Libb Thims who developed human chemistry and human thermodynamics as a curious “hobby” alongside his regular engineering and medical school studies, and his warlike experience getting these two "human molecule" based sciences accepted into mainstream science.

Further examples of "immaturity, lack of imagination, and doctrinaire departmentalism" seen strikingly evident in the 2009 Moriarty-Thims debate between a dozen or so college professors. [37]
What should we call it?

Department namesake?
See main: Two cultures namesakes
The following are a few historical subject namesake precursors:

Social physics (Auguste Comte, 1822)
Human physics (Adolphe Quetelet, 1835)
Social chemistry (Thomas Huxley, 1871)
Human chemistry (Henry Adams, 1875)
Physical economics (Patrick Geddes, c.1880s)
Social mechanics (Francis Edgeworth, 1881)
Mathematical psychics (Francis Edgeworth, 1881)
Human thermodynamics (Bryan Donkin, 1893)
Pure political economics and social mechanics (Leon Winiarski, 1894)
Economic dynamics (Maffeo Pantaleoni, c.1908)

See main page for complete list of two cultures subject namesakes.

Physics of Human Behavior (2009)
wheel new
Right: In 2008, Montclair State University physics professor Dean Hamden launched his "physics of human behavior" student-based research group, wherein they apply physics concepts—such as Hooke's law and elasticity coefficients—to human relationships, so to develop physics-based modelling of social phenomena, such as flexibility in relationships, utilizing concepts such relationship elasticity coefficients, to make hypotheses on predictive correlative levels of happiness, among other applications, involving studies of over 500 people. The research, as of 2013, is ongoing presently. [31]

Reinventing the wheel issues
The slow-gradual process of the invention of the wheel, said to have occurred between 10,000 to 5,500 years ago, is a process that no-doubt had to be reinvented many times over, haphazardly, until the basics of its operation became taught as part of the standard engineer's schooling curriculum. [35]

Shown adjacent is “two cultures” reinventing the wheel like happening, namely American physics professor Dean Hamden’s 2008-present attempt to formulate a physics of human behavior research project—using basic physics concepts, such as Newton’s laws, Hooke’s law, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, etc.

Another reinventing the wheel example comes from German applied mathematician Sarah Wolf’s 2011 “social energy” conference meeting, wherein a few ideas are passed around and discussion is made about whether or not there is an actual physics behind the social notions of “energy”, such as in economics, both of which are what can be classified as “reinventing the wheel” approaches to physical science applied humanities. In more detail, in 2011 a “Social Energy” workshop was held during the European Conference on Complex Systems, Vienna, co-organized by Wolf which focused on the following topics—a two cultures type of seminar: How far does the analogy between energy and social energy carry?, What can be learnt from exploring social energy for the analysis of the dynamics of complex socio-ecological systems?, Where does social energy need to differ from energy as known in physics?, What are parameters that help grasp and measure forms of social energy?, Which mathematical tools and methods (used in physics models) can be successfully used for studying the dynamics of socio-ecological systems? [22]
GSDP (2011)
A 2011 two cultures "reinventing the wheel" like workshop organized by German applied mathematician Sarah Wolf, who generally seems to be completely in the dark to the fact that entire "schools" of social mechanics existed over a century ago, as have been well documented by scholars such as Pitirim Sorokin (1928) and Werner Stark (1962).

Neither group, in other words, seems to be aware of the great historical precedence to these subjects e.g. that Stewart previously ran an entire “social physics” research group a Princeton in the 1950s or that Sorokin devoted an entire chapter to the history of “social energetics” theories in 1928—one of the repercussions of the fact that this general subject is not part of main-stream curriculum, but one that is in ripe need to become so.

How much would Hamden, e.g., have benefited if he had known about Winiarski’s University of Geneva course on social mechanics, taught over 100-years ago? How much would Wolf have benefited had she known Carey’s three-volume treatise on social energy, published over 150-years ago? How much would Thims have benefited had he been taught, somewhere within his chemical engineering curriculum, or prior, e.g. in high school, about Goethe’s physical chemistry based Elective Affinities, the so-called “scientific model for human experience”, as Scottish German-literature scholar Gundula Sharman put it in 1997, an exquisite theory published over 200-years ago? Certainly, we would surmise, greatly. Hence, the pressing need for a world-leading two cultures university department, so that we don’t have to keep reinventing the wheel, journal article after journal article, symposium after symposium, and book after book.
Blaise Pascal nsAES 2Albert Einstein ns
The Einstein-Pascal dialogue on purpose is a 1950 dialogue between a 19-year-old Rutgers University engineering student in query to German-born American physicist Albert Einstein (right) in regards to "what is the purpose of man on earth?", as framed around French mathematical physicist Blaise Pascal (left), and his circa 1642 personal jottings thoughts on purpose or rather the "why's of existence?". [1]

Bottom-line need
The bottom-line need for the inception of an American engineering-centric humanities embedded two-cultures department is the need to satisfy the deeper questions of the “why’s of human existence?”, as is well captured in the 1950 Einstein-Pascal dialogue on purpose. In December 1950, German-born American physicist Albert Einstein (IQ=220) received a long handwritten letter from a nineteen-year-old engineering student at Rutgers University, New Jersey, who said: “My problem is this, sir, ‘What is the purpose of man on earth?’” Dismissing such possible answers as to make money, to achieve fame, and to help others, the student said:

“Frankly, sir, I don’t even know why I’m going to college and studying engineering.”

