Wilhelm Ostwald nsIn existographies, Friedrich Ostwald (1853-1932) (IQ:190|#41) [RGM:327|1,500+] (SN:15) (FA:94) (GCE:21) [CR:297], generally known as "Wilhelm Ostwald", was a German physical chemist noted for the subject he called "anthropic physics", or physics pertaining to humanity, as described in his various works: the 1902 "energy theory of culture"; his 1905 MIT Affinity Lecture, wherein he outlines a semblance of a connection from Goethe's Elective Affinities to Sadi Carnot to August Horstmann to Willard Gibbs; his 1906 Ingersoll lecture (Ѻ) turned booklet Individuality and Immortality, on the subject of what the science of energetics has to say about death and human individual (cessation thermodynamics); for his 1909 book Energetic Bases of Social Studies; for his 1912 book The Energetic Imperative, on the postulate of the "energetic imperative" (or thermodynamics imperative), and for being awarded 1909 Nobel Prize in thermodynamics; and is considered the founder of the "school of energetics" [1]

Classics of Exact Science
In 1889, Ostwald initiated a publishing project of translating or making available all “important original works” from all areas of natural science, the first being Hermann Helmholtz’ “On the Conservation of Force”; others including: Sadi Carnot’s On the Motive Power of Fire, Antoine Lavoisier’s Memoir on Heat, and Willard GibbsOn the Equilibrium of Heterogeneous Substances, and Jacobus van’t Hoff’s Studies on Chemical Dynamics; the project continued under the leadership of Arthur Oettingen (1836-1920), a noted Gibbs-promoting thermodynamicist, Wolfgang Ostwald (1883-1943), Ostwald’s son, and Richard Abegg; 1987 a total of 275 volumes had been published. [27]

Radical atheism
Ostwald, as many may not know, became a "strong atheist", "radical atheist", and or "pugnacious atheist", among others, depending on label, in the early 20th century; the following is one example statement of this: [25]

Ostwald was certainly an atheist in the strong sense. The 1969 biography by Rodnyj and Solowjew contains a section on Ostwald entitled ‘A Pugnacious Atheist’ [‘als streitbarer Atheist’] and an entire German language book on this subject was published in 1960: Science versus Faith in God: From the Atheist writings of the Great Chemist Wilhelm Ostwald (Friedrich Herneck).”
William Jensen (2015) [25]


Ostwald happiness formula
See main: Ostwald happiness formula
In 1905, German physical chemist Wilhelm Ostwald penned a happiness equation based on his energetics theories. [17] Ostwald's happiness equation reads as follows:

G = k(A-W)(A+W) \,

where G is Gluck (happiness), A is Arbeit (work or ‘energy expended in doing useful work’), W is Widerstand (energy dissipated in overcoming resistance), and k supposedly some type of proportionality constant. [18]

Noted Ostwald energetics historians include: Caspar Hakfoort, Robert Deltete, Eric Zencey, and Janet Stewart .

Perpetual motion
Ostwald, supposedly, was the one who introduced the phrase “perpetual motion of the second kind” referring to those perpetual motion machines that seek to violate the second law of thermodynamics. [7]
Wilhelm Ostwald and Svante Arrhenius (c.1904)
Ostwald and Svante Arrhenius, from a 1904 issue of Popular Science Monthly (Ѻ); in 1884, Arrhenius published work which showed that affinities and electrical conductivity in solution parallel one another; Ostwald, who in 1882 had become full professor at the University of Riga, recognized the originality of the this young fellow chemist and helped him to find due appreciation, the same way M.M. Pattison Muir (1848-1931) had further him in 1879.

In 1887, in a lecture at Leipzig, Ostwald outlined his new “energism” view, as American historian Niles Holt refers to it, according to which all natural processes are essentially transformations of energy, and most-contentiously that: [16]

“Matter is only a mirage, which the mind creates to comprehend the workings of energy.”

In 1890, Ostwald entered into the universal theory of everything arena of the “all is energy” philosophical motto, following a spring physics conference in Berlin, wherein Ostwald attempted to convince a group of physicists to adhere to the following new outlook: [13]

“From now on the whole of physics has to be represented as a theory of energies.”

