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Genius (poster)
A typical genus poster, depicting archetypical geniuses: Albert Einstein, Isaac Newton, Nikola Tesla, and Leonardo da Vinci, a group representative of the motto: “a genius is someone who has mastered certain principles and ways of conducting themselves, so that they can achieve any desire they wantbecause there are certain laws at work which we are not aware of, yet which the genius has discovered through trial and error.” [6]
In terminology, a genius, from the Latin gignere (meaning to ‘beget’ or produce), is someone who is able to hit targets invisible to others, in whom intellect tends to predominate over will much more than the average person, wherein a strong leaning and inclination tends to exist, and often in which a polymathic nature and autodidactic traits tend to reign. [1]

Quotes | New
The following are recent genius quote related adds:

“The first and last thing which is required of genius is the love of truth.”
Johann Goethe, a last universal genius [7]

“The task of the early investigators who lay the foundation is quite a different one from that of their successors. The former have to seek out and establish the weightiest facts only, and to do this, as history teaches, calls for more intelligence than is generally believed.”
Ernst Mach (1897), The Mechanics in Their Historical-Critical Development [26]

“Improvement makes straight roads, but the crooked roads, without improvement, are roads of genius.”
— Edgar Allan Poe (Ѻ)

Genius’s genius
The term “genius’s genius”, similar to the term “shoulder genius”, e.g. Rene Descartes and Robert Hooke being shoulder geniuses to Newton, is a term spuriously attributed to a few individuals, including: Leonardo da Vinci (Ѻ), Isaac Newton (Ѻ), Heinrich von Kleist (Ѻ), Johann Goethe (Ѻ), Samuel Coleridge (Ѻ), Theodore von Karman (Ѻ)(Ѻ), and John Neumann (Ѻ), to name a few.

Brain temperature
The condition which produces optimal thinking is for the upper part of the body, particularly the head region, to be within a temperature range of 69 to 72°F; whereas when temperature increase to at or above 75°F thinking tends to slow. It is best to have two digital thermometers, one at 2.5-feet above the ground and another at the 6-foot level above the ground, so as to monitor head zone temperature. In the summer, air conditioning is needed along with a tilting circular fan angled at 45° to keep up down convection of air in circulation.

Marriage
See main: Bachelorhood and genius
In respect to genius attainment level, there seems to exist some yet unwritten law according to which genius rank is inversely proportional to time spent married. Said another way, genius level, in many cases, seems directly proportional, in increasing amount, to the amount of passion, devotion, and time one puts into his or her work, which is reciprocal, in decreasing amount, to the amount of passion, devotion, and time one puts into his or her relationships.

“Look what happens to people when they get married.”
Niels Bohr (1937), comment to George Gamow, in reference to Paul Dirac’s 1937 post-honeymoon lackluster cosmology theory letter to Nature (Ѻ)

Accordingly, there is a certain correlation, to some extent, to genius and bachelorhood; the following is an example quote by Tom Siegfried (2006): [27]

Adam Smith had a lot in common with Isaac Newton. Both were lifelong bachelors. Both became professors at the university they had attended. Both were born after their fathers had dies. And both became fathers themselves of a new scientific discipline. Newton built the foundation of physics; Smith authored the bible of economics.”

Three of the biggest mononym geniuses: Newton, Gibbs, and Tesla, never married. The following threequotes, based onNietzsche'swill to poweridea,come to mind here:

“Training is nothing! The will is everything! The will to act.”
— Christopher Nolan and David Goyer (2005), Batman Begins (vid)

“I know the rage that drives you. That impossible anger strangling the grief, until the memory of your loved ones is just poison in your veins.”
— Christopher Nolan and David Goyer (2005), Batman Begins (vid)

“Like you, I was forced to learn the rhythm without decency. Your anger gives you great power, but if you let it, it will destroy you, as it almost did me.”
— Christopher Nolan and David Goyer (2005), Batman Begins, version (Ѻ) as heard by Thims (vid)

The two geniuses above Newton, were Einstein (he may be below Newton, this is an undecided issue) and Goethe; the seeds of the latter were terminated within one generation (see: Goethe genealogy). Another bachelor genius is Oliver Heaviside (Ѻ) .

Genius IQs
See main: Genius IQs (ranking of the top 1000 geniuses)
The standard numerical value for the classification of a genius IQ is the standard Terman definition of an IQ at or above 140, as listed below, along with other noted assignment criterion proposals and definitions: [2]

IQ = 125+ Catherine Cox definition (1926)
IQ = 140+ Lewis Terman definition (c.1917)
IQ = 140+ Tony Buzan definition (1994)
IQ = 145+ Ronald Hoeflin definition (1982)
IQ = 160+ Leta Hollingworth definition (c.1930)

In terms of how these high-end IQ values have been determined, there have been two general ways to categorize so-called ‘geniuses’ in terms of IQs: one being the retrospect peer ranking method, namely assigning an IQ value to historical geniuses, in the context of the peers of that time period and prior. A meta-analysis of this sort yields the Cox-Buzan IQ anchor point geniuses.

Insanity and Genius
See main: Insanity and genius; See also: Crackpot
There is no form of genius, Aristotle famous pointed out, “without a tincture of madness.”

Lightening genius
Danish philosopher Soren Kierkegaard (1813-1855), one of the four main existentialism founders, along with Fyodor Dostoyevsky (1821-1881), Friedrich Nietzsche, and Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980), explained the “lightening genius” as follows:

“There are two kinds of geniuses. The characteristic of the one is roaring, but the lightning is meagre and rarely strikes; the other kind is characterized by reflection by which it constrains itself or restrains the roaring. But the lightning is all the more intense; with the speed and sureness of lightning it hits the selected particular points - and is fatal.”

“Geniuses are like thunderstorms. They go against the wind, terrify people, cleanse the air.”

It remains to track down who he had in mind in making these statements.
Isaac Newton ns2Johann Goethe nsWilliam Rankine ns
Three hiatus effect geniuses: Newton (2-yrs), Goethe (1-yr), and Rankine (6-yrs), each of whom entered a period of "forced" convalescence prior to their rise to genius-stature fame.

Hiatus effect | Bueller effect
See main: Genius hiatus effect
A significant number of geniuses seem to have the commonality of what seems to be seeds or inceptions of novel and/or revolutionary theory developed or conceived in preliminary outline during times of hiatus—gaps or breaks in the interruption of space, time or continuity, or in some cases spells of convalescence. We might well refer to this as the "hiatus effect" or convalescence effect.