The student went on to express his opinion that man is here “for no purpose at all” and went on to quote from French mathematical physicist Blaise Pascal’s (IQ=190) Pensees (Thoughts), which he said aptly summed up his own feelings on the matter, a tenuously-difficult-to-answer query to which Einstein replied, giving his views on the matter (see: main article). College engineering and humanities students (combined) should, in this deep seated need light, be introduced to at least one class, in the course of their twenty-some year educational path, that address this deep query as modern physical science sees things or else all else is in vein. Presently, conversely, the modern US engineer curriculum funnels students through test-answer focused, board exam aimed accreditation classes and subjects, without touching on this deep underlying understanding need in regards to the "why's" of such an effort, whereas correctly and historically chemistry, physics, and engineering have much to say on this question (see: HT pioneers; HC pioneers), a subject that dates back to at the very least Goethe's great 1809 masterpiece Elective Affinities, the subject about which one might estimate that less than one in a 1,000 American students are even aware of, if not less.

Daniel Spiro

Goethe Institute Washington
American lawyer Daniel Spiro, a member of the Goethe Institute, Washington, and a graduate of Stanford University and Harvard Law School, notes (2005) strikingly how the works of Goethe, in the US, despite being the second most widely held author in libraries world-wide, according to WorldCat, “remain largely unread and rarely discussed”, which is strikingly similar to the experience of American electrochemical engineer Libb Thims who is nearly flubberstruck/flabbergasted, by the that he passed through a US chemical engineering degree and was never told about Goethe’s Elective Affinities, and the modern-day chemical thermodynamic ramifications of this great treatise, and subsequently was forced to go on another elevent-years searching the literature for the historical underpinnings of the theory of human chemical thermodynamics, before discovering Goethe in circa 2006, via footnote 2.5 in the 1984 work of Belgian chemist Ilya Prigogine, whose father Roman Prigogine, was a chemical engineer?

The following are related quotes:

“Words like 'great' and 'genius' could aptly be used for but a select number of artistsfor Michelangelo or say Shakespeare. In the United States, the works of these great artists have been incorporated into popular culture as the epitome of visual and linguistic beauty. By contrast, on these shores, Goethe's works remain largely unread and rarely discussed except among college students, most of whom develop a healthy dose of amnesia shortly after graduation.”
Daniel Spiro (2005), “Remember to Live! The Philosophy of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe” [26]

See also
Homework problems
Human thermodynamics dissertations
Two cultures synergy
Two cultures namesakes