This incident has been documented by American energetics historian Robert Deltete in a series of articles. The group found the idea “so absurd that they refused to take it seriously at all” and offered only “ridicule and abuse”. The next morning, Ostwald awoke early and went for a walk in the Tiergarten, and had a “personal Pentecost”, as he described it, seeing clearly the view that “all is energy”. Ostwald’s revelatory moment of insight is detailed in his Autobiography, and is quoted in Eduard Farber’s Great Chemists. [15]

In the 1890s, Ostwald, translated American mathematical engineer Willard Gibbs' 1876 On the Equilibrium of Heterogeneous Substances into French, and styled Gibbs as the "founder of chemical energetics". [2]

The term 'human energetics', a near synonym to 'human thermodynamics', seems to have been attributed to Ostwald's 1909 book Gross Manner. [8]

The school of energetics, existing from 1890 to 1908, is a set of logic, attributed to German chemist Wilhelm Ostwald (the founder) and Austrian physicist Ernst Mach, that rejected the atomic hypothesis focusing instead on the law of conservation of energy and a belief that macroscopic energy levels were the only reality. [5] The seed of belief may trace to the 1887 book The Doctrine of Energy by German physicist Georg Helm, a work read by Ostwald. With the discovery of the atom, between 1897 and 1909, this school, however, soon became defunct.
Wilhelm Ostwald and Jacobus van 't Hoff
Ostwald with Jacobus van 't Hoff, in Leipzig, from a 1905 issue of the Journal of Physical Chemistry. (Ѻ)

In 1894, on the occasion of a review in his Zeitschrift, he casually formulated a new definition of a catalyst as a substance which influences the velocity of a reaction without taking part in it as a component; in 1901, at a conference in Hamburg, he expressed this explicitly: [15]

“A catalyst is any substance which changes the velocity of a reaction without appearing in its end products.”

Ostwald, in short, was the first to realize that a catalyst acts without altering the energy relations of the reaction, and that it usually speeds up a reaction by lowering the activation energy. [11] In 1909, Ostwald was awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry for his work on catalysis.

Physical chemistry
Beginning in 1885, Ostwald published Lehrbuch der allgemeinen Chemie (Textbook of General Chemistry), the first textbook on physical chemistry and in 1887, together with Dutch chemist Jacobus van't Hoff, founded Zeitschrift für physikalische Chemie (Journal of Physical Chemistry) the first periodical in physical chemistry. [3]
The Biological Sciences (Ostwald, 1901)
The final section of Ostwald's Natural Philosophy. [4]

Natural philosophy
In 1901, Ostwald gave a seven part lecture series on "natural philosophy", in which he applied energy and entropy logic to human mental life. [9]

In 1910, translator Thomas Seltzer produced an English-version as the book Natural Philosophy, the last section four of which is shown adjacent. [24]

The main points of Ostwald's theory were summarized and criticized in the 1903 article “The Theory of Energetics and its Philosophical Bearings” by American philosopher John Hibben. [10] In 1920, Ostwald published Das große Elixier - Die Wissenschaftslehre (The Philosopher's Stone: The Theory of Science) a book outlining his philosophy of the natural sciences, and its affects on, and utility to human society. In this work, he ascribes the mental work capacity of a human being as the most efficient utilization of chemical energy, and asks if it were not possible to breed humans ("Menschenzüchtung") to enhance society's mental capacity, instead of relying on random genius for the advancement of human civilization. [12]

Religious | Conflicts

In 1905, Ostwald came into serious conflict with the university, the reason being concerned with “religious questions”, as biographer Eduard Farber puts it, at the time of the official obsequies for freethinker Johannes Wislicenus (1835-1902). The tensions came to a breaking point, when Ostwald was asked to be relieved of lecturing duties, after which he was suspended until 1906, officially appointed as an exchange professor to the United States.

Monistic Sunday sermons
See main: Monistic Sunday Sermons
After his retirement in 1906, Ostwald found a new sphere for his scientific and organizatorial talents. Besides continuing his studies and publication on philosophy, such as Der energetische Imperativ (The Energetic Imperative), Moderne Naturphilosophie (Modern Natural Philosophy), Die Pyramide der Wissenschaften (The Pyramid of the Sciences), he also took an active part in public life.