The preeminent example of the hiatus effect genius being William Rankine who in 1830, at age 10, was forced to leave school owing to an illness, thereafter spending the next six years being taught by his father David Rankine, a respected railway engineer in the Edinburgh & Dalkeith Railway, who four years later, when he turned age 14, gave him a copy of Isaac Newton’s Principia, in Latin, which he subsequently absorbed, thus laying the foundation of his knowledge in higher mathematics, dynamics, and physics, shortly thereafter, in the next decade or so, penning out the world's earliest known equations of love, as found in his circa 1845 "The Mathematician in Love" poetry song. The same "forced" hiatus phenomena is common to equation of love theorists: Goethe (1809): two year hiatus, and Thims (1995): 10-year hiatus, discussed further below.

We might well also refer to this, stepping out the incessant flow of time genius phenomena, as the Bueller effect, based the well-known film line:

Life moves pretty fast. If you don't stop and look around once in a while, you could miss it.”
— Ferris (1986), Ferris Bueller’s Day Off

English physicist Isaac Newton’s forced private studies at his home in Woolsthorpe, following the August 1665 Cambridge University temporarily closing as a precaution against the Great Plague, over the subsequent two years saw the development of his theories on calculus, optics, and the law of gravitation, the seeds of what would become his greatest work.

German polyintellect Johann Goethe’s age 18-19 forced period of convalescence at home in bed (1768-1769) is where he began his studies in chemistry, particularly the work of Paracelsus (1493-1541) and Susanne Klettenberg (1723-1744), and was conducting chemical experiments in his attic using a draught furnace, the seeds of which would result in what he would later describe as his “best book”, namely his 1809 physical chemistry based Elective Affinities, wherein he explains the human chemical theory part of his metamorphology theory of evolution.

German physicist Albert Einstein, in 1900, after being awarded the Zurich Polytechnic teaching diploma, was unable to find a teaching post, and so while taking a digression from the normal university path, he worked as a patent clerk, during which time he notable developed the mass-energy equivalence theory, the photon theory of light, and the theory of relativity all arrived at in 1905. Einstein would latter comment the following, in reflection, on the nature of these depressurized theoretical fruits:

Science is a wonderful thing if one does not have to earn one’s living at it. One should earn one’s living by work of which one is sure one is capable. Only when we do not have to be accountable to anyone can we find joy in scientific endeavor.”
Albert Einstein (1951), reply letter to female student thinking about becoming a professional astronomer (24 Mar)

In modern terms, where time moves pretty fast, as Ferris says, both American economist Thomas Schelling and Romanian-born American mechanical engineer Adrian Bejan conceived the work they are best known for while stuck on a plane, thus having “hiatus time”, so to speak, to think.

American electrochemical engineer Libb Thims, likewise, developed the seeds of the work he is best known for after taking a forced step out of the main flow of the typical top-of-the-class engineer, when in circa 1997, nearing the final year of finishing two of the highest paying degrees available—chemical engineer and electrical engineer, finishing in the top 10 percent of his class at one of the world’s top engineering schools, and being very sought after, company recruit wise—abruptly called and cancelled all of his scheduled company recruitment, all-expense-paid trips out to New York and California, with companies including Big Five financial corporation, a Silicon Valley computer chip producing company, among others, sensing, owing to a number of other compounding factors, that something was not right, and that he needed to step out of the hoop-jumping fast lane. The following quote by Einstein captures some aspects of this:

“I, too, was originally supposed to become an engineer. But I found the idea intolerable of having to apply the inventive faculty to matters that make everyday life more elaborate—and all, just for dreary money-making. Thinking for its own sake, as in music! … When I have no special problem to occupy my mind, I love to reconstruct proofs of mathematical and physical theorems that have long been known to me. There is no goal in this, merely an opportunity to indulge in the pleasant occupation of thinking.”
— Albert Einstein (1918), Letter to Heinrich Zangger

It was during this period of detachment that ,on 15 Nov 2001, at 3:00 AM, Thims began to see through the so-called "reverse engineering problem"; to wit, how one can reverse-engineer the equations of chemical thermodynamics to explain human movement and human spontaneity, something which he had been puzzled about since 1995 (see: history). No doubt, had Thims chosen the path "more traveled", the road of the well-paid, but intellectually unrewarded, engineer, over the path "less traveled", he would never have had the so-called "hiatus time" to arrive at solution.
Antoine Lavoisier nsJames Maxwell nsEttore Majorana ns
Three magnitude geniuses: Antoine Lavoisier (RE=51), James Maxwell (RE=48), and Ettore Majorana (RE=32), who each produced a great density of genius work in a very compacted number of years, as compared to epicenter geniuses, e.g. Aristotle (RE=62), Newton (RE=84), Goethe (RE=83), Einstein (RE=76), whose genius productions extended over a larger reaction extent (RE) or number of years (age) of reaction existence.

Magnitude geniuses
The biggest pound-for-pound genius in magnitude, i.e. the genius with the greatest ratio of intellectual output per year goes to James Maxwell (IQ=210), hands down, whose reaction existenceended prematurely at age 48, when he terminated, strangely, at the same age as his mother, and as a result of the same disease (stomach cancer) that she had succumbed to.

Second place, in the category of thinkers with incisive, prolific outputs in short bursts of time and energy, might well go to French chemist Antoine Lavoisier (IQ=175), whose intellectual output, prior to being guillotined at the age of 50, during the French revolution years, for some trumped up tax conspiracy charges, was unprecedented, in his achievements, theories, experiments, and impact. French mathematician Joseph Lagrange (IQ=185) had the perspicacity to comment, on this ironic situation: "It took them only an instant to cut off his head, but France may not produce another such head in a century."

Italian engineer and theoretical physicist Ettore Majorana (IQ=195), who, prior to a mysterious disappearance at age 32, independently described the existence of the neutrino (1932), synthesized an exchange force theory of nuclear bonding, and who, in his 1935 sociophysics article “The Value of Statistical Laws in Physics and Social Sciences”, suggested the application of quantum statistical physics to social sciences(something that is even beyond grasp, for many, in the modern day: see Moriarty-Thims debate), might well rank in as second to Maxwell in regards to genius magnitude.

“There are several categories of scientists in the world; those of second or third rank do their best but never get very far. Then there is the first rank, those who make important discoveries, fundamental to scientific progress. But then there are the geniuses, like Galilei and Newton. Majorana was one of these.”
Enrico Fermi (1938) (IQ=190), Italian physicist

Indian mathematician Srinivasa Ramanujan (IQ=185), might fall in a distant third place, who prior to ending at age 32 from malnutrition, independently compiled nearly 3900 results, mostly identities and equations, most of which have been proven correct.
Die Wahlverwandtschaften (Gibbs Goethe)
A playboy art style depiction of the "elective affinities problem", namely how to explain passions of existence in terms of Bergman's 1775 chemical affinities theories (Goethe's day) or in terms of Gibbs' 1876 free energies (modern day).

