In science, two cultures synergy refers to synergistic relationships, associations, and interactions between the so-called "hard science" Clausius culture (left brain thinkers), or physical science and engineering culture, and the so-called "soft science" Shakespeare culture (right brain thinkers), or liberal arts and humanities culture, according to which a two cultures bridging interaction effect results, so to speak, resulting in more than the sum of the parts individually.

“Every university should have a Department of Applied Greek and a complementary Department of Humanized Physics, and the benefits of these departments also should be extended as freely as is practicable to those who need them most, that is, to those whose main work is in another field.”
Edwin Slosson (1910), Great American Universities

The following table shows noted historical two cultures "synergies" and the fruit resulting from such interaction:

Dates & Location


University of Lausanne
University of Geneva
Leon Walras 75
Leon Walras
Chair of political economy
Maffeo Pantaleoni 75
Maffeo Pantaleoni
Pareto 75 new
Vilfredo Pareto

Chair of political economy
Political Economics Social Mechanics
Leon Winiarski 75
Leon Winiarski
Lausanne school of physical economics
The Teaching of Pure Political Economics and Social Mechanics in Switzerland

UNIL physical economics s

Resulted: Pareto writing over eight volumes on his social mechanics / dynamic economics theory; Winiarski wrote a near similar, albeit using the more advanced Clausius inequality. [1]


Harvard University
Harvard Pareto circle (new) 2Harvard Pareto circle
Sociology 23
Mathematical economics

Harvard Pareto circle (labeled) b


Princeton University
John G. Stewart 75
John Q. Stewart
Bridgman 75
Percy Bridgman
Photo needed 75
Stuart Dodd
Photo needed 75
John Trimmer
Princeton department of social physics
Princeton school of social physics
Princeton social physics

Princeton university (social physics)

● Many publications on social mechanics and social physics, including the 1948 Demographic Gravitation. [2]


University of South Dakota
George Scott 75
George Scott


Western Washington University
Ed Stephan 75
Ed Stephan
Chair of sociology
Louis Barrett 75
Louis Barrett
Chair of physics
Physical chemistry
George Gerhold 75
George Gerhold
Dean of arts and sciences



University of Pitesti
Gheorghe Savoiu 75
Gheorghe Savoiu
Ion Siman 75
Ion Siman
Physics and thermodynamics
Mircea Gligor 75
Mircea Gligor

● Resulted in the launching (2008) of an annual “Econophysics and Sociophysics” workshop:
UP ES logo
● The launching (2011) of the journal Econophysics, Sociophysics and other Multidisciplinary Sciences; the 2012 book Econophysics: Background and Applications in Economics, Finance, and Sociophysics, among other ventures. [4]


University not yet determined

Libb Thims (2013) 75
Libb Thims

Two cultures calls
Two cultures inquiries
Two cultures department

Two cultures department (Goethe)
● Textbook: Chemical Thermodynamics: with Applications in the Humanities [5]

See also
Two cultures department
Two cultures namesakes

1. (a) Pareto, Vilfredo. (1897). Course on Political Economics, Volume 1-2. University of Lausanne.
(b) Pareto, Vilfredo. (1902). The Socialist Systems. Publisher.
(c) Pareto, Vilfredo. (1906). Manuel of Political Economy. Societa Editrice.
(d) Pareto, Vilfredo. (1912). Treatise on General Sociology, Volumes 1-4. Publisher.
2. Stewart, John Q. (1948). Demographic Gravitation: Evidence and Application. Beacon House.
3. Stephan, Ed. (1995). The Division of Territory in Society.
4. (a) EDEN – Project description.
(b) Home - Econophysics, Sociophysics and other Multidisciplinary Sciences Journal, University of Pitesti, Romania.
(b) Savoiu, Gheorghe. (2012). Econophysics: Background and Applications in Economics, Finance, and Sociophysics (Romanian econophysicists, pg. 13). Academic Press.
5. Thims, Libb. (2014-15/16). Chemical Thermodynamics: with Applications in the Humanities (85-page version: pdf of 800-pages estimated total). Publisher.

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