In 1906, Ernst Haeckel founded the “Monisten Bund” or German Monist League (Ѻ), in Jena, a free-thinking organization centered on promoting some type of monistic world view, anchored in some way on a mix of Goethe’s 1809 metamorphology theory, Darwin's 1959 theory of evolution, and Ostwald's 1898 energetics view. (Ѻ)

In 1910, Haeckel elected Ostwald as the president of the Monist League, after which he began giving his famous “Monistic Sunday sermons”, as Haeckel (1913) called them. Ostwald, in this direction, was interested in educational reforms and in monism. He believed that in view of his position he could decisively fight the Church's claim to power in the field of natural sciences and to spread a modern scientific ideology. This aim he pursued in his writings Monistische Sonntagspredigten (Monistic Sunday sermons) and Arbeiten zum Monismus (Works on Monism). (Ѻ)

Sociological energetics
In 1908, Ostwald, in his The Energy (Die Energie), published “Sociological Energetics”, as an end chapter. This served as a launching point for the following works: The Energetical Foundations of the Cultural Sciences (Energetische Grundlagen der Kulturwissenschaft) (1909), Today’s Challenges (Die Forderung des Tages) (1910), The Energetical Imperative (Der energetische Imperativ) (1912), and The Philosophy of Values (Die Philosophie der Werte) (1913). [26]

Oswald’s 1905 MIT Affinity Lecture, outlines a semblance of a connection from Goethe's Elective Affinities to Sadi Carnot to August Horstmann to Willard Gibbs.

In 1932, Oswald published his last literary work: a collection on “Goethe, the Prophet” in the year of the one-hundredth anniversary of his death (reaction end). [15]

Economic thermodynamics
See main: Economic thermodynamics
In 1907, Ostwald incorporated thermodynamics, or energetics specifically, into a general theory of economic development. Ostwald reasoned that energy was the sole universal generalization, in that energy processes underlie all circumstances. Based on this hypothesis, Ostwald theorized that for any event in the universe it is always possible to state an equation, between two time intervals, such as to quantify the difference between the energies that have disappeared and those newly arrived. [6] This, coincidentally, is the methodology currently used to quantify energetic reactions in chemistry, namely the calculation of the before and after conditions in reactions.

Individuality | Immortality
In 1906, Ostwald gave his Ingersoll lecture (Ѻ) on "Individuality and Immortality", on what a physicist and chemist has to say on the question of the mortality and or immortality of the individual from the point of view of energetics; the following are noted quotes: [23]

“If a chemist or physicist of to-day is asked about his ideas on immortality, his first feeling will be that of some astonishment. He meets with no question in his work which is connected with this one, and his reply may usually be classified under one of two heads. He may remember the religious impressions which have clung to him since his youth, kept alive by him or nearly forgotten, as the case may be, and he will then explain that such questions are in no way connected with his science; for the objects treated by his science are non-living matter. This is immediately evident in physics, and while there exists an organic chemistry, he will explain that any matter which is called organic in his sense is decidedly dead before it can become the object of his investigation. It is only the inanimate part of the world which concerns him scientifically, and any ideas he may hold about the question of immortality are his private opinions and quite independent of his science. Or he may dismiss his interlocutor still more shortly by saying from his standpoint of matter-and-motion: Soul is a function of living matter only. The moment life ceases in an organized body the value of this function becomes zero, and there is no further question about immortality.”
— Wilhelm Ostwald (1906), Individuality and Immortality (pgs. 4-5)

“It must be restated from its very foundation, because, as I have been maintaining for the last ten years, the matter-and-motion theory (or scientific materialism) has outgrown itself and must be replaced by another theory, to which the name energetics has been given. The question therefore takes the form: what has energetics to say about immortality?”
— Wilhelm Ostwald (1906), Individuality and Immortality (pg. 7)

“In conscious beings such natural tendencies are accompanied by a certain feeling which we call will, and we are happy when we are allowed to act according to these tendencies or according to our will. Now, if we recall the happiest moments of our lives, they will be found in every case to be connected with a curious loss of personality. In the happiness of love this fact will be at once discovered. And if you are enjoying intensely a work of art, a symphony of Beethoven's, for example, you find yourself relieved of the burden of personality and carried away by the stream of music as a drop is carried by a wave.”
Wilhelm Ostwald (1906), Individuality and Immortality (pgs. 44-55)