Genius puzzles
Of significance, to quickly note a few salient points discerned from the above genius IQs table, firstly: every single genius in the IQ=205+ range, namely Da Vinci (c.1508), Newton (1704), Goethe (1826), Maxwell (1871), and Einstein (1908), by no coincidence, worked on the "blue sky problem", in some way or another, prior to and even after (in the case of Einstein) its partial solution by Rudolf Clausius (IQ=205), in 1847, and final solution by John Strutt (IQ=190), in 1899.

The hardest intellectual genius puzzle of them all, however, is the "elective affinity problem": namely to explain human passions and experience via the chemical affinities or free energies, such as depicted adjacent. The elective affinities problem is the only puzzle common to the rare ceiling geniuses cited in the IQ=225+ range, namely:

Goethe (1796) (IQCit=225; IQ=230), who called his solution to this problem his "greatest work" or "best book" (1809), of all his 142+ collected works publications, in which he embedded a secret principle which he said was “true” and which was “only production of greater extent” in which he was “conscious of having labored to set forth a pervading idea”;
Einstein (IQCit=225; IQ=220), who commented on the problem (see: Einstein on love), in a somewhat irritated perplexment scribble note: “gravitation cannot be responsible for people falling in love” (1933) and previously in query to geneticist Thomas Morgan: “how on earth are you ever going to explain in terms of chemistry and physics so important a biological phenomenon as first love?” (1920s);
Thims (1995) (IQCit=225+; IQ=190), who was led into the problem, similar to Goethe, via a mixture of the "love thought experiment" and the "reverse engineering puzzle";
Hirata (2000) (IQCit=225; IQ=190), who called his solution a "fun compilation of worthless applications of physics and mathematics to relationships";

Even the great child prodigy William Sidis (IQCit=250-300; IQ=195) attempted a solution, in a round-about-way, via his 1920 theories on animate matter and entropy.

No formal education geniuses
Thirdly, as far as self-made, informally educated geniuses go, the title ranking seems to go to: George Green (IQ=190), who learned via his Nottingham Subscription Library membership; he is followed closely by Michael Faraday (IQ=175), largely self-taught through reading of books at a bindery he worked at as a child; third place might go to Srinivasa Ramanujan (IQ=185), who, supposedly, by age 12, had re-discovered the Euler identity by reading Sidney Loney’s trigonometry book (in the strict sense of the matter Ramanujan did seem to have a certain educational contact; contrary to his myth-like Good Will Hunting film description: “he lived in this tiny hut somewhere in India, but he had no formal education. He had no access to any scientific work. But he came across this old math text. And from this simple text, he was able to extrapolate theories that had baffled mathematicians for years.”).
Burning of the Library of Alexandria (Gustave Dore) (Humanity Healing)
A depiction of the burning of the books of the Library of Alexandria by Gustave Dore.

Library of Alexandria | Dark ages
The burning of the library of Alexandria coterminous with the 415AD stoning-to-death of Greek universal genius Hypatia can be well-said to mark the start of the dark ages, a period of intellectual decline, which would continue until the century to following the invention of the printing press by German inventor Johannes Gutenberg in 1450. To a certain extent, many of the famous genius puzzles, such as heliocentrism, atomic theory, the nature abhors a vacuum problem, etc., had to be re-solved all over again. The five most “tantalizing losses from the Library of Alexandria”, supposedly, are: Hero’s (IQ=190) circa 50AD Pneumatica, in which, he overview of the physics of Strato and Ctesibius, outlines an atomic theory in which matter consists of particles mixed with distributed vacua, and in which he describes how to make an aeolipile; may have used a type of Philo thermometer (240BC) in his experimental work; was said to have openly challenge the nature abhors a vacuum belief, etc., along with the works of Aristarchus of Samos (IQ=?), Hypatia (IQ=190), Sappho (IQ=?), and Berossus (IQ=?) and his Babylonaica. [10]

Universal genius
See main: Universal genius; Last universal genius; Last person who knew everything
A rare few are considered as universal geniuses, being one with a universal mastery of knowledge, Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), the one to whom this eponym is generally assigned. The so-called "last universal genius", frequently mentioned include: Gottfried Leibniz (1646-1716), and Johann Goethe (1749-1832), Goethe being the preeminent example of this group:

“Goethe comes as close to deserving the title of a universal genius as any man who has ever lived”; “Scholars agree that Goethe was the last universal genius: practically nothing within reach of the human mind escaped his attention”;
“The middle of the eighteenth century witnessed the first powerful revolt against cultural tradition, which is marked by Rousseau. This tradition was restarted by universal genius Goethe. But it was restarted for the last time. Goethe had not been succeeded by another universal genius”; “Since my method is juxtaposition, I delight in bringing together universal genius Goethe, with Sigmund Freud, Samuel Johnson, and Thomas Mann.”

The universal genius mindset is summed up well by Goethe who commented that “if one does not know what went on for the last three thousand years, he or she remains ignorant, merely surviving from day-to-day.” In 1832 terms this amounts to having in one's possession a personal library, actual and mental, of over 5,000 books, and having written works in the over a 50-volume set level, as was the case with Goethe.
Ernest Hemmingway (reading standing up)Newton (standing)Goethe reading
American literary genius Ernest Hemingway reading and writing at his standup desk. Hemingway once declaring that: “writing and travel broaden your ass if not your mind and I like to write standing up,” which he did by perching his typewriter on a chest-high shelf, while his desk became obscured by books. [14]Newton's geometrical proof of universal gravitation: in which he showed that if a body Q orbits in an ellipse, the implied force toward the focus S (not the center C) varies inversely with the square of distance; a proof that he derived while standing up. [12]Goethe reading ajar during his Roman adventure years (c.1787); he began to read avidly, at age six, following the disturbing news of the 1755 earthquake of Lissabon, Portugal, during which more than 30,000 people dereacted.

Reading habits | Standing up
Isaac Newton wrote his entire Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, during the years mid 1686 to 28 Apr 1686, in which he proved by geometry, the mode of universal gravitation, namely that if a body Q orbits in an ellipse, the implied force toward the focus S (not the center C) varies inversely with the square of distance, as diagrammed adjacent, while standing. As summarized by James Gleick:

"The alchemical furnaces went cold; the theological manuscripts were shelved. A fever possessed him, like non since the plague years. He ate mainly in his room, a few bites standing up. He wrote standing at his desk. When he did venture outside, he would seem lost, walking erratically, turn and stop for no apparent reason, and disappear inside once again. Thousands of sheets of manuscript lay all around, here and at Woolsthorpe, ink fading on parchment, the jots and scribbles of four decades, undated and disorganized. He had never written like this: with a great purpose, and meaning his words to be read."