1. Seminar on Social Thermodynamics (programs) – Korea University Graduate School.
2. Switching to Sociophysics from Social Sciences? (2008) –
3. Ferri, James K, Kaminski, Ashley (artwork), Wnek, Angela (script), Lavine, Isaac (script). (2011). “Thermodynamics of Life: Wall Street Edition”, YouTube, Oct. 26.
4. Email communication with Libb Thims.
5. (a) Galam, Serge. (2004). “Sociophysics: a Personal Testimony.”, Laboratory of Heterogeneous and Disorderly Environments, Paris.
(b) Galam, Serge. (2012). Sociophysics: A Physicist’s Modeling of Psycho-political Phenomena (§3.12 Claiming the Paternity of Sociophysics, pgs. 61-63). Springer.
7. Cengel, Yunus A. and Boles, Michael A. (2006). Thermodynamics: an Engineering Approach (ch. 4, pg. 193, ch. 7, pg. 349, ch. 8, pgs. 465-69). McGraw-Hill.
8. Tuhtan, Jeff. (2012). “A Modeling Approach for Alpine Rivers Impacted by Hydropeaking Including the Second Law Inequality” (pdf), PhD dissertation, Stuttgart University, Germany.
9. (a) Two Cultures Department (design) modified from the 1993 Cambridge University Press edition of C.P. Snow’s The Two Cultures.
(b) Snow, C.P. (1959). The Two Cultures, Rede Lectures; Cambridge University Press, 1993.
10. Abalos, Inaki and Schuler, Matthias. (2013). “DES-03438: Seminar: Air in Motion / Thermodynamic Materialism”, Spring, Harvard University, Graduate School of Design.
11. (a) Kyle, Benjamin G. (1988). “The Mystique of Entropy” (abstract), Chemical Engineering Education, Vol. 22., pgs. 92-97. Spr.
(b) Kyle, Benjamin G. (1999). Entropy: Reflections of a Classical Thermodynamicist (ch. 8: The Mystique of Entropy, 15 pgs.). Kansas State University; first published on attached CD-ROM to Chemical and Process Thermodynamics(3rd ed.), Prentice Hall, 1999.
12. Groysman, Alec. (2011). “Use of Art Media in Engineering and Scientific Education” (§3.4: Human Chemistry), Generative Art Conference, XIV.
13. Ferri, James K, Kaminski, Ashley (artwork), Wnek, Angela (script), Lavine, Isaac (script). (2011). “Thermodynamics of Life: Wall Street Edition”, YouTube, Oct. 26.
14. Mohsen-Nia, Mohsen, Arfaei, F., Amiri, H., and Mohsen Nia, A. (2011). “A Thermodynamic Methodology for Evaluating Friendship Relations Stability”, Journal of Human Thermodynamics, 7(2): 5-15, (Beta Review), Dec.
15. Aguilera, Jose M. (2012). Edible Structures: the Basic Science of What We Eat (translator: Marian Blazes) (§:Molecular Sociology, pgs. 59-63; “human chemistry”, pg. 59; Thims, note 2, pg. 102). CRC Press.
16. Müller, Erich, A. (1998). “Human Societies: a Curious Application
17. (a) Regalla, Vamsi and Vedula, Ravi. (2012). “A Strange Thing Called Love”, YouTube, Feb 04.
(b) Regalla, Vamsi and Vedula, Ravi. (2012). “A Strange Thing Called Love: in View of Thermodynamics” (url), Journal of Human Thermodynamics, 8(2): 121-##, Dec.
18. Tuhtan, Jeff. (2012). “A Modeling Approach for Alpine Rivers Impacted by Hydropeaking Including the Second Law Inequality” (pdf), PhD dissertation, Stuttgart University, Germany.
19. Syllabus: Entropy and Human Activity –
20. (a) Ferri, James K, Kaminski, Ashley, Wnek, Angela, Lavine, Isaac. (2011). “Thermodynamics of Life: Wall Street Edition”, YouTube, Oct. 26.
(b) Occupy Wall Street – Wikipedia.
21. Müller, Ingo. (2007). A History of Thermodynamics: the Doctrine of Energy and Entropy (pg. 164). New York: Springer.
22. (a) Social Energy Workshop (2011) –
(b) Wolf, Sarah. (2012). “Social Energy: a Useful Concept for Analyzing Complex Social Systems”, Dec 22,
23. Cellier, Francois. (1991). Continuous System Modeling (§8: Modelling in Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics, pgs. 297-345; quote, pg. 330). Springer.
24. Understanding the Effect of Entropy on Human Energy (6 Sep 2010) – Hmolpedia threads.
25. Lear, John. (1957). “American Newsltter: The Laws of Social Relationship”, New Scientist, Jan 31.
26. (a) Spiro, Daniel. (2005). “Remember to Live! The Philosophy of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe”, talk delivered at the Washington, D.C., Spinoza Society, Goethe-Institute, Sep 7.
(b) Goethe, Johann. (1796). Wilhelm Meister’s Apprenticeship (quote: “Remember to Live!”, pg. 331). Publisher.
(c) Daniel Spiro (about) –
27. Staff. (1955). “Research in Progress: Social Physics”, Princeton Alumni Weekly, 55:17.
28. Carey, Henry C. and McKean, Kate. (1874). Manual of Social Science: Being a Condensation of ‘The Principles of Social Science’ of H.C. Carey (§1: Social Science, pgs. 25; tree of knowledge, pg. 26; molecule, pg. 37). Industrial Publisher.
29. (a) Riley, Donna. (2011). Engineering Thermodynamics and 21st Century Energy Problems: A Textbook Companion for Student Engagement (pdf) (§2.5: Thermo to Life, pgs. 46-47; §3.3: Entropy as a Social Construct, pgs. 55-57; §3.4: Evaluating Entropy Analogies, pgs. 58-59; §4.5: Ethics of Energy Disasters, pgs. 79-80). Morgan& Claypool.
(b) Donna Riley (faculty) – Smith College.
30. Einstein, Albert. (1981). Albert Einstein: the Human Side (pgs. 25-27). Princeton University Press.
31. (a) Dean I. Hamden (faculty) – Montclair State University.
(b) The Physics of Human Behavior –
32. Slosson, Edwin E. (1910). Great American Universities (pg. 96). MacMillan.
33. Thims, Libb. (2013-14/15). Chemical Thermodynamics: with Applications in the Humanities (85-page version: pdf). Publisher.
35. Invention of wheel –
36. Savoiu, Gheorghe. (2012). Econophysics: Background and Applications in Economics, Finance, and Sociophysics (§10: Sociophysics: A New Science or a New Domain for Physicists in a Modern University, pgs. 149-65). American Institute of Physics.
37. Galam, Serge. (2012). Sociophysics: A Physicist’s Modeling of Psycho-Political Phenomena (§3.12 Claiming the Paternity of Sociophysics, pgs. 61-63). Springer.
39. Iberall, Arthur. (1974). Bridges in Science: from Physics to Social Science (pg. 278). General Technical Services.
40. Stewart, John Q. (1950). “The Development of Social Physics” (abs), Invited paper before The American Association of Physics Teachers, Brinckerhoff Theater, Columbia University, Feb 3; in: American Journal of Physics, May 1950, 18: 239-53.

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