“Consider the best case, where we often use the word ‘immortal’ [see: Mor], that of a great poet or scientist. We say that Homer and Goethe, Aristotle and Darwin, are immortal, because their work is lasting, and will persist for scores of centuries, and their personal influence has proven independent of their bodily existence.”
— Wilhelm Ostwald (1906), Individuality and Immortality (pg. 59)

“Death, considered from the standpoint of sexual propagation, is not only not an evil, but it is a necessary factor in the existence of the race. And looking into my own mind with all the frankness and scientific objectiveness which I can apply to this most personal question, I find no horror connected with the idea of my own death. After I have lived out the span of my life, the bodily ending will seem a perfectly natural thing, and it will be more a feeling of relief than one of sorrow that will come in watching the end. Quite independent of individual life or death, the work a man has done remains effective.”
— Wilhelm Ostwald (1906), Individuality and Immortality (pgs. 62-63)

“There remains one last and most important question, What becomes of the foundation of all our ethics without the idea of a personal future life, in which vice shall be punished and virtue rewarded? I do not hesitate to answer that I not only think ethics possible without this idea, but that I even think that this condition involves a very refined and exalted state of ethical development.”
— Wilhelm Ostwald (1906), Individuality and Immortality (pg. 67)

“No one thinks of punishing a cat who tortures a poor mouse for no vital purpose whatever, and we find it perfectly natural that the lame of certain wasps should develop in the interior of caterpillars, slowly devouring their hosts from within. It is only man who tries to change this general way of nature's and to diminish as far as possible cruelty and injustice to his fellow men and his fellow creatures. And from the strong desire that this black stain should be removed as fully as possible from humanity, the idea developed that there must be beyond our bodily life a possibility of compensating for the evil which is done and for that which is suffered during life without due punishment or reward as suggested by our sense of justice.”
— Wilhelm Ostwald (1906), Individuality and Immortality (pgs. 68-69)


That coinage of the term "chemical potential" has been attributed to Cornell physical chemist Wilder Bancroft, one of Ostwald's former PhD students who introduced the term in the 1890s. [3] American physical chemist Gilbert Lewis worked as an instructor at Harvard for a year before taking a traveling fellowship, studying under the physical chemists Wilhelm Ostwald at Leipzig and Walther Nernst at Göttingen. [4]

Ostwald graduated from the University of Tartu, Estonia, in 1875, received his PhD in chemistry there in 1878 under the guidance of Russian biochemist Carl Schmidt (a student of German chemist Justus Liebig). After a period of being a schoolmaster, he became professor of chemistry at Riga Polytechnic Institute in 1881. In 1887, he became professor of physical chemistry at the University of Leipzig, remaining there until 1906. [11]

Quotes | On
The following are quotes on Ostwald:

Ostwald developed [his] epiphany into his doctrine of energetics, which he thought should revolutionize all human understanding: natural and earth sciences, of course, but also history, economics, sociology, politics, even ethics and morality. The laws of thermodynamics, to Ostwald, implied a new categorical imperative: ‘waste no energy!’”
Eric Zencey (2013), “Energy as Master Resource” via citation of Caspar Hakfoort [1]

Quotes | By
The following are noted quotes by Ostwald:

“Everything we sensually experience can be reduced to energy relationships between our sense organs and the world around us.”
— Wilhelm Ostwald (1909), autobiographical reflection of his spring “pentecostal inspiration”; as recounted in his Lifelines: an Autobiography, 1926 [21]

“Research workers were, at one time, obliged to endeavor to ensure that their theories did not contradict those of the church; nowadays, in contrast the church is at pains to prove that its teachings are compatible with those of science. In other words, the church acknowledges science as the higher authority.”
— Wilhelm Ostwald (1909). “On Catalysis”, Nobel Lectures [22]

“I am made from the C-H-N-O-S-P combination from which a Bunsen, Helmholtz, Kirchhoff came.”
— Wilhelm Ostwald (1926), Lifelines: an Autobiography [19]; compare Carl Sagan (1980)

“My only supporter and comrade-in-arms was Georg Helm, who had endeavored to formulate an energetic conception of science before me and had presented his results in a treatise [Die Lehre von der Energie] exhibiting great independence of thought. But we were separated by his aversion to a realistic conception of energy. Consequently, each of us considered the other only a half ally, toward whom an attitude of caution was necessary.”
— Wilhelm Ostwald (1927), reflection on the 1895 energetics dispute in Lubeck [20]