American electrochemical engineer Libb Thims (IQ=190±), during the first year of his ascension up the education ladder, at about the age of 20, learned that to get an perfect score on a test, he had to drink diet coke studying during the night and in particular to keep the mind awake to place a chair on the dinner table and to read with the book placed on the seat of the chair while standing.

Thims did this ad hoc chair-rigged method for some years, before, in circa 1995-1996, he solidified the method by taking a 70x32 inch gray folding, such as shown adjacent, and elevating it to the sub chest level by placing stacks of books under each leg so to raise its height from 29 inches to 44 inches.
genius standing tableIoHT Labs (circa 2005) (c)
Kottmann's sit-stand deskLeft: Thims' circa 1995-1998 72x30-inch width by 29-inch height gray folding table, which he raised to 44-inches, by stacking books under each leg, so to "read (and write) standing up", as did Newton when he wrote his Principia from 1686 to 1688. Right: the same 44-inch sub chest-height / belly-button height standing-up-table, modified with permanent wheeled wooden legs attached, circa 1999-present.


Right: Knottmann’s 1899 sit-stand desk, a semi-modern genius study method; the "stand method" being common to geniuses such as: Newton, Hemingway, Nietzsche, and Thims. [15]

When he moved to Chicago, in circa 1998-2000, he upgraded the cumbersome book stacking method, by removing the metal folding legs and replacing them with permanent cross-braised wooden legs with 2-inch caster wheels so that the table would be motile.

Knowledge rift

See main: Two cultures genius
A turning pointing or rather breaking point in the so-called grasp of the universality of knowledge at the genius level can be said to have occurred or typified in the 1833 Whewell-Coleridge debate after which the term "scientist" was coined over the older term "natural philosopher". This rift is captured well in American literature scholar Frederick Burwick's 1986 discussion of this growing rift, in the framework of Goethe's Faust:

“The age of Faust [1772-1832] had been the age of the ‘Renaissance man’, a time when the possibility of a universal knowledge, mastery of the arts and sciences, still seemed to be open to the ambitious mind;thereafter the separation and dispersion of intellectual endeavors, dubbed the ‘two cultures’ by C.P. Snow,resulted; whereafter, in the decades to follow, individuals such as Thomas Young (1773-1829), Humphry Davy (1778-1829),and William Hamilton (1805-1865), could all make serious claims to humanistic breadth, if not universality, in their intellectual accomplishments; nevertheless, a rift between the arts and the sciences was evident.”

The term scientist in this period (1833) came to be defined as a student of the knowledge of the "material world", with an explicate footnote that the "moral world" was to be left to the natural philosophers and religious thinkers. This divided tension soon led to the 1874 Tyndall-Stewart-Tait debate on the question of whether religion should submit completely to the control of science.

Aristotle (walking)
Aristotle’s (IQ=195), above middle right, had the habit of walking about while he talked; his followers, called Peripatetics, are said to take their name from the word peripatêtikos, meaning “given to walking about”) or because he held lessons beneath the colonnades (or peripatoi) of the Lyceum. [16]
This rift still exists in modern times, with over 72% of the lay population of the world still adhering to one variation or another of the Ra theology version of morality.

Traits | True geniuses
See also: Real genius
Noted traits of true geniuses, such as Albert Einstein or Thomas Young, are firstly the trait of tending to process knowledge at a slower rate, then as compared to the tendency to pass over and assimilate given knowledge at a high rate of speed as being assumed correct. Young comments on this in his autobiographical sketch about himself: [3]

“Though he wrote with rapidity, he read but slowly, and perhaps the whole list of the works that he studied, in the course of 50 years, does not amount to more than a thousand volumes.”

A second trait is the initiation of a sort of unwritten combatant with the densest of works of the geniuses of the past. Young, for instance, comments on his intellectual battle with Joseph Lagrange (IQ=185) as follows: [3]

“Scientific investigations are a sort of warfare, carried on in the closet or on the couch against all one’s contemporaries and predecessors; I have often gained a single victory when I have been half asleep, but more frequently found, on being thoroughly awake, that the enemy had still the advantage of me when I thought I had him fast in a corner.”

Similarly, Einstein comments:

“I have little patience for scientists who take on a board of wood, look for its thinnest part, and drill a great number of holes when the drilling is easy.”

These examples tend to highlight the criterion for "genius" as one who drawn to problems based on their density, the higher the density or difficulty the greater the draw.

Epicenter geniuses
See main: Epicenter genius
The following noted quote by William James exemplifies the phenomenon of the genius who is an epicenter of geniuses:

“Sporadic great men come everywhere. But for a community to get vibrating through and through with intensely active life, many geniuses coming together and in rapid succession are required. This is why great epochs are so rare, - why the sudden bloom of a Greece [Aristotle], an early Rome [Person], a Renaissance [Goethe], is such a mystery. Blow must follow blow so fast that no cooling can occur in the intervals. Then the mass of the nation glows incandescent, and may continue to glow by pure inertia long after the originators of its internal movement have passed away. We often hear surprise expressed that in these high tides of human affairs not only the people should be filled with stronger life, but that individual geniuses should seem so exceptionally abundant. This mystery is just about as deep as the time-honored conundrum as to why great rivers flow by great towns. It is true that great public fermentations awaken and adopt many geniuses who in more torpid times would have had no chance to work. But over and above this there must be an exceptional concourse of genius about a time, to make the fermentation begin at all. The unlikeliness of the concourse is far greater than the unlikeliness of any particular genius; hence the rarity of these periods and the exceptional aspect which they always wear.”

Epicenter geniuses include: Aristotle (IQ=195), Goethe (IQ=230), Voltaire (IQ=195), Clausius (IQ=205), and Einstein (IQ=220).
Genius nutrition
Common dietary needs of the genius: caffeine, which has a synergistic effect with calcium inside of brain cells to facilitate memory and thinking speed; chocolate, which has some kind of yet unidentified synergy between genius thinking and the brain (see also: chocolate theory of love); fish oil consumption, similar to milk (particularly in infants), is well documented to be associated with higher IQ levels.