1. (a) Ostwald, Wilhelm. (1906). Individuality and Immortality (pg. 7). Houghton, Mifflin and Co.
(b) Kragh, Helge. (2008). Entropic Creation: Religious Contexts of Thermodynamics and Cosmology, (pg. 229). Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
(c) Ostwald, Wilhelm. (1909). Energetic Bases of Cultural Studies (Energetische Grundlagen der Kulturwissenschaften). Leipzig: Duncker.
2. Willard Gibbs - Encyclopedia Britannica article (1910).
3. (a) Wilhelm Ostwald: the “Bruke” (Bridge) and other Connections to Other Bibliographic Activities at the Beginning of the Twentieth Century (PDF), 9-pages, by Thomas Hapke, [ChemHeritage.org]
(b) Baierlein, Ralph. (2000). “The Elusive Chemical Potential”, American Association of Physics Teachers, Oct.
4. Edsall, J. T. (1974). "Some notes and queries on the development of bioenergetics. Notes on some "founding fathers" of physical chemistry: J. Willard Gibbs, Wilhelm Ostwald, Walther Nernst, Gilbert Newton Lewis". Mol. Cell. Biochem. Nov. 5 (1-2): 103–12.
5. (a) Loeb, Leonard B. (2004). The Kinetic Theory of Gases (pg. 6). Dover.
(b) Feuer, Lewis S. (1982). Einstein and the Generations of Science (pg. 332). Transactions Publishers.
(c) Porter, Neil A. (1998). Physics in Conflict (pg. 88). CRC Press.
6. (a) Ostwald, Wilhelm. (1907). "Modern Theory of Energetics", Monist, 17: 480-515.
(b) Ostwald, Wilhelm. (1911). "Efficiency", The Independent, 71: 867-71.
7. Hokikian, Jack. (2002). The Science of Disorder: Understanding the Complexity, Uncertainty, and Pollution in Our World (pg. 24). Los Feliz Publishing.
8. (a) W.R. (1909). “How to Diagnose Genius: A Study of Human Energetics”, Nature, pgs. 121-22, Jul 29.
(b) Ostwald, Wilhelm. (1909). Gross Manner. Leipzig: Akademische Verlagsgesellshaft.
9. (a) Ostwald, Wilhelm. (1910). Natural Philosophy. Henry Holt and Co.
(b) Ostwald, Wilhelm. (1901). Naturphilosophie (vol 1-7). Leipzig.
10. Hibben, John Grier. (1903). “The Theory of Energetics and its Philosophical Bearings”, The Philosophical Review, 12: 175-77.
11. Laidler, Keith J. (1993). The World of Physical Chemistry (pg. 212). Oxford University Press.
12. Ostwald, Wilhelm (1920). Das große Elixier - Die Wissenschaftslehre (pg. 68). Leipzig-Gaschwitz: Dürr & Weber.
13. (a) Deltete, Robert J. (2007). “Wilhelm Ostwald’s Energetics 1: Origins and Motivations” (abs), Foundations of Chemistry, 9(1):3-56.
(b) Deltete, Robert J. (2007). “Wilhelm Ostwald’s Energetics 2: Energetic Theory and Application, Part I” (abs), Foundations of Chemistry, 9(3):256-316
(c) Deltete, Robert J. (2008). “Wilhelm Ostwald’s Energetics 3: Energetic Theory and Application, Part II” (abs), Foundations of Chemistry, 10(#):187-221.
(d) Zencey, Eric. (2013). “Energy as a Master Resource” (pdf), in: State of the World 2013: Is Sustainability Still Possible? (§7:##-; image, figure 1-2). Island Press, 2013.
14. (a) Zencey, Eric. (2013). “Energy as a Master Resource” (pdf), in: State of the World 2013: Is Sustainability Still Possible? (§7:##-; image, figure 1-2). Island Press, 2013.
(b) Hakfoort, Caspar. (1992). “Science Deified: Wilhelm Ostwald’s Energeticist World-view and the History of Scientism” (abs), Annals of Science, 49(2):525-44.
15. Farber, Eduard. (1961). Great Chemists (§:Wilhelm Ostwald) (pgs. 1019-##; esp. 1025; catalyst, pg. 1026; Monisten Bund, pg. 1028). Interscience Publishers.