Nutritional needs
Caffeine: Voltaire (IQ=195) was said to drink 40 cups of coffee a day. Warren Buffett (IQ=175±) at age 16, had read at least one hundred books on business (see: Buffett number); shortly thereafter, he entered the Wharton School of Finance, wherein upon arrival he reported that ‘he knew more than the professors’; on a return trip home, he was warned not to neglect his studies, to which he replied insouciantly: ‘all I need to do is open the book the night before and drink a big bottle of Pepsi-Cola and I’ll make 100’. American electrochemical engineer Libb Thims (IQ=160-230±), early on in his age 19 launched quest to master the hardest subjects and to discern the hidden secrets and puzzles of nature and existence, read that a famous 20,000+ person study of physicians showed that drinking upwards of 12 cups of coffee per day was did no harm, and has since steadily consumed 1-4 Vivarins per day along with continuous drinking of Diet Coke.

Chocolate: Voltaire (IQ=195) notably mixed his 40+ cups of coffee with chocolate. American electrochemical engineer Libb Thims (IQ=190±) learned early on, in his pre-engineering studies, that to excel on tests one needs to consume large amounts of chocolate, particularly brownies; he has daily consumed about 4-9 ounces, on average of Hershey bars, either with almonds (or with almonds and toffee chips) for some two decades. Jeanne Calment (1875-1997), the French supercentenarian who had the longest confirmed human life span in history, reacting to the age of 122-years, 164-days, ate more than two pounds of chocolate per week; rode a bike until she was 100, and had a penchant for foie gras (fattened duck liver).

Red meat: Warren Buffett (IQ=175±) has a strange penchant for hamburgers, to the exclusion of other foods; quote: "[Buffett] just eats hamburgers and drinks Pepsi-Colas" [Fred Stanback]. Oleic acid, one of the main oils of red meat, is the main component of myelin sheath, the white matter of the brain that surrounds never fibers: the thinker the sheath, the faster the firing of the nerve messages.
milk
The famous "come in with the milk" scene from the 2004 film The Aviator, which is based on real life (reaction existence) and times of American aviator pioneer and film mogul Howard Hughes (see also: why is this site here?). The 1971 film A Clockwork Orange written, directed and produced by Stanley Kubrick, adapted from Anthony Burgess's 1962 novella A Clockwork Orange, has a similar sort of milk scene.

Milk: The association between milk and genius is puzzling phenomenon, the underlying nutritional reason of which remains to be discerned.

Oliver Heaviside (IQ=?), the person who condensed Maxwell's field equations with 20 variables down to four equations with two variables, had very specific food preferences and an unnatural interest in food. He sometimes lived like a cat, drinking bowls of milk for days. Milk, and nothing else. Strangely, as eccentric geniuses biographer Clifford Pickover reports (1998), Tesla (IQ=195) also lived on milk, and for many years. Thomas Edison's (IQ=180) only foods were milk and the occasional glass of orange juice. [11] American electrochemical engineer Libb Thims (IQ=160-230±) frequently consumes 2-3 gallons of 1% milk (2% or sometimes whole) per week, especially so after long extended 10-hour+ periods of study, after which milk is the only thing that will quench and calm the brain. Richard Kirwan, the “brilliant 18th-century polymath”, as Pickover describes him, existed entirely on a diet of only milk and ham. Theodore Kaczynski (IQ=165), math prodigy turned unabomber, as noted by his college dorm mates, had a room piled with trash two feet deep underneath it all were what smelled like unused cartons of milk.

The most-famous film depiction of the genius milk phenomenon is the “come in with the milk” scene from the 2004 film The Aviator based on the existence reaction of American aviation and film pioneer Howard Hughes (IQ=175±) (see also: why is this site here), as shown adjacent, wherein one can count 60 milk bottles filled with urine.

Fish oil: The main brain nutrient of fish is DHA and EPA: the main component oil of the white matter of the brain. It is well known that babies fed DHA/EPA enhanced breast milk, result to have higher adulthood IQs. American electrochemical engineer Libb Thims (IQ=190±) attributes a large part of his early acceleration to the top 8 percent of his chemical engineering graduating class, starting from a dead bottom high school educational level, to fish oil: at one point, unknowingly, he was consuming so much fish oil, owing to his early body building dietary protein consumption needs, that at one point he was purchasing upwards of 9-10 cases (48 cans per case) of tuna-fish per shop; owing to mercury build up side affects, in the 2000s he switched over to Norwegian bottled cod liver oil (sometime after reading Udo Erasmus' 1993 Fats that Heal, Fats that Kill), which he drinks 2-3 times daily.

Other: Other important nutrients for the genius mind include: nuts, oils (almond, walnut, flax), eggs (at least one per day drank raw) mixed into oil-protein-milk-oat-all bran shake; so as to keep uptake of the high usage rate of the brain.
Einstein (riding)Incline treadmill runningThims treadmill (c.2012)
Epicenter genius Albert Einstein famously commented “I thought of that while riding my bicycle” in comment on his theory of relativity. Greek polymath and smartest female ever candidate Hypatia, famously had a rigorous physical training regime. The majority of the solutions to various conceptual human chemistry problems, as found in "highest IQ ever" cited genius Libb Thims' 2007 Human Chemistry textbook, were arrived at while running at 7.8-mph at a 15% incline, for an average of 6 miles per day, throughout the 2000s; photo at right is a circa 2012 shot of Thims' 15% incline running apparatus, with four hold on handles, four stop watches, and iPhone holder.

Genius exercise habits
See main: Genius and exercise
Einstein (IQ=220) has frequently commented that a large number of his theories were conceived while riding his bicycle. Einstein famous commented “I thought of that while riding my bicycle” in comment on his theory of relativity.

Hypatia (IQ=190): as part of his plan for his soon-to-be universal genius daughter, Theon, the last head of the Library of Alexandria, established a regimen of physical training for Hypatia, such as rowing, swimming, and horseback riding, to ensure that her body would be as healthy as her well-trained mind.

Thims (IQ=190±) early on followed a motto that "once goes the body, so goes the mind"; early on in his educational climb, he frequently rode his bicycle some 20 miles per day, nearly throughout his entire electrical engineering education; most of the writing of his 2007 Nobel Prize nominated Human Chemistry textbook, which Russian physical chemist Georgi Gladyshev claims "symbolizes the beginning of a new era (epoch) in human history", was done at while running on the treadmill at a 15% incline, at various Powerhouse/X-Sport gyms; in fact towards the tail end of the writing process, in order to ensure completion, Thims ran continuously ever day, seven days a week, for six months straight, exactly 6 miles per day, at a 15% incline, at exactly 7.8 miles per hour, for a total of 1,080 miles, during which time new concepts and theories and solutions to problems were pushed out and grew in the mind while on the treadmill. At one point, prior to this six month stretch, on one particular day, Thims had ran a record total 40-miles, at the same rate and incline, although broken up into 10 four mile chunks, with 15-minute breaks in between run sets. It is well-known that rats running on tread mills, as compared to non-running rats, experience growth in brain structure, in areas not solely connected to motor function.

Geniuses who failed | intelligence tests | school | labeled as dunces
French physicist Henri Poincare did so poorly on the Binet IQ that he was judged an imbecile (IQ=35); although we now rank him at IQ=195. American chemist Linus Pauling, who we now rank, in retrospect, at IQ=190, notably, failed to take some required American history courses and did not qualify for his high school diploma. The school awarded him the diploma 45 years later only after he had won two Nobel Prizes. Those who many consider the three greatest scientific minds of all time—Newton, Maxwell, and Einstein—were all viewed as ‘dunces’ in childhood. [8] Albert Einstein (IQ=220), supposedly, was three or four years old before he could speak and seven before he could read—he was born with a misshapen head: as a result, his parents feared he was mentally retarded; he so withdrawn or "set outside the group" that one governess nicknamed him ‘Father Bore’. [9] Einstein latter attempted to skip high school by taking an entrance exam to the Swiss Polytechnic, a top technical university, but famously failed the art portion. Isaac Newton (IQ=215), supposedly, did poorly in grade school. [9] Thomas Edison (IQ=180), as a boy, was told by his teachers that he was too stupid to learn anything. [9] Walt Disney (IQB=123) was fired as a newspaper editor because, supposedly, he had “no good ideas”. [9] Leo Tolstoy (IQ=?) flunked out of college. [9] Winston Churchill failed sixth grade. [9] American electrochemical engineer Libb Thims (IQ=190±), who in 2012 was cited as having the "highest IQ ever", above that of Goethe, Newton, and Einstein, famously "flunked" second grade, i.e. was held back second grade and made to take the entire year over again, owing to teacher reports stating that he was "bored in class".


Leonhard Euler (stamp)
William Sidis (young)
Left: Swiss-born Russian mathematician Leonhard Euler (IQ=195) lost sight in his right eye in 1735 from studying too hard continuously for three days straight while work on a complex problem; years later he lost sight in the other eye, in likewise manner. [13] Right: In 1937, the America's greatest child prodigy William Sidis, cited with a 250-300 IQ, sued the New Yorker, for their "April Fools" article on him, and Advertiser, which eventually settled for $375. In a breach-of-privacy suit against the New Yorker, the court ruled that Sidis could not claim privacy rights because he was still a public figure. In 1944 the magazine paid a reported $500 to settle a companion suit for malicious libel. Sidis died, met his reaction end, of a cerebral hemorrhage three months later. He was 46.

Genius physical and mental over-stressings
A number of over "stresses", both physical and mental, are common to geniuses.

In 1735, Swiss-born Russian mathematician Leonhard Euler (IQ=195) lost sight in one eye, supposedly, by overexerting himself to solve a problem in three days that normally took months. In 1766, he lost sight in the other eye. An operation to restore the better of the two was successful, but infection invaded both eyes. After horrible agony he permanently lost his sight. His collected works are said to amount to the size of several encyclopedias. [13]

William Sidis famous cracked at age 11 after giving a lecture to the Harvard mathematics club on four dimensional bodies.

A commonality among extreme genius is to permanently dereact (die) via aneurism or brain hemorrhage.

Sidis later met their reaction end following cerebral hemorrhage.

Likewise, the so-called Russian female Einstein, Naida Camukova, only child of a neurosurgeon mother and lawyer father, who is said to have published 25-books and read 3000 books, able to read a 300-page book in two hours, who, to note, many claim is some kind of genius racket scam artist, whatever the case, supposedly: had a brain hemorrhage at age 23 (was in coma for 20-days).

Test-determined genius IQs
See main: Terman IQ; Mega test IQ; etc.
A second, albeit less accurate, method is the IQ test method, wherein one is labeled as a ‘genius’ based on an IQ test score or group of IQ test scores. This method, however, often tends to be filled with error.

The classic example to illustrate this is the fact that French mathematician Henri Poincare took the Binet intelligence test and scored at the imbecile level (IQ=35): “Had he been judged as a child instead of the famous mathematician he was, he would have been rated by the test as an imbecile.” [5] In the realistic correct sense, Poincare is often considered as one of the greatest thinkers of history.

Another example in the inconsistencies in the IQ assignment method is the fact that Terman assigned Nicolaus Copernicus, one of the greatest geniuses of all time, with an IQ of 100 to 110. Likewise, Richard Feynman, as a kid, according to his sister Joan, was tested with an IQ score of 123, i.e. below genius level, whereas in retrospect he is generally viewed as one of the greatest geniuses of modern times (No Ordinary Genius: the Illustrated Richard Feynman, 1996; Genius: the Life and Science of Richard Feynman, 1993).
ball in hand
A number of geniuses, including Aristotle, used the ball in hand sleep method.

Sleep methods
Geniuses have always been particular about sleep.

Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) is said to have utilized a "sleep formula", sleeping no more than four hours at a time, so to optimize his intellectual output.

Several thinkers including Aristotle (IQ=195), Aristotle’s student Alexander the Great (356-323BC), and John Wilkinson (1728-1808) used the ball in hand sleep method, in which they would sleep with an iron or brass ball in their hand, which was held over an iron or brass jug, whereby if they stirred, typically owing to say a dream, they would wake up, and thus insure continued interruption to their slumbers, in some cases waking up to write down the thought or inspiration of their dream. [17]

Ichondras of Milletus contrived a plane so narrow that he could not sleep on it except at full length, and of such an height and length as to insure his sliding down it in about six hours, at which point his feet would dip into a vase of cold water, thereby disturbing his rest. [18]

In modern times, it is known that too much sleep has a inverse ratio to genius effect, according to the neurochemical finding that too much sleep has an effect on one of the drive or depression neurochemicals (check).
Jean Sales nsGalileo Galilei ns
Johann Goethe nsHenry Adams ns
Accelerated "active mind" geniuses who were victims of the so-called mental inertia effect: Jean Sales, who was imprisoned for his human molecule based moral philosophy, yet visited by Voltaire; Galileo Galilei, who was banished in exile and forced to recant heliocentric theory; Goethe, who for 23-years was not "vouchsafed many kind words" concerning his controversial Elective Affinities; and Henry Adams, coiner of the mental inertia theory, who was so far ahead of his time, in respect to the chemistry, physics, and thermodynamics of human social-history that in 1995 he was still being labeled, in a nearly upside down manner, as "more of a crank than a prophet" (John Diggins).