16. Holt, Niles R. (1977). “Wilhelm Ostwald’s ‘The Bridge’” (abs), The British Journal for the History of Science, 10(2):146-50.
17. (a) Ostwald, Wilhelm. (1905). “A Theory of Happiness”, International Quarterly, 11:316-26.
(b) Szabadvary, Ferenc. (1965). “Wilhelm Ostwald’s Happiness Formula”, Journal of Chemical Education, 42(12):678.
18. Fleck, George. (1993). “1909 Nobel Laureate: Wilhelm Ostwald, 1853-1932”, in: Nobel Laureates in Chemistry, 1901-1992 (editor: Laylin James) (pgs. 61-66, esp. pg. 66). Chemical Heritage Foundation.
19. (a) Ostwald, Wilhelm. (1926-27). Lifelines: an Autobiography (Lebenslinien. Eine Selbstbiographie) (in two or three volumes). Berlin: Klasing & Co.
(b) Farber, Eduard. (1961). Great Chemists (§:Wilhelm Ostwald, pgs. 1019-30; quote, pg. 1021). Interscience Publishers.
20. (a) Ostwald, Wilhelm. (1927). Lifelines: an Autobiography, Volume Two (Lebenslinien. Eine Selbstbiographie) (pg. 180-81). Berlin: Klasing & Co.
(b) Neuber, Matthias. (2005). “Uneasy Allies”, in: Wilhelm Ostwald at the Crossroads between Chemistry, Philosophy, and Media Culture (editors: Britta Görs, Nikolaos Psarros, Paul Ziche) (pg. 53). Leipziger Universitatsverlag.
21. (a) Ostwald, Wilhelm. (1926-27). Lifelines: an Autobiography (Lebenslinien. Eine Selbstbiographie) (vol. II, 158 ff). Berlin: Klasing & Co.
(b) Farber, Eduard. (1961). Great Chemists (§:Wilhelm Ostwald, pgs. 1019-30; quote, pg. 1025). Interscience Publishers.
22. Ostwald, Wilhelm. (1909). “On Catalysis” (Ѻ), Nobel Lecture, Dec 12.
23. Ostwald, Wilhelm. (1906). Individuality and Immortality. Houghton, Mifflin and Co.
24. Ostwald, Wilhelm. (1901). Natural Philosophy: with Author’s Special Revision for the American edition (translator: Thomas Seltzer). Henry Holt and Co, 1910.
25. (a) Jensen, William. (2015). “Email to Libb Thims”, Jul 5.
(b) Herneck, Friedrich. (1960). Science versus faith in God: From the atheist writings of the great chemist Wilhelm Ostwald (Wissenschaft contra Gottesglauben: Aus den atheistischen Schriften des grossen Chemikers Wilhelm Ostwald). Jena.
(c) Rodnyj, N.I. and Solowjew, J.U. (1969). Wilhelm Ostwald (in Russian; translation to German). Leipzig: B.G. Teubner, 1977.
26. Stewart, Janet. (2014). “Sociology, Culture and Energy: The Case of Wilhelm Ostwald’s ‘Sociological Energetics’ – A Translation and Exposition of a Classic Text” (abs) (pdf), Cultural Sociology, 8(3), Apr 14.
27. (a) Ostwald’s Classic of Exact Science (German → English) – Wikipedia.
(b) Lavoisier, Antoine; Laplace, Pierre. (1783). Memoire on Heat (Memoire sur la Chaleur) (translator: Henri Guerlac). Academic Press, 1982.
Further reading
● Ostwald, Wilhelm. (1907). “The Modern Theory of Energetics” (abs), The Monist, 17(4):481-515.
● Ostwald, Wilhelm. (1912). Der Energetische Imperativ (The Energetic Imperative). Leipzig: Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft.
● Lovelace, B.F. (1913). “Review: Der Energetische Imperativ.American Chemical Journal, 46: 163-64.
● Holt, Niles R. (1970). “A Note on Wilhelm Ostwald’s Energism” (abs), Isis, 61:386-89.
● Gors, Britta, Psarros, Nikolaos, and Ziche, Paul. (2005). Wilhelm Ostwald at the Crossroads between Chemistry, Philosophy, and Media Culture. Leipziger Universitatsverlag.

External links
Wilhelm Ostwald – Wikipedia.

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