Catch up effect | Intellectual inertia / myopia
See main: Catch up effect
American two cultures genius Henry Adams, who was some 134-years ahead of his time in thinking, e.g. with with his view that: “social chemistry, the mutual attraction of equivalent human molecules, is a science yet to be created” (human chemistry was established as a science in 2007)—himself having to self-educate on his own beyond his Harvard education, which he considered to be a completed waste, that by 1907 he concluded that the highly “active mind” tends to be surrounded by less active minds moving with a type of “intellectual inertia”, inertia defined as the resistance of any physical object to any change in its motion (including a change in direction):

“The object of education should be the teaching [of] how to react with vigor and economy. No doubt the world at large will always lag so far behind the active mind as to make a soft cushion of inertia to drop upon; but education should try to lessen the obstacles, diminish the friction, invigorate the energy, and should train minds to react, not at haphazard, but by choice, on the lines of force that attract their world.”
Henry Adams (1907), The Education of Henry Adams

The following are equivalent mental inertia quotes:

“When a true genius appears in this world, you may know him by this sign, that the dunces are all in confederacy against him.”
— Jonathan Swift (c.1730), a Terrence Tao (IQ=180±) favorite quote [21]

“It is difficult to overestimate the value of Goethe’s work to humanity. The bequest which he left to the world in his writings, and in the whole intellectual result of his life, is not as yet appreciated at its full worth; because, intellectually, the world has not yet caught up to him. His influence today asserts itself in a hundred minute ways—even where no one suspects it. The century has received the stamp and impress of his mighty personality. The intellectual currents of the age, swelled and amplified by later tributaries, flow today in the directions which Goethe indicated.”
Hjalmar Boyesen (1885), The Life of Goethe

“Over thirty-seven years ago, Seligman first published his Economic Interpretation of History. It has gone through several printings, editions and translations. In itself that work is a living example of the peculiar myopia which afflicts the intellectual world. Sometimes it takes ten or fifteen years for that world to catch up with a Spengler. Kyserling was more transparent. Seligman himself in 1902 commented upon the fact that fifty years after Marxism had made its first appearance and had stirred to the depths economic, social and philosophical thought among European scholars, here in America Marx was scarcely known outside of a few obscure immigrants socialists.”
Morris Zucker (1945), The Historical Field Theory [23]

“I must say, I started watching your videos over a year ago, and have re-watched many. And they still fascinate me. I’m only 17 and I’m seriously considering doing a degree in chemistry after watching your videos. The only downside is not many people I know can have a conversation about the things you’re talking about. You were right your videos are decades if not a century in front of its time.”
Benjamin Cresdee (2011), comment on Human Chemistry 101 YouTube channel

“Sadly logic barely has any significance amongst a swarm of imbeciles. Some people are doomed to feel like an alien.”
— Torandrius (2011), commentary on Libb Thims' HumanChemistry101 YouTube channel (Ѻ)

In other words, active mind genius often suffers from what is called the "catch up effect", namely, a multi-century delay in respect to the ability of culture to digest what a " lightening bolt genius" (person, date) or "hammered genius" (William James, 1880) produces. While some of this “mental inertia” issue, that active geniuses have to face, can be attributed to the so-called Semmelweis reflex—the reflex-like tendency to reject new evidence or new knowledge because it contradicts established norms, beliefs, or paradigms—other aspects of it would seem to have to do something with the time it takes to rewire the cultural brain to the new truths perceived by the active mind, who may well be accelerated in thinking by some 1,000 books (e.g. Thomas Young) to 5,000 books (e.g. Goethe) in reading and digestion level, whereas for the cultural brain it may be delayed by multiple generations in respect to the same level of learning about nature and the universe. American physicist Percy Bridgman, in 1919, summarized this intellectual adjustment delay issue as follows:

“The first business of a man of science is to proclaim the truth as he finds it; and let the world adjust itself as best it can to the new knowledge.”

This "world adjustment", for some truth seekers, e.g. Benedict Spinoza, will only accrue posthumously.

Types
Among geniuses, the great “universal genius” types aside, there are a number of subject specific geniuses, including: political genius, military genius, literary genius, economic genius, philosophical genius, among others. The following, e.g., as shown on the cover of the 2011 Grand Pursuit: the Story of Economic Genius, by Sylvia Nasar, are six examples of “economic geniuses”, showing Karl Marx (first), Paul Samuelson (fifth), and four others: [5]

Economic geniuses

In regards to "political geniuses", in 1758, American political thinker John Adams, great grandfather to two cultures social Newton genius Henry Adams, soon-to-become second American President (1797-1801) and most intelligent president, according to Dean Simonton, wrote a short essay on the nature of “genius”, which he defined as follows: "someone who is capable of inventing new systems or combinations of old ideas." After discussing the various different kinds of genius, based on this definition, e.g. writing, mechanics, morality, etc., he then went on to discuss the political genius: “he who as faculty of combining … these [laws of human nature] into rules, for the government of society, to procure peace, plenty, liberty, has great political genius.” [24]

Genius on genius
See main: Uber genius comparison quotes
The following are geniuses commenting their views on the greatness of other geniuses:

“1642 [the year of Newton’s (IQ=220) birth] is the Christmas of the modern age.”
Goethe (IQ=230) (Ѻ)

“I admire Goethe (IQ=230) as one of the smartest and wisest men of all time.”
Einstein (IQ=215) to Leopold Casper [22]

“What Descartes (IQ=195) did was a good step. You [Hooke (IQ=195)] have added much several ways, and especially in taking the colors of thin plates into philosophical consideration. If I have seen further it is by standing on your shoulders of giants.”
Newton (IQ=220), letter to Robert Hooke (1676)

“If all the geniuses of the universe were assembled, Newton should lead the band.”
Voltaire (IQ=195)

“Taking mathematics from the beginning of the world to the time of Newton, what he has done is much the better half.”
Leibniz (IQ=200), told to the Queen of Prussia

“The five greatest men I can name are: Newton (IQ=215), Bacon (IQ=180), Leibniz (IQ=200), Montesquieu (IQ=?), and myself.”
Buffon (IQ=) when asked how many great men he could name

Goethe (IQ=230) and Da Vinci (IQ-205) are perhaps two of the most many-sided intellects known to us.”
Otto Weininger (IQ=?), Sex and Character (1903)

Gibbs’ (IQ=200) work is the greatest synthetic achievement in science since Newton’s construction of the theory of universal gravitation.”
Boltzmann (IQ=195) [18]

Newton (IQ=220) was the greatest genius that ever existed.”
Lagrange (IQ=190) (Ѻ)

Quotes
The following are related quotes:

“The secret of genius is to carry the spirit of childhood into maturity.”
Thomas Huxley (IQ=), noted early human chemistry theorist

Shakespeare, Bacon, Newton present an individual element which nothing in their parentage or nationality or locality serves to explain. Why each expended his power in a given way, may in part be made clear, but the source of those original gifts in inscrutable. The word, gifts, indicates this. Genius in any form is not a product to be compounded by the most subtle organic or social chemistry. This assertion does not deny a genetic dependence, but only a complete and exhaustive one. This proper name Milton or Goethe, remains forever the final designation of underived, unweighted combination of powers.”
— John Bascom (1876) [20]

See also
Certified genius

References
1. (a) Arthur Schopenhauer: Quote: “Talent hits a target no one else can hit; Genius hits a target no one else can see.”
(b) Arthur Schopenhauer: Quote: “a genius is someone in whom intellect predominates over ‘will’ much more than within the average person.”
(c) wherein a strong leaning and inclination tends to exist (Merriam-Webster)
(d) Autodidactic traits tend to reign in nearly all top geniuses.
2. (a) Kerr, Barbara A. (2009). Encyclopedia of Giftedness (pg. 376). Publisher.
(b) Hollingworth, Leta S. (1942). Children Above 180 IQ: Stanford-Binet Origin and Development. Arno Press.
3. Robinson, Andrew. The Last Man Who Knew Everything (pg. 25, 183). A Plume Book.
4. Pickover, Clifford. (1998). Strange Brains and Genius—the Secret Lives of Eccentric Scientist and Madmen. New York: Quill.
5. Ochse, R. (1990). Before the Gates of Excellence: the Determinants of Creative Genius (pg. 106). CUP Archive.
6. Characteristics of a genius – MemoryMentor.com.
7. Klopsch, Louis. (1896). Many Thoughts of Many Minds (106). Publisher.
8. Pickover, Clifford. (1998). Strange Brains and Genius: the Secret Lives of Eccentric Scientist and Madmen. New York: Quill.
9. Characteristics and Behaviors of the Gifted (flunk section) – RI.net.
10. Five Most Tantalizing Losses from the Library of Alexandria (2012) – SparkNotes.com.
11. Pickover, Clifford A. (1998). Strange Brains and Genius: the Secret Lives of Eccentric Scientists and Madman (pg. 70). Quill.
12. Gleick, James. (2003). Isaac Newton (pg. 124). Vintage.
13. Graves, Dan. (1996). Scientists of Faith: Forty-Eight Biographies of Historic Scientists (pg. 86). Kregel Publications.
14. (a) Mckay, Kate, and McKay, Brett. (2011). “Become a Stand-Up Guy: the History, Benefits, and Use of Standing Desks”, ArtOfManliness.com, Jul 05.
(b) Pendle, George. (2008/09). “To Sit, to Stand, to Write.” Cabinet, Issue 32, Winter.
15. Kotelmann, Ludwig. (1899). School Hygiene (pg. 159). C.W. Bardeen.
16. Pendle, George. (2008/09). “To Sit, to Stand, to Write.” Cabinet, Issue 32, Winter.
17. (a) Author. (1841). “Article”, The Metropolitan (pg. 399), Volume 31. James Cochrane.
(b) Dutton, Paul. (1994). The Politics of Dreaming in the Carolingian Empire (pg. 6). University of Nebraska Press.
(c) Burke, James. (1996). The Pinball Effect (pg. 250). Back Bay Books.
18. Author. (1841). “Article”, The Metropolitan (pg. 399), Volume 31. James Cochrane.
19. (a) Arveson, M.H. (1936). “The Greatest Synthetic Philosopher Science Newton”, The Chemical Bulletin, 23(5).
(b) Crowther, James G. (1937). Famous American Men of Science, Volume 2 (pg. 282). W. W. Norton.
(c) Rukeyser, Muriel. (1942). Willard Gibbs: American Genius (pg. 314-15). Garden City, New York: Doubleday, Doran & Co., Inc.
20. Bacom, John. (1876). A Philosophy of Religion or the Rational Grounds of Religious Belief (pgs. 52-53). G.P. Putnam’s Sons.
21. Terrence Tao (favorite quotes) – Math.UCLA.edu.
22. (a) Einstein, Albert. (1932). “To Leopold Casper”, Apr 9, Einstein Archives, 49-380.
(b) Einstein, Albert. (2010). The Ultimate Quotable Einstein (editor: Alice Calaprice; contributor: Freeman Dyson) (Goethe, 6+ pgs). Princeton University Press.
23. (a) Zucker, Morris. (1945). The Philosophy of American History: The Historical Field Theory (pg. 300). Arnold-Howard Publishing Co.
(b) Seligman, Edwin. (1902). Economic Interpretation of History (pg. 25). Columbia University Press.
24. Siemers, David J. (2010). Presidents and Political Thought (pg. 24). University of Missouri Press.
25. Nasar, Sylvia. (2011). Grand Pursuit: the Story of Economic Genius. Simon and Schuster.
26. (a) Mach, Ernst. (1897). The Mechanics in Their Historical-Critical Development (Die Mechanik in ihrer Entwickelung historisch-kritisch Dargestellt) (3rd edition) (pg. 73). Leipzig.
(b) Henderson, Lawrence J. (1935). Pareto’s General Sociology: a Physiologists Interpretation (pgs. 30-31). Harvard University Press.
27. Siegfried, Tom. (2006). A Beautiful Math: John Nash, Game Theory, and the Modern Quest for a Code of Nature (pg. 12). National Academies Press.

External links
Genius – Wikipedia.
10 famous geniuses with truly weird secret habits (2014) – ListVerse.com.

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Sadi-Carnot
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Anonymous George Washington Carver Jr 1 Aug 28 2012, 8:09 PM EDT by Sadi-Carnot
 
Thread started: Aug 28 2012, 6:45 PM EDT  Watch
Dare I ask why this African American Chemist is not on the list of genius?


Nationality
American
Gender
Male
Occupation
botanist and inventor

George Washington Carver, an undersized, softspoken genius, achieved fame asan agricultural chemist, botanist, educator, and inventor, though he refusedto patent or capitalize on most of his innovations.

Read more: George Washington Carver Biography (c. 1864-1943) http://www.madehow.com/inventorbios/73/George-Washington-Carver.html#ixzz24uYKYfwi
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Anonymous einsteins death 1 Jun 30 2012, 6:59 AM EDT by Sadi-Carnot
 
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was not by cerebral hemorrhage. Wiki states he experienced internal bleeding caused by the rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm.
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Anonymous genius is slow? 1 Mar 29 2012, 6:15 AM EDT by Sadi-Carnot
 
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perhaps on the surface some geniuses seem slow. I believe the apparent slowness stems from constant daydreaming, and is not indicative of any slower processing